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Full text of "Stdhean a' Ghrair Ghaig, etc"

DE M'OULLOOffS EDUOATIONAL WOEKS, 

PUBLISHED BY 

OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH; 

STMPKIN, MAESHALL, AND CO., LONDON. 



A valuable series of works has been prepared by Dr M'Culloch, 
formerly Head Master of tlie Circus-Place School, Edinburgh, now 
Minister of the West Church, Greenock, for the use of schools where 
the general mental culture of the pupil, as well as his proficieney in 
the art of reading, is studiously and systematically aimed at. 

They form, collectively, a progressional Series, so constructed and 
graduated as to conduct the pupil, by regular stages, from the ele- 
mentary sounds of the language to its highest and most complex forms 
of speech ; and each separate Book is also progressively arranged, — 
the lessons which are more easily read and understood always taking 
the lead, and preparing the way for those of greater difiiculty. 

The subject-matter of the Books is purposely miscellaneous. Yet it 
is always of a character to excite the interest and enlarge the knowledge 
of the reader. And with the design of more effectually promoting 
his mental growth and nurture, the various topics are introduced in an 
order conformable to that in which the chief faculties of the juvenile 
mind are usually developed. 

That the moral feelings of the pupil may not be without their proper 
stimulus and nutriment, the lessons are. pervaded throughout by the 
religious and Christian element. 

READINGr-BOOKS FOR SCHOOLS. 

FIRST READING-BOOK, 37th Edition, „ . . . . . ljd. 

SECOND READING-BOOK, 37th Edition, „ , . r . 3d. 

THIRD READING-BOOK, 40th Edition, lOd. 

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llthEdition, ls.Gd. 

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Litekatuee, with 39 Woodcuts, 45th Edition, .... 3s. 

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Editions of tliese Works, in tlie belief that, after tJie ilwrougJi manner in 
loJdcJi tJuy Jiave now bcen revised and ìmproved by tJie AutJior, tJiey will be 
found in M resiiects adapted to tJie present advanced state of Education. 



li 



DE M'CULLOOH'S EDUCATIOETAL WOEES. 



The First and Second Beading-Books consist, as before, of lessons 
on tke elementary sounds of the language ; but they have been enlarged 
for the purpose of introducing additional exercises, and thereby facili- 
tating the acquirement of the first elements of reading. 

The Third Beading-Book has undergone some changes both in its 
contents and in their arrangement, in order to render the lessons at once 
more interesting in themselves and more gradational in their sequence. 

The Fourth Beading-Book supplies a gap, previously existing, 
ietween the Third Keading-Book and the Series oe Lessons. 
Being intended for the use of the pupil at a stage of his progress 
when he needs to be exercised chiefly in reading, without having 
his attention constantly distracted by questions on the import of 
what he reads, it contains only such lessons as are level to his unaided 
understanding, — Fables, Tales, Allegories, and other compositions of 
a character at once interesting, and self-interpreting. A Synopsis of 
Spelling is appended. 

The Series of Lessons comes next in order ; and in the New Edition 
it has been not only revised and corrected, but to a considerable extent 
recast. Obsolete lessons have been cancelled; those which are retained 
have been amended ; and new ones have been introduced of a nature and 
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a suitable introduction to the Course of Elementary Keading in 

SCIENCE AND LlTERATURE. 

In the New Edition of this last-named work — the Course— the 
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the progress of knowledge and the altered conditions of education, are 
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Geography and Astronomy, and the Christian Keligion; though on 
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[Continued at end of Bodk. 



!_ 

MR DALGLEISH'S SCHOOL BOOKS. 



Just published, price 8d., 

OUTLINES OF ENGLISH GRAMMAR 

AND ANALYSIS, for ELEMENTAKY SCHOOLS, with 
Exercises. By Waltee Scott Dalgleish, M.A. Edin., 
Vice-Principal of Dreghorn College. 

" Aims at providing a Commox-School Grammak which 
shall be fully abreast of the latest developments of the science, 
and at the same time thoroughly practical and simple in its 
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Key to Ditto. In Preparation. 



DALGLEISH'S PROGRESSIVE ENGLISH 

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u Many of our recently published Grammars are beyond 
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the subject to its fullest development, carefully unravelling all 
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conditions is now given to the public in Mr W. S. Dalgleish's 
Progressive English Glrammar." — Museum. 



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EDINBURGH: OLIVER AND BOYD. 
LONDON: SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO. 



STEIDHEAN 

a' 

GHRÀMAIR GHAÈLIG; 

LE 

GACH CO-MHINEACHADH, RIAILT AGUS SAMPLAIR 
AINMICHTE GU-SOILLEIR ANN AM BEURLA 
'S AN GÀELIG: 

ANNS AM BEIli 

CLEACHDAIDHEAN LIONMHOR AIR LEUGHADH NA CAINNTE 
AGUS AIR PÀIRTEACHADH 'US CEARTACHADH. 

A-REIR AN RIAN IONNSACHAIDH a's FEARE. 



Ci)um Jftattf) Sfiotlean uqu& ^gotUaran &onatacf). 



LE IAIN FOIRBEIS, F.R.O.A. 

FEAR DE MHAIGHSTEARAIBH NA SGOILE-RIAGHLAIDH ANN AN DUNEDEAN. 
Ùghdair a' Ghràmair Dhùbhailt air Beurla 's Gàelig, &ce. 

AN DARA CLO-BHUALADH, LEASAICHTE GU-MÒR. 



DUNEDEAN: 

CLO-BHUAILTB LE 

OLIBHER iT S BÒID, AIG CLOBHSA DAIL-THUAID, AN T-SRÀID ÀRD 

AGUS 

SIMPGIN, MARSHALL 's AN CUIDEACHD ANN AN LUNUINN„ 



1848. 



LAURiSTON CASTLE 
BEQUEST FU N D 



c; 19 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The following Work comprehends the Gaelic depart- 
ment of The Double Grammar of English and Gaelic. 
The favourable reception and rapid sale received by that 
Work, induced the Author to prepare a separate Edition, 
devoting all its pages to the elucidation of the principles 
of Gaelic jGrrammar alone. This Edition is greatly en- 
larged and improved, and in some parts considerably 
altered in its arrangement, in order to dispose it into a 
more convenient and practical form for the benefit of 
Gaelic students. 

The subject of Orthography and Pronunciation is fully 
exhibited and clearly illustrated, rendering the reading of 
the language of easy acquirement to the English reader 
without the aid of any other book. Under the head of 
Etymology, the inflections of the Verb are arranged on a 
new and very convenient plan ; each Active Tense of 
every Mood is placed in juxtaposition to its correspond- 
ing Passive Tense. A great variety of new Exercises, 
composed of extracts from the best authors, is added, for 
the purpose of exemplifying all the important features and 



vi 



PREFACE. 



peculiarities of the language. Throughout the Work, the 
leading Definitions and Rules are concisely expressed in 
both languages, with a view to assist learners who under- 
stand Gaelic better than English. Each Rule of Syntax 
is followed by various Exercises to be corrected by the 
student. Many important deflnitions, rules, observa- 
tions, and illustrations are given in this volume, which 
had never been adverted to in any former work. Several 
interesting notes of a philological, critical, and explanatory 
character are also introduced, and analogies of construction 
between the Gaelic and other languages are frequently 
noticed. The standard Orthography is strictly followed 
as contained in our excellent Gaelic version of the Sacred 
Scriptures and in the Dictionarium Scoto-Celticum or 
the Highland Society (of Scotland's) Gaelic Dictionary. 

The Author has availed himself of every "assistance 
which could be obtained from the Works of others, and 
has bestowed much labour and pains on the Work which 
he now respectfully offers to the public, believing that if 
carefully studied, it will promote a correct knowledge of 
the Gaelic language of Scotland. 



Normal Institution of Edinburgh, 1848. 



FOCAL DO NA GAEDHEIL. 



A irauiNXTEAR Ioxmhcinx, — Cha tigeadh dhomh an leabhar 
so a chur a-maeh air feadh an t-Saoghail gun fhocal fàilteach- 
aidh a labhairt ribh a nn an càinnt bhur cridhe fèin, a ta mi 
'miannachadh a theagasg dhùibh gu-ceart. Is sibh-se sliochd 
nan gaisgeach trèun 's nan daoine coire, à choisinn mor urram 
'us mòr chliù anns gach linn o shean. Cha n-'eil sluagh air 
thalamh à thug bàrr oirbh ann an cruadal 's 'an dilseachd. — Is 
ì 'Ghàelig chruaidh, ghlan bu chànain dùibh o chìan nan 
cìan. — Is ì a bheothaicheadh agus a lionadh bhur n-inntinn le 
aoibhneas agus solas ann an aoradh Dhe'. C'àit am faighear 
ann an càinnt eile fo nèamh brìathran cho bòidheach, cho 
òirdheirc 'us cho blasdail 's cho tarbhach do 'n anam ris an 
Treas Salm thar a' cheud maille ri iomad earran eile de 'n 
Bhiobull 'Xaomh \ Dh'-iarradh Gòill agus daoin' eile gun 
sgòinn thìreil, a' Ghàelig a thilgeil bun-os-ciònn, ach a dh-ain- 
deoin àm boicionn, cha tachair so gu-siomiidh. Sheas ì feadh 
gach linn, agus seasaidh ì fathast mar an darach cruaidh nàch 
cìosnaich sion a' Gheamhraidh. Tha ì an-diugh a' fàs gu-dlùth 
ann an duthchaibh cèin, a' sìneadh a-mach à ge'ugan blàth mar 
a' chraobh-phailm, air còmhnardaibh Americà agus Austràlià. 
Bu mhor am bèud agus bu ro dhuilich leinn gu'n dìobradh ì, no 
gu'n cuirteadh grabadh sam-bith oirre. Tha daoine glic' a' meas. 
agus is fior è, gur ì 'Ghàelig Didean nan deadh-bhèus agus 
nam buaidhean òirdheirc a ta, gu-sònruichte, fuaighte ri ìnn- 
tinnibh nan Gàedheal agus na'n cailleadh ìad àm prìomli 
chàinnt 's àn àbhaistean dùthchasach fèin, gu'm beil aobhar 
eagail gu'm falbhadh àm bèus, àn glòir 's àn cliù maille riutha 



Tlll 



FOCAL DO NA GAEDHEIL. 



sin. Cha robh neach ànn rìamh à fhuair eòlas soilleir air 

hrìgh-mhorachd na Gàelig, leis nàch robh ì fior thaitneach. 

Is ann mar so a chluinnear gach Àrd Sgoilear aig àm beil eòlas 

glan oirre, a' labhairt m' à timchioll. Cha n-fhaighear ach 

daoine gealtach, suarach agus ìadsan à ta aineolach air à h- 

òirdheirceas, 'g à di-moladh no 'g à h-àicheadh. 

" Tha 'Ghaelig cruadalach, cruaidh,sgairteil, do dhaon'-uaisle reachd- 
mhor, làidir, 

'An àm trèubhantais no gaisge, 'si 's deas-fhaclaich' 's an àit ud: 
Tha ì ciùin 'an cùisean f ìalaidh, a chur an gnìomh à briathràn blàtha, 
'S tha ì còrr a 'sgoltadh reusain, chum sluagh gun chèill a chur 

sàmhach: 

'S ì 'f huair sìnn o na Pàrantàn à 'rinn ar n-àrach òg, 
'S ì bu mhath leinn f hàgail aig an àl à tha 'teachd òirnn." 

Tha càinnt anabarrach fèumail thar nan uile nithe, chum 
eòlas a ghiùlan a dh-ionnsuidh na h-ìnntinn, — is i càinnt 
soitheach an eòlais. Mur làn-thuigear brìgh nam focal, ciod- 
air-bith càinnt a thàtar a' labhairt, cha n-urrainnear teagasg 
farsuing, àrd, a thoirt no ghabhail. Is ann tre dhìchioll buan, 
èudmhor, a gheibhear eòlas air càinnt. Chomhairlicheamaid 
do gach neach a bhi sìor 'lèughadh, oir is tearc fear no tè nach 
faod aon uair de na ceithir uairibh fichead, a bhuileachadh air 
ionnsachadh. Bitheadh Foclair 'us Gràmar aig gach neach. 
Sealladh è suas a h-uile focal nàch tuig è. Leanadh è air a' 
chleachdadh dhuaiseach so agus ma dh'-ionnsaichear aon 
fhocal gach là leis, 'an ceànn na blìadhnà bithidh còrr 'us trì 
cheud gu leth focal ùr aige. 'An ceànn dà bhlìadhnà bithidh 
aige còrr 'us seachd ceud focal ùr, agus mar sin air aghaidh. 
Ma dh'-ionnsaicheas neach dà fhocal ùr 's an là, bithidh an 
àireamh so dùbailt aig' 'an ceànn na bliadhnà. Fo dhòchas, 
mata, gu'm faighear an leabhar so 'n à inneal cuideachaidh 
fèumail, taitneach leibh, thàtar a-nis, le mòr urram, 'g à 
thairgseadh dhùibh. 

I. F. 

Sgoil- riaghi/Aidh Dhunedin, 1848 



THE CONTENTS. 



NA CÌNN. 



Preface, 



Page 
v 



INTRODUCTION. 

Antiquity of the Gaelic, xv 
Importance of the Gaelic, xvii 
The Alphabet and Orthogra- 

phy of the Gaelic, . xx 
Dialects of the Gaelic, . xxii 



Roi-ràdh, 



Taobh. 
vii 



TARMACHADH. 

Seanachd na Gàelig, . xv 

Luachmhorachd na Gàelig, xvii 
Abideil 'us Litreachadh na 

Gàelig, .... xx 

Dual-chàinntean na Gàelig, xxii 



I. — ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Pronunciation of Vowels 4 
Vowel Marks, . . . ib. 
Division of Vowels, . 5 

Paradigm of the Vowel Sounds, ib. 

The Diphthongs ao, ea, eu, io, 7 
Spelling, Rules for, . _ 9 

Aspiration of Consonants, ib. 
Sounds of the Consonants, 11 
L, n, r, Sounds of, .13 
Dh, gh, th final, . . 14 
Observations, ib. 
Exercises on Orthography, 17 
Pronunciation of Words, 18 
Reading on the long and short 

Vowels and Diphthongs, 19,24 
On Final and Middle Sylla- 

bles, .... 25 
Exercise on Spelling, . 26 
Polysyllables, . . 27 

II.— ETYMOLOGY. 

Classification of Words, 28 
Article, ib. 



L— LITREACHADH. 

Fuaimeachadh Fhuaimrag 4 
Comharra Fhuaimrag, . ion. 
Ròinn Fhuaimrag, . 5 

Sàmplair de Fhuaimibh nam 

Fuaimrag, , . ion. 

Na Dòragàn ao, ea, eu, io, 7 
Cùbadh, Riailtean do, . 9 
Se'ideachadh Chònnrag, ion. 
Fuaimean nan Cònnrag, . 1 1 
L, n, r, Fuaimean aca, . 1 3 
Dh, gh, th deireannach, . 14 
Beachdachadh, . . ion. 
Cleachdadh air Litreachadh, 1 7 
Fuaimeachadh Fhocal, 18 
Lèughadh air Fuaimragaibh 

'us Dòragaibh fad 'us grad, 19,24 
Smidean Deireannach 'us 

Meadhonach, . . 25 
Cleachdadh air Cùbadh, 26 
Ioma-Smidean, . . 27 

II.— FOCLACHADH. 

Seòrsachadh Fhocal, . 28 
Pùngar, . . . iou. 



X THE CONTENTS. 



Adjective, ib. 

Pronoun, ib. 

Verb, ib. 

Adverb, .... 30 

Preposition, . . . ib. 

Interjection, ib. 

Conjunction, ib. 

Declension of Words, . 30 

Number, Gender, . . 31 
Rules for the Gender of Nouns, 34 

Case, .... 35 

Inflection of the Article, . 36 

Formation of Cases, . 37 



First Declension of Nouns ib. 

Nouns begining with l, n, r, 42 

Special Rules for the Genitive, 44 

Irregular Nouns, . . 49 

Second Declension of Nouns, 51 

Irregular Nouns, . . 55 
Observations on the Declen- 

sions, ib. 

Inflection of Adjectives, 56 
Nouns and Adjectives De- 

clined together, . . 60 

Compound Nouns Declined, 62 

Comparison of Adjectives, 63 

Irregular Comparison, . 65 

Numerals, ... 68 

Pronouns, . . . 71 

Exercise on the Pronouns, 79 

Verbs, ... 80 

Auxiliary Verbs, . . 83 

Inflections of the Verb Bì, ib. 

Conjugation of Verbs, . 91 

First Conjugation, . 92 

Second Con]'ugation, . 97 

Reflected Àction of the Verb, 103 

Impersonal Action, . 104 
Observations on the Moods 

and Tenses, . . . 105 

Paradigm of the Verb, . 112 

Irregular Verbs, . . 114 
Defective Verbs, . 122,128 

TheVerb/s, . . . 123 

Impersonal Verbs, . . 128 



NA CÌNN. 





rr>_ „11, 

laoun 


À inmp5iT» 

XilliJJ.I'CcìbX j • • 


29 


Bucidhcir 






ion" 


Gnìomhar, • • 


. ion. 


Co-ghnìomh^rj * 


30 


01171 TlP5* T* 
xwiiiJiicaii <j • D 


ìon. 


Clisgear, 


ìon. 


ÌNTa.icio'Pii v 




J-1Ì.A.1UN AUxi X xIUC'AIjj 


. ou 


AlVPQYYlil (nrlTl 
Xi.ll CCuillIl^ v_J IIIj • 

"R i o ìlt.pa.Ti fnv-QAn (riiì 

•LVICvIX UVCUlI CtlX iOUIl \JIII 


31 




Ainmear, 


. liaU 34 


Car, . . 


35 


Teàrnadh a' Pùngair 


36 


Deanamh nan Car 


37 



Ceud Teàrnadh nan Ainmear, ion. 
Ainmearàn a' tòiseachadh le 

l, n, b, v . . 42 

Riailtean Araid air-son a' 

Ghintich, . 44 

Ainmearàn Neo-'riailteach, 49 
An Dara Teàrnadh, . 51 
Ainmearàn Neo-'riailteach, 55 
Beachdachadh air na Teàr- 

naidhean, . ion. 

Teàrnadh Bhuadhar, 56 
Ainmearàn 'us Buadharàn 

Tearnte, le cheile, . 60 
Ainmearàn Measgte Teàrnte, 62 
Coimeasachadh Bhuadhar, 63 
Coimeasachadh Neo- c riailt- 

each, ... 65 

Cùnntaich, ... 68 
Riochdaràn, . . . 71 
Cleachdadh air na Riochdar- 

aibh, .... 79 
Gnìomharàn, . . 80 

Gnìomharàn Taiceil, . 83 
Teàrnadh a' Ghnìomhair Bi, ion. 
Sgeadachadh Ghnìomhar, 91 
An Ceud Sgeadachadh . 92 
An Dara Sgeadachadh, . 97 
Gnìomh Fe'ineil a' Ghnìomhair, 103 
Gnìomh Neo-phearsautail, 104 
Beachdachadh air na Modhàn 

's air na Tìmean, . 105 
Sealladh de 'n Ghnìomhar, 112 
Gmomharàn Neo-'riailteach, 114 
Gnìomharàn Gaoideach, 122,128 
An Gniomhar Is, . 123 

Gnìonmharàn Neo-phearsan- 
tail, .... 128 



THE CONTENTS. 



NA CINN. 



Page 

Idioms, . . . . 130 
Composite Verbs, . . 131 
Formation of the Infinitive, 1 33 
Irregular Infinitives, . 134 
Contraetion of Verbs, . 137 
Adverbs, . . . 138 
Prepositions, . . 144 

Conjunctions, . . 152 

Interjections, . . 153 

Derivation of Words, . 154 
Exercises on the Infiections 

ofWords, . . 165-174 
The Structure and Usages of 

the Language illustrated, 

174-188 



' Taobh 

Seòllairtean, . . 130 
Gnìomharàn Ealtach, . 131 
Deanamh an Fheairtich, 1 33 
Feairtich Neo-'riailteach, 134 
Giorrachadh Ghnìomhar, 137 
Co-Ghniomharàn, . . 138 
Roimhearàn, . . . 144 
Naisgearàn, . . . 152 
Clisgearàn, . . 153 

Freumhachadh Fhocal, . 154 
Cleachdadh air Teàrnadh 

Fhocal, . . 165-174 

Rian 'us Seanachas naCàinnte, 

soilleirichte, . . 174-188 



III.— SYNTAX. 

CONSTRUCTION— CONCORD. 

Article and Noun, . 
Nouns in Apposition, 
Adjective and Noun, 
Numerals, 
Pronouns, 

Subject and Verb, . 
Is and Bi, 

GOVERNMENT. 

OfNouns, 

Of Adjectives, . 

OfNumerals, . 

OfPronouns, . 

Verb and its Object, 

Of the Infinitive and its Ob- 

ject, .... 
Of Prepositions, 
Conjunctions, . 

ARRANGEMENT. 

Position of the Article, 
Position of Adjectives, 
Position of the Pronouns, 
Subject and Verb, . 
Verb and its Object, 
Position of Adverbs, 
Promiscuous Exercises, 
Improper Phrases, 

PUNCTUATION, . 

Marks in Composition, 
Abbreviations and Initials, 
Directions for addressing per- 

sons, .... 
Letter Writing, 



III.-RIAILTEACHADH. 



CO- RIANACHADH— CORDADH. 



190 I Pùngar 'us Ainmear, 
194 Ainmearàn A' Co-chòrdadh, 
196 Buadhar 'us Ainmear, 
199 Cùnntaich, 
ib. ; Riochdaràn, 
202 Cùisear 'us Gnìomhar, 
205 Is agus Bi, 



SPREIGEADH. 



207 
211 

213 
218 
ib. 

224 
227 
230 



Nan Roimhear, 
Naisgear, 



SUIDHEACHADH. 



233 Àit a' Phùngair, 

ib. I Ait nam Buadharàn, 

234 Ait Riochdaràn, 

ib. Cùisear 'us Gnìomhar, 
ib. Gnìomhar 's à Chuspair, 
225 j Ait nan Co-ghnìomharàn, 

235 Cleachdadh Measgte, 

236 Seòllairtean Mi-cheart, . 

237 PUNGACHADH, 

238 Comharraidhean, 

239 Giorrachadh 'us Tùsagan, 
Seòlaidhean gu co-'labhairt 

241 pearsaibh, 
244 Litir Sgrìobhadh, 



190 
194 
196 
199 
ion. 
202 
205 



Nan Ainmear, . . 207 
Nam Buadhar, . . 211 
Nan Cùnntach, . . 213 
Nan Riochdar, . . 218 
Gnìomhar 's à Chuspair, ion. 
An Fheairtich 's à Chuspair, 224 



227 
230 



233 
ion. 
234 
ion. 
ion. 
225 
235 
236 
237 
238 
239 

241 
244 



XH THE CONTENTS. 



NA CINN. 



Models of Letters, . 
Forms of Accounts, &c, . 

IV. PROSODY. 

Versification, 
Iambic Measure, 
Trochaic Measure, . 
Anapaestic Measure, 
Poetical License, 
Different kinds of Poetry, 

FIGURES OF SPEECH. 

Figures of Etymology, 
Figures of Syntax ? . 
Figures of Rhetoric, 



Page 
244 
245 



Samhuiltean 'Litrichean, 
Rianan Chùnntasan, &ce. 



Taobh 
244 
245 



IV. RANNACHADH. 

247 Ranntachd, . . . 247 

248 Tomhas Iàmbic, . . 248 

249 Tomhas Trochaic, . . 249 
ib. Tomhas Anapestic, . ion. 
ib. Saorsa Bhàrdail, . . ion. 

250 Caochladh Seòrsa Bàrdachd, 250 

I , X 

FIGEARAN CAINNTE. 

ib. ' Figearàn Foclachaidh, . ion. 

251 Figearàn Riailteachaidh, 251 

252 Figearàn Or-chainnte, . 252 



NOTES, PHILOLOGICAL, CRITICAL, and EXPLANATORY. 



On the Genders of the Gaelic Noun, .... 32,179 

On the Accusative Case, 38 

On the Dative Case in -ibh, 43 

On the Personal and Compound Pronouns, . „ . . 71,74 

On the Dual Number and Nouns Singular with Numerals, 69,199 

On the words A ir and iar, 84 

On the termination -adh of the Subjunctive, ... 96 

On the Aspirated form of Do before the Past Tense, . . 98 

On the Subjunctive Mood in English, .... 105 

The Want of a Simple Present Tense in the Gaelic Verb ac- 

counted for, 82,108 

The Progressive Passive Form of the Verb, . . . 109 • 

The Idiom of the Verb Is and the Participle Agus, . . 125,127 

Past Action represented as Present, .... 129 

Air improperly used for Thar, 137 

The Preposition Ann combined with the Possessive Pronouns, 151 

Do and So prefìxed to the Past Participle, .... 157 

Nouns in Apposition, not as in Latin and Greek, . . 195 

Possession expressed alike in Gaelic and Hebrew, . . 208 

First, Second, and Third Form of Comparison, . . 215,217 

The Infinitive preceded by a Possessive Pronoun, . . 223 
The Adjective indeclinable in the Predicate, , . 180,206,233 



DIRECTION'S FOR THE STUDEN'T. SEOLAIDHEAX DO '» STUIDEaR. 



Reading and Fronouneing the Language The first point for tfce 

stùdent to know, is the division of the vowels into Broad and Small, 
page 5. If he cannot read the language, let him commence with 
lesson 5th and 6th, page 19, beginning with Màg, Car. Afterlearn-. 
ing these thoroughly. he should learn the aspirated sounds of the con- 
sonants, page 10 or 18. After mastering these, he may resume the 
sounds of the vowels at No. 7, page 20, and read every word on to 
page 28. For more reading, he may begin at the word Mult, 
page 165, and carry on to page 188, omitting every thing excep 
what belongs to Reading and Spelling. 

Spelling and Parsing the Language. — If the student can only 
read the language without being able to spell it, he should first learn 
the Aspirations, page 10 or 18, and the two general rules for spelling, 
page 9. Let him attend most carefully to the dirferent sounds of the 
consonants when joined with a Broad and a Smali, p. 12, 13, and 18. 
After thoroughly mastering these, by practice in reading and spelling. 
he may proceed with the Infiection of words, beginning with the 
Article, page 36. In going over the Declensions, he should commit 
all the general rules to memory, and read the special rules with great 
care. The mode of parsing a sentence, through either language, is 
exemplified on page 174 and 175. 

Constmcting the Language The Rules of Syntax may be learned 

in the order in which they stand in the book ; but the easiest way is, 
tìrst to leam Rule L, V.,XVL, XXVIIL, XXXI., XXXII./and 
XXXIII., after which the rest may be taken in their order. All 
the exercises under the Rules of Syntax should be carefully written 
out in a corrected form. 

Obs. — The Marks used in this work, to distinguish the plural in 
-an of Nouns of the First Declension and the gender of the Relative 
and Possessive Pronouns, are not much used in other Gaelic books. 
These and other simple marks, employed in this Grammar, are of 
great use to facilitate the acquirements of the language. Similar 
marks are used for the same purpose in the Greek and Latin ; and it 
is expeeted that future writers of Gaelic, who can see their importanee, 
will adopt them. — See page 4, Obs. and 73, 74, 179. 



INTRODUCTION. 



REMARKS ON THE ANTIQUITY OF THE GAELIC LANGUAGE. 

The Gaelic is a branch of the ancient Celtic language, which, ac- 
cording to the opinion of antiquarians, was universally spoken over 
the west of Europe at the time of the Roman invasion. The Celtic 
is said to be derived from the Sanscrit, the ancient language of 
Asia. 

Europe has been peopled by an influx of tribes from Asia, the 
birthplace of the first colonies of the human race. The Europeans 
are sprung from Japhet, whose descendants, according to the declara- 
tion of Scripture, divided the Isles of the Gentiles or the different 
countries of Europe, (Gen. x. 5). Javan, one of the Japhetic race, 
planted himself in Greece ; and from him sprung the lonians. As 
the original stream of people from the East multiplied in number, it 
distributed itself into different tribes and clans, continually migrating 
abroad into the uninhabited regions of the West. In course of time, 
new accessions of more civilized adventurers from Egypt and Asia 
arrived in Greece and other parts of Europe, carrying with them a 
knowledge of the arts and sciences. These brought many of the 
aboriginal inhabitants under subjection : still the migrations of the 
people were continued westward and northward until their progress 
was arrested by the Atlantic on the west, on whose shores many of the 
wandering tribes fixed their babitations, and ultimately further colonies 
of these passed over into Britain and its adjacent islands. Under the 
new dynasty, the inhabitants of Greece, formerly called Pelasgia and 
its language the Pelasgic, became more civilized, and pluming them- 
selves upon the refinement of their language and their advancement in 
knowledge, distinguished the other nations of Europe that differed from 
them in language andmanners, by the appellation of " Barbarians," 
a term which seems to be derived from the Gaelic word Borb, wild, 
fierce, savage. This sobriquet was applied to Britain and other dis- 
tant countries by the Romans in the time of Cicero ; as, " Quod si 
in Scythiam aut in Britanniam sphaeram aliquis tulerit hanc . . . 
quis in illa barbarie dubitet, quin ea sphaera sit perfecta ratione ?" — 

ClCERO, DE NAT. DEORUM II. 35. 



xvi 



INTRODUCTION. 



The appellation Gaelic or Celtic appears to be derived from the prim- 
itive Gaelic word " Geal," white, fair; Latin, albus ; Greek, xakes. 
It is not at all improbable that this name was at a very early period 
applied to some of the nations descended from Japhet, a people of a 
white complexion, by their coloured neighbours. Europeans and 
nations descended from them, are at this day called " whites" by the 
dark-coloured tribes of America. The word Geal presents itself 
under various forms in many names of places and of nations peopled 
by the old inhabitants of Earope ; as, Gaul, Gallia, Gallicia, Galatia, 
Gaule ; Gael, Gaedheal^ Gaeltachd ; Celtae, Celt, Keltac, Celtica, 
Celtiberia, and perhaps, Wales, Welsh, fyc. 

The greater division of Gaul, now called France after the Franks, 
was formerly called Celtae by its inhabitants, " qui ipsorum lingua 
Celtae nostra Galli appellantur." — Cces. A powerful nation of the 
Celtic race settled also on the Iberus in Spain, and hence Celtiberia, 
the name of a large division of that country. From these Celtic 
settlements colonies are said to have passed over into Britain and Ire- 
land, carrying their own language with them. The earliest authentic 
history of Britain on record, is the landing of Julius Cassar on its 
eastern coast, fifty-five years before the Christian era. The country 
was at that time inhabited by the Britons, a Celtic race, who retained 
possession of it till the middle of the fifth century. " Their language 
was styled the Celtic " or Gaelic. About the middle of the fifth 
century, the Saxons from Lower Germany invaded the island, and in 
the course of a few years, established their authority over the greater 
part of that territory which is now called England, and the ancient 
Britons were driven into Wales and the northern regions of the 
island. The Saxons propagated their own language, and from Angles, 
the name of one of their nations, they called the country England, 
and its new language English or Anglo-Saxon or Sassic. From 
Saxon is derived the Gaelic word Sasunn, England, and Sasunnach, 
an Englishman. In this way the first encroachment was made on 
the British Celtic or Gaelic language, and the basis of the English 
language was laid. The branches of the Celtic which have survived 
the wreek of time, are the Welsh, the Manks in the Isle of Man, the 
Irish, and the Gaelic of Scotland, all which show the clearest proof of 
a common origin.* The Gaelic may be said to be as invincible and 
as durable as the people who speak it. It has ever continued to be 
the language of those parts of the West which are yet inhabited by 
the descendants of the ancient people of Britain and Ireland, and it 
is now spreading on the shores of America and Australia among the 
Celtic colonies who have emigrated to these distant countries. 



* The Popular Encyclopedia. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xvii 



One of the clearest proofs of the antiquity of the Celtico-^Gaelic, and 
of its being the language of the first inhabitants of Great Britain and 
Ireland, lies in the etymology of ancient British and Irish names of 
places and of families, of which the most part can be easily traced to 
a Gaelic origin. The declining state of the language for many ages 
may be said to be conclusive of its remote antiquity. A primitive and 
simple language must have formed the speech of a plain and an 
original people. Primitive simplicity and original energy are the 
great characteristics of the Gaelic. It cannot therefore be maintained 
to have grown out of the more artifìcial languages of modern times. 
The natural inference is, that these have in a great measure sprung 
from the more ancient Celtico-Gaelic, as in the Greek, Latin, French, 
and Gaelic of Scotland and Ireland, &c, there are numerous radical 
words of a similar sound, and in many instances nearly identical in 
spelling. Several Gaelic and Hebrew vocables also resemble each 
other, and the same principle of construction in most cases runs 
through both. 

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE GAELIC AS A LIVING LANGUAGE. 

When it is considered that upwards of a million of people is de- 
pendent on this language as the only medium through which protìt- 
able instruction can be successfully conveyed to their understandings, 
every true philanthropist will at once allow that the benefactors of the 
Gaelic population of this country have discharged a most momentous 
duty, in having originated the magnificent and benevolent scheme of 
instructing the people through the medium of their native speech. 
This rational system of raising the people in the scale of secular and 
religious knowledge was instituted about a century ago, and has been 
during that period carried on with increasing energy and unceasing 
care under the auspices of the beloved church of our fathers. The 
Holy Bible and other works of a religious and moral character were 
translated into the native Gaelic. Schools and teachers were planted 
over the surface of the country, and a most faithful gospel ministry 
taught the way of salvation to the people. The workings of this 
vital apparatus have been productive of the most benefìcial and lasting 
effects. The rude asperities of the national character have been 
smoothed down, and the turbulent, wild, and ignorant heart has been 
tempered and enlightened with the elements of sound knowledge : so 
that the people, who were formerly enveloped in a cloud of ignorance 
and moral darkness, are now distinguished for peaceableness, purity 
and sincerity of moral principle, as well as for loyalty and undeviating 
attachment to the British constitution. The Highland people are also 
distinguished, and have been so in all ages, for courage, bravery, and 
unparalleled fidelity to their superiors, and we should regret that they 



xvm 



INTRODUCTION. 



should receive any treatment calculated to mar or extinguish a spark 
of their heroic and martial character ; for such a character, cultivated 
on right principles, is essential to the maintenance of their own ex- 
cellence and for the defence of the state. Every encouragement 
ought, therefore, to be given to those native conservative elements which 
are best calculated to foster it. 

In the theories of some individuals of recent times, who appear to 
consider themselves qualified to dictate the improvement of the High- 
lands, it is mooted, in the face of tried experience and consolidated 
native virtues, that, in carrying on the business of education, attempts 
should be made to extinguish the vernacular language. This desire 
arises principally on the part of those who are totally ignorant of the 
language or partially acquainted with it. Many of the higher classes 
in the Highlands, having been educated out of the country, cannot 
speak a word of Gaelic. A menial often can converse in Gaelic and 
English, while the master can understand English only. Inconveni- 
ence, sometimes mixed with jealousy, is frequently felt on the part of 
those who do not know the language, and hence a feeling of antipathy 
is excited against it, desiring its abolition. Such a desire is never 
heard from the people who understand it well. 

In most parts of the Highlands, children are sent to school as soon 
as they can walk a few miles, but before they are sent, they learn the 
language of their parents. In most places children above ten years 
old attend school only during the winter season, their assistance 
being required at home during the rest of the year for the labours of 
the field and for tending flocks. Their intercourse with their 
friends and neighbours is regularly carried on in their native tongue, 
and English, even when they have a smattering of it, is seldom 
spoken, except when they meet people who cannot speak Gaelic. 
Under this economy, their progress in English must be very tardy 
and limited. The Gaelic may be said to have taken as fast a hold of 
the affections of the Highland people as the " Broad Scotch " has 
taken of the Lowland population, which, although uncountenanced in 
school, is yet the language of the great majority of the Lowland 
people of Scotland. 

Were it a wise course to exterminate alanguage, and were no detri- 
mental consequences to be apprehended from its abolition, how, it may 
be asked, is the process of extermination to be conducted without in- 
fìicting an injury on the multitude who are dependent on it in the 
interim ? The present is " the accepted time " for communicating 
knowledge unto all men, and for this end both the instructors and the 
instructed ought to study, with great accuracy, the language employed 
in carrying on the work of instruction. It were criminal to rest 
satisfied with a partial or an imperfect knowledge of a language be- 



I>~TRODUCTIO>\ 



xix 



cause some individuals, studiosi novorum, say that it should be ex- 
terminated, for sueh a wish can only flow from persons who do not see 
its importance. 

The words of a lariguage are like the branches of a tree. As the 
branches carry the fruit grown out from the trunk, so the words of a 
language carry and embody the fruit and thoughts of the human mind, 
Cramp and discourage the language of a people, and you, in proportion, 
stifle their original thought and restrain the moral expansion of their 
minds. "VThen the language of a country is discouraged or imper- 
fectly culrivated, the consequence is, that the people entertain narrow 
and erroneous views of knowledge, are in general contracted in their 
minds, and superstitious in their imaginations. It is known many of 
the Gaelic population have sufTered in this way, in no small degree, 
from want of due attention to the cultivation of their language. Were 
it desirable to extinguish the use of the Gaelic, the speediest mode of 
accomplishing this is, according to the opinion of experienced philolo- 
gists, to open up the minds of the people and to create in them a 
taste for literature, showing them the avenues of knowledge by 
educating them well through their own language. It is by pursuing 
this method that they have been taught whatever share of English 
they now possess. It is absurd to say that high cultivarion of a lan- 
guage will make it perpetuaL The Greek and Latin languages 
ceased to be spoken after having arrived at their highest point of 
cultivation. 

The Gaelic language has had to contend with disadvantages ; fox 
while ample provision is made in all the colleges of Scotland for the 
attainment of other languages, no such provision has yet been made 
for imparting a correct knowledge of the Gaelic Many wise and 
good men consider the want of a Gaelic professorship in one or more of 
the Scottish universitìes a great anomaly in the distribution of Scottish 
educatìon. It is a notorious fact that in many Highland localities the 
clerical instructors of the people are very poor Gaelic scholars. Some 
of them do not know a sentence of the language grammatically ; but 
ii is right to mentìon that there are some happy exceptions, for a few 
of the Highland clergy are among the best Gaelic scholars in the 
world. In Ireland there are four endowed professorships * of the Irish 
Gaelic, one in each of four colleges, and surely a similar advantage 
should be extended to the Scottish Gaelic — the staple language of the 
Highland population. It is the language of their arae anàfoci. In 
it the best affections and associations of their hearts are strongly en- 
twined. We should resist its interception, not only for its intrinsic 
value, for it is a most copious, bold, and expressive language, but be- 



* Letier from the Rsv. Ds Sadlieb of Dublin, 17th May 1847- 



xx 



INTRODUCTION. 



cause such an innovation may be attended with dangerous conse* 
quences to the virtuous character of the people. The Gaelic popula- 
tion of Scotland is, at this day, among the most loyal and virtuous 
people in the world; but divest them of their native language and 
their native manners, and the palladium of their virtuous character 
may be ruined, and this exemplary nation may degenerate into an 
inferior race of turbulent people. 

Though the Gaelic cannot boast of many tomes of literary works, 
for these are generally confined to the language of court in every 
country, yet its cultivation is absolutely necessary, and ought to be 
regularly encouraged for the instruction and upbringing in sound 
knowledge of a multitude of excellent people. The Jews, though 
scattered over the nations of the earth, have steadfastly cultivated their 
own language, the Hebrew, as a colloquial tongue, having no exten- 
sive literature; and we see no reason why the Celtic population of 
Scotland should not enjoy the same privilege. If it be alleged that 
some of the Gaelic people have made but a limited progress in the 
principles of deontology, and that they cannot compete in affluence and 
knowledge with other people of a more favourable climate, let it be 
observed that their disadvantages cannot be attributed to a difFerent 
language, or to a native or inherent disposition to indolence. Their 
peculiar disadvantages are ascribable to local obstructions and remote- 
ness of situation. Were a colony of Englishmen from Kent trans- 
planted to the Hebrides, and located there under the same circum- 
stances as the present inhabitants are, it would fall under the same 
local disadvantages, and likely not flourish so well as the native 
people do. 

ALPHABET AND GAELIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 

The Gaelic Alphabet consists of eighteen letters only. Sixteen 
letters constituted the original Greek Alphabet, to which Palamedes 
added the four letters g, <p, %, about the time of the Trojan war. 
Simonides the poet of Ceos, invented other four, viz. n, co, £, about 
the middle of the sixth century b. c. The original sixteen of the 
twenty-four letters of the Greek Alphabet, correspond to sixteen letters 
of the Gaelic Alphabet ; as, 

Gaelic a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, 1, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, u. 

Greek a, /3, x, ì, t, y, t, X, p, v, o, <7t, <r, r, v. 

The Ancient Celts, like the Hebrews of old, appear to have held 
their Alphabet in so great a veneration that they would not allow the 
original number of its letters to be changed or enlarged. If the 
Gaelic was first committed to writing contemporaneously with modern 
languages, the wonder is, that only eighteen letters of the Roman or 
English Alphabet were adopted. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xxì 



The Irish Gaelic Alphabet consists of the same letters as the 
Scottish Gaelic. The old names of these letters bear marks of great 
antiquity, and are nearly similar in sound to the names of their cor- 
responding Hebrew and Greek letters ; as, 



Letters. 


Old Name. 


Pronounced. 


Hebre . 


Greek. 


A 


Ailm 


ailim 


Aleph 


Alphai 


TD 
-D 


x>eitn 


oen 


jjcin 


Beta 




\jOLI 


fcowl) kawl 


Kaph 


Kappa 


Lf 


Dair 


d&ir 


Tìn 

UdiHilU 


X-'clld 


ìh 


TTarlVi 

xjaoin 


egh 


TTp 


Eta 




Fearn 


ficLTTl 


PVlO 

X UtJ 


PVii 


Vjr 


VjrOI l) 


ffOTSt 






TT 

xi 


xiuatn 


huah 


XlcLXl 


TTa 
XlO 








Yod 


Iota 


L 


Luis 


luish 


Lamed 


Lamda 


M 


Muin 


rnuin 


Mem 


Mu 


N 


Nuin 


nùin 


Nun 


Nu 





Oir 


oir 


Ain 


Omicron 


P 


Peith 


Pèh 


Pe 


Pe 


Pv 


Ruis 


rùsh 


Resh 


Ro 


s 


Suil 


suil 


Shin 


Sigma 


T 


Teine 


teinè 


Tau 


Tau 


U 


Uir 


uir 


Vau 


U 



" The names of these letters are very ancient, and seem to have 
been originally derived from the Noahic language, from which they 
were adopted by the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Canaanites or Phce- 
nicians, and by these introduced into Greece and the South West of 
Europe. This has been the opinion of Eupolemus, Eusebius, St 
Jerome, St Augustine, and Bellamine, with most of our modern 
philologists." — Lynch's Introduction to the Irish Language. 

The Irish Gaelic had the use of letters in the fifth century when 
Christianity and literature were introduced by St Patrick ; and some 
Irish records go back as far as the Christian era.+ It is evident that 
the early writers of the Scottish Gaelic followed in many cases the 
rules observed in writing the Irish. 

The fewness of the letters in the Gaelic Alphabet has led to the 
practice of employing a pair of consonants to represent sounds which 
are made by one consonant in languages of more copious alphabets ; 
thus bh is always sounded like v. Coincident vowels or diphthongs 
belonging to different syllables are generally separated by a pair of 



* Thelrish Alphabet was originally placed in the follovving order; as, b, l, n, 
h,f, s, c, d, t, m, g, %>, r, a, e, i, o, u, and hence called Belusnin from its first 
letters. There was another Alphabet employed by the Irish Celts, called Ogum, 
or Oghum, occult writing ; polygraphy, said to have been chiefly used by the Druids. 
It is formed by parallel short lines, one or more of which corresponds to a letter 
placed below, across, and above a long ground line running from side to side of tlie 
page.—See Irish Alphabet, p. 2. j Popular Encyclopedia. 



xxu 



INTRODUCTION. 



quiescent consonants. The reason of adopting two consonants in- 
stead of one for this purpose, seems to be, to prevent ambiguity, as a 
single consonant standing between two vowels is regularly sounded. 

The vowels are again divided into two classes, namely, Broad and 
Small (see page 9-17) ; and the first vowel of each succeeding syl- 
lable of a word, is always of the same class with the last vowel of the 
preceding syllable. Eight of the consonants assume what is called 
their small sounds when they form a syllable with a small vowel. 
The concourse of silent vowels and consonants which appear in many 
words, gives the language an appearance which leads strangers to 
think that the task of pronouncing it is very difficult. This is by no 
means the case, for the quiescent and sounded letters are most easily 
ascertained by a few general rules which will be found in their proper 
place. No more than three successive consonants ever occur in the 
same syllable. The German language contains more consonants in 
many words than the Gaelic ; as, for example, Pflicht, duty. 
Sch mink- fleckchen , a patch. Schnick schnack, idle talk. But 
these clusters of consonants are easily managed, as in Gaelic, by the 
rules laid down for their pronunciation. From the imperfect manner 
in which the language is taught in many places, it is not uncommon 
to meet persons who can read and speak Gaelic fluently, and yet do 
not know a single principle of its orthography or construction. 

There are some words in the ianguage spelt two or three different 
ways, and individuals who know some Gaelic, and others who under- 
stand none of it, contend that only one spelling of the same word 
should be preserved, and that the second and third spelling should be 
expunged, per saltum, from our Gaelic lexicons. This is certainly 
very desirable in the case of any language, if it could be accomplished 
without doing injury to its vocabulary ; but when it is considered 
that each different spelling of a word has authority as respectable and 
usage as extensive as the other, we cannot dispense with either form 
without injuring the properties of the language. The English has 
more words of this kind than the Gaelic, such as control, controul, 
comptrol; but each of these being found in respectable authors, must 
be continued. The number of English words, of which each is spelt 
different ways, amounts to upwards of one thousand five hundred. — 
Vide Worcester's Universal English Dictionary. 

OUTLINES OF THE GAELIC DIALECTS. 

The dialects of the Gaelic, like thoseof other languages, consist in 
giving the same word a sound in one district different in some 
measure from the sound which it receives in another district. There 
is no difference whatever in the inflections of the language. The 
Gaelic Bible and all other correct Gaelic books are written in the 



INTRODUCTION. 



XXIU 



purest Gaelic, and universally understood by the Gaelic population, 
A correct speaker of the language is also understood and admired 
everywhere, whereas a person who cannot rise above the vulgar pro- 
vincialisms of his native district, is only understood, with ease, by the 
inhabitants of that district alone, but when he goes abroad his lan- 
guage is, in many instances, unintelligible, and frequently complained 
of and laughed at by his auditors. Every person who has a desire of 
becoming useful and popular through the medium of the Gaelic, must 
acquire a general knowledge of its structure and sound pronunciation ; 
for it is a notorious fact, that all those who are masters of the lan- 
guage, are popular and persuasive speakers in every part of the 
Highlands. 

For the sake of convenience, in tracing the variations of dialect in the 
spoken language, the regions of the Scottish Gaelic may bedivided into 
three grand divisions, viz. the Northem, Interior, and Southern. 

h — In the Northern division, comprehending the counties of 
Caithness, Sutherland, Ross, and the North Hebrides, the inhabi- 
tants employ the vowel o in some words instead of a ; as, còll, 
Gòll for càll, Gàll. They also pronounce adh and agh, as if these 
terminations were written ùbh or ùv ; as, pasgùbh, deùbh, for pasg- 
adh, deagh. This is perhaps the greatest deviation from the common 
orthoepy of the language. Here the letter n after i receives a soft 
double liquid sound ; as, duinne for duine, and the letters c and r 
are always pronounced dry and hard. The pronunciation of Gaelic 
in this division has more of the English accent than in either of the 
other two divisions. It is generally narrow, sharp, and arid, such as 
is not generally relished by good Gaelic orthoepists. The sound of 
the language of this side gives reason to think that the inhabitants 
spoke English or some other Northern language at one time, and that 
they are sprung from a race different from the people of the South 
West. 

2. — In the Interior or middle division, comprehending the coun- 
ties of Nairn, BanfF, Inverness, and north-east frontier of Argyle, 
the pronunciation is generally free from the peculiarities of the Nor- 
thern division. In most places here, and likewise in the Northern 
division, the diphthongèa is preferred to èu ; as, bìal,fìar, for bèul, 
fèur. The soft thick sound of c prevails in this quarter ; as, ma%q, or 
machq for mak. The pronunciation of this territory is generally 
characterized by a slow and easy cadence in the intonation of the 
voice. The words are, for the most part, distinctly articulated, and 
the language is generally reckoned smooth, pure, and agreeable. The 
genitive singular of some nouns ending in a vowel or in -b, is some- 
times formed by adding thann or -nn ; as, cnò, a nut ; lurga, a 
shank ; pìob, a pipe. Gen. cnothann, lurgann, pìobuinn. — (See 



xxiv 



INTRODUCTION. 



page 48.) Towards the north chaidh, went, is commonly pro- 
nounced chàr or chàr. In the Isle of Skye, initial d receives a weak, 
flat, nasal sound, not heard on the mainland. In the western side of 
this division, ch in English receives in many places the sound of j ; 
as, jurch, jild for c/mrch c/ii!d. Whatever way this vitiated pro- 
nunciation has crept in, it cannot be said to have proceeded from the 
Gaelic, as it has no j. 

3. — In the Southern division, comprehending the county of Perth, 
the greater part of Argyleshire, and other south-western outskirts in 
which the natives speak the language, the vowel o is in a few words 
substituted for a, as is done in the Northern provinces ; as, gòbh or 
gÒ for gabh. Here the swelling sound of the terminations adh and 
agh are scarcely audible in the pronunciation after a broad vowel ; 
such words as glanadh, tàgh, are generally pronounced glanà, tà. 
The long sound of the diphthong tu prevails ; as, bèul,fèur, hè. In 
the western districts of this division, the words are generally pro- 
nounced with amazing rapidity, falling from the mouth in some 
places with a kind of jerk and such heedlessness that it is not some- 
times easy for a stranger to catch the meaning of the sound. The 
pronunciation of this territory is in general broad and sonorous, char- 
acterized by anatural and expressive wildness which is, when tempered 
with a cultivated pronunciation, agreeable to a good judge of Gaelic 
orthoepy. Here, particularly in the district of Atholl, ample justice 
is done to the diphthongal sounds. The compliment of the phrase, 
" òre rotundo loquì,'''' may with propriety be conferred upon the pro- 
nunciation of the natives of this quarter. But it is to be regretted 
that they have fallen into the corrupting practice of mixing many 
English words with the Gaelic, when there is not the least necessity 
for doing so ; so that in several parts of Perthshire a mongrel lan- 
guage is spoken, which is neither English nor Gaelic. An Atholl- 
man often says, " che n-'eil doubt air," for " cha n-'eil teagamh air," 
there is no doubt of it. This bombastic and vicious practice cannot 
be too much repudiated, and public instructors, in order to check its 
progress, should expose it to the contempt and ridicule which it de_ 
serves. — (See page 237, Notes.) 

There is besides in the language what is commonly called " pro- 
vincialisms" that is, words or idioms peculiar to one locality, and 
seldom known or understood by the natives of another distant locality, 
but these do not enter, in any considerable degree, into the category of 
the Ossianic or pure Gaelic, and are rarely used by correct speakers 
in a public discourse, 



THE PRINCIPLES 

OF 

GAELIC GRAMMAR. 



STÈIDHEAN 

a' 

GHRÀMAIR GHAÈLIG. 



Gaelic Grammar is the art Is è GrÀmar Gaelig, eòlas 
of speaking, reading, and I labhairt, lèughaidh, agus 
writing the Gaelic language \ sgrìobhaidh na càinnte Gaè- 
correctly. \ lig gu-ceart. 

Grammar is the art of reading, speaking, and writing any 
language according to general usage and established rules. 

It is divided into fourl Roinnear è, 'n à cheithir 
parts, namely, Ortìwgraphy, earrannan, eadhon, Litreach- 



Etymology, Syntax, and Pro- 
sody. 

Part I. 

ORTHOGRAPHY. 

Orthography treats of let- 
ters, syllables, and the just 
method of spelling words. 



OF LETTERS. 

A letter is a character 
representing an articulate 
sound of the voice. 

An articulate sound is a dis- 
tinct sound produced by the 
organs of speech. 



adhj Foclachadh, Riailteach- 
adh agus Rannachadh. 

Earrann I. 

LITREACHADH. 

Tha Litreachadh a' teag- 
lasg mu litrichibh, smidibh, 
agus mu cheart achd cù- 
baidh fhocal. 

MU LITRICHD3H. 

Is ì litir comharradh à ta 
'riochdachadh fuaime phùn- 
gail a' ghutha. 

Is è fuaim pùngail, fuaim 
soilleir deantaleis na bùill-labh- 
airt. 

A 



2 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



THE ALPHABET. 

Tìie Gaelic consists of 
eighteen letters. 

The letters are divided into 
Capitals and Small. 



AN ABIDEIL. 

Tha ochd litrichean deug 
anns a' Ohaelig. 

Roitmear na litrichean 'n an 



n us n am 



IRISH GAELIC LETTERS. 



Cap. Sniali 
b 

c 



b 

c 

O b 

e e 



L l 

2t)ro 

n x) 

o 

p p 
|n |t 

C c 

IIF u 



Gaelic Name. 

Ailm* 
Beith 
Coll 
Dair 

Eadh 
Fearn 
Gort 

Huath 

Iogha 
Luis 
Muiu 
Nuin 

Oir 

Peith 

Ruis 

Sùil 

Teine 

Ur 



Meaning. 

elm* 

birch 

hazle 

oak 

aspen 

alder 

ivy 

f white 
\ thorn 

yew 

quicken 

vine 

ash 

f sp i n d lt 
\ tree 

pine 

elder 

willow 

furze 

yew 



Aspirate 
Sounds. 



bh = v 
ch = x 
dh = y 



ROMAN LETTERS. 

Sounds and Powers of the Letters. 
Cap. Small. 1. 2. 3. 

A a à in fàr, à in f at, à in àll 

B b b 

C C c in cut, k in king, 

D d d final t in tiuci, ch in chin 

E e è in thère, e in mèt, à in f ate 

F f f fhmi 

G g g in got, g in give, c in hic gh = y 

H h h in hand 

I i èe in see, ì in pm, ì in this 

L 1 1 in oil, 1 in land, 1 in million « 1 

M m m mh = i 

N n n in non, n in notre n 

O O ò in òak, o in on, ò in òld 

P P p ph = f 

R r r in rash, r in ride V 

S S s in sat, pass, sh in ship sh = h 

T t t final in tinc£, ch in chip th = h 

U U uintùbe,ùinbùsh,uinrìin 



The first word of every sen- 
tence, of every line in poetry, 
the first letter of every Proper 
name, and of every important 
word, begins with a Capital. 



Tòisichidh a' cheud f hocal de 
gach cìallairt, de gach sreath, 
'am bàrdachd, a' cheud litir de 
gach ainm Ceart, agus de gach 
focal àraid, le Ceanntaig. 



* The ancient Irish designated the letters of their alphabet with the names of 
Èrees, and denominated the alphabet itself a wood ; thus, A is named Ailm, the 
dm tree; b, beith, the birch tree. The orthography of most of these names differs 
fcom that used in the Scottish Gaelic. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 3 



CLASSES OF LETTERS. 

Letters are diyided into 
Vowels and Consonants. 

A Voiael is a letter whieli 
makes a perfect sound of it- 
self ; as, a, o. 

A Consonant is a letter 
which cannot be sounded 
without a vowel ; as, b, d. 



The Vowels are a, e, 



h o, 



ROINNEAN LITPJCHEAN. 

Roinnear litrichean 'n am 
Fuaimragaibh 'us 'n an 
Cdnnragaibh. 

Is ì Fuaimrag litir a 'nì 
fuaim làn leatha fèin ; mar, 
a, o. 

Is ì Cònnrag litir nach 
dean fuaim gun fhuaimraig 
leatha ; mar, b, d. 

Is ìad na Fuaimragan a, 
e, i, o, u. Is Cdnnragan an 
còrr de na litrichibh. 

Tha fuaimean nam fuaim- 
ragan cìeanta le fosgladh, agus 
nan cdnnragan le aonadh, no 
dùnadh nam bàll-labhairt. 



u. The rest of the letters 
are Consonants. 

The vowel sounds are pro- 
duced by the opening, and the 
consonant sounds by the joining 
of the organs of speech. 

TJNION OF VOWELS. 

A Diphthong is the union 
of two vowels in one word 
or syllable; 
saìl. 

Observe. — "WTien both vowels are sounded, the Diphthong is 
called Proper, as, òi in dòirt, spill ; when only one is heard, it 
is an Improper Diphthong, as, e in fead, a whistle. 

A Triphthong is the union Is ì Trìrag aonadh thrì 



as, eò in seòl, a 



AONADH FHUAIMEAGAN. 

Is ì Dòrag aonadh dà 
fhuaimraig' ann an aon fho- 
cal no smid; mar, ui, 'an 
tuit, fall. 



of three vowels, as, eòi in 
ieòiì,flesh. 

CLASSES OF CONSONANTS. 

The consonants are di- 
vided into two classes, viz. 
mutes and semi-vowels. 

The mutes are such as emit 
no sound without the help of a 
vowel ; as, b, d,p, and c, g hard. 

The semi-voivels are such as 
emit an imperfect sound of 
themselves ; as, f, l, m, n, r, s. 



f huaimragan ; mar, iùi ann 
an ceum, calm. 

EOINNEAN CHONNRAGAN. 

Roinnear na cdnnragan 
'n an dà rdinn, eadh. tosdaich 
agus leth-fhuaimragan. 

Is ìad na tosdaich ìad sin nach 
leig a-mach fuaim air-bith gun 
chòmhnadh fuaimraige ; mar, 
b, d, p, agus c, g cruaidh. 

Is ìad na leth-fhuaimragan 
ìadsan a leigeas a-mach fuaim 
fànnleò-fèin; mar,/, l,m,n,r,s. 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



The consonants have received 
other names from the organs 
chiefly employed in uttering 
them, thus : d, t, s, are named 
Dentals, or letters of the teeth ; 
h, f, m, p, Labials, or letters 
of the lips ; 1, n, r, IAnguals, 
or letters of the tongue; and 
c, g, Palatials, or letters of the 
palate. 

PRONUNCIATION OF VOWELS. 

Each Gaelic vowel ex- 
presses longand shortsounds 
of different qualities, as ex- 
cmplified in the following 
paradigm. 

VOWEL MARKS. 

A vowel marked with the 
Grave accent ( v )over it is always 
sounded long ; as, bàrd, a poet. 

A vowel without the Grave 
over it is sounded short, as alt, 
a joint. 

The vowel e, expressing the 
sound of d in fàte, is marked 
with the Acute accent (') ; as 
teum, a bite. 

The Dash (-) marks a long 
sound, and the Breve ( v ) a short 
sound, as dàn, apoem, sòdàn, 

òoy. 



Thugadh ainmean eile do na 
cdnnragan gu-sònruichte bho na 



bùill-labhairt 
'g an ràdh. 



ghnàthaichear 



Mar-so theirear 
Fiaclaich no litrichean nam fia- 
clan ri d, t, s ; Lipich no litri- 
chean nam bilean ri b, f, m, p ; 
Teangaichno litrichean na tean- 
ga ri 1, n, r ; agus Càranaich, no 
litrichean nan càirean ri c, g. 

FUAIMEACHADH FHUAIMRAG. 

Tha fuaimean fad agus 
grad de ghnè èu-coltach, 
aig gach fuaimraìg Ghaelig, 
mar chithcar anns an t-sàm- 
plair à leanas. 

COMHARRA FHUAIMRAG. 

Fuaimichear fad fuaimrag 
leis an t-stràc Mhdll ( v ) thairis 
oirre ; mar, bòrd ; a table. 

Fuaimichear grad fuaimrag 
gun an stràc Mdll thairis oirre ; 
mar, ros, seed. 

'Nuair tha an fhuaimrag e, 
a' toirt fuaim' à 'amfdte, comh- 
arraichear ì leis an t-sràc Ghèur 
(') ; mar, tè, a she one. 
Comharraichidh an Sìnean (-) 
fuaim fad, agus am Brisgean 
( * ) fuaim grad, mar, bàn, white, 
càn, say. 



Obs. — The first long sound of a, e, i. o u is always marked 
with the Grave; as, àrd, sè, cìr, òr, ùr. The second long sound 
of o is marked with the Acute ; as, tònn. The second long 
sound of a, and the third long sound of o, are for the most part 
marked with the Dash ; as, ddh, sdgh.—Vide Paradigm of the 
vowels. 

Note. — The accented syllables of English words are uni- 
formly marked in English Dictionaries with the acute accent, 
but such a mark of accentuation is not necessary in Gaelic, 
because almost every word in the language is accented on the 
first syllable. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



DIVI3ION OF VOVELS. I 

Tlie vowels are divided | 
into two classes, namely, 
Broad and Smatt, and lience ! 
tìie general rule for spelling | 
Gaelic, comrnonly called, | 
" Broad to Broad, and Small 
to Smalir 

The Broad vowels are a, 
o, u. The Small vowels are 
e, i. 

PARADIGM OF THE VOWEL 
SOUNDS. 



ROINN NAM FUAIMRAG. 

Roinnear na Fuaimragan 
'n an dà phàirt, eadhon 
Leathan agus Caol agus o 
sin tha an riailt chumanta 
de 'n goirear gu-coiteheann, 
" Leathan ri Leathan 'us 
Caol ri CaoV' 

Is iad na Fuaimragan 
Leathan a, o, u. Is na 
fuaimragan Caol e, i. 

SAMPLAIR DE FHUAIMIBH NAM 
FUAIMRAQ. 



long, like à in fàr ; as, àrd, high ; bàrd, a poet. 
short, like a in fàt; as, cas, afoot; tasdan, a shilling. 
ì, long, like eux in French* ; as, àdh (à-ùgh), joy. 
short, like èùx* ; as, làgh, law ; tàgh, choose. 

5 

a, faint, like e in risen ; as, an, the ; mar, as. 



jè, long, ] 
( e, short, 

1: 



hke è in thère, as è, sè, he ; rè, during. 
like è in raet or n ; as, leth, half ; teth, hot. 
è, long, like à in fàte ; as, ce', the earth ; tè, a female. 

4 

e, short, like è in her ; as, duine, a man ; fìilte, folded. 
i. 

T f ì, long, like èè in sèè ; as, cìr, a comb ; mìr, a piece. 

*«*V 2 

{ì, short, like i in pln ; as, min, meal ; bith, being. 

3 

i, faint, like I in this ; as, is, am. 



3 4 5 6 

* a, a, and o, o, have these sounds only, before dh, gh, and partly before -!!, 
-nn. The II. quality of sound in a, and the III. quality of sound in o, are pro- 
nounced nearly alike. The o and the a before dh, gh, and the diphthong ao, eannot 
be adequately represented by any artificial contrivance ; their real pronunciatioa 
must be acquired to advantage by the ear, from a correct Gaelic speaker. 



6 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



- fò, long, like ò in òak ; as, òr, gold ; bròg, a shoe. 
^o, short, like ò in òn ; as, mo, my ; grod, rotten. 
long, like ò in hòw ; as, tònn, a wave ; poll, a pool. 

4 4 

short, like ò in not ; as, lomàdh, clipping; connàdh./^e^. 

III J * on &' n ^ e * n ' aS;> Su S n ' l uxur 3/> fòghlum, learn. 
\ ò, short,like òin nòw; as,fòghar, autumn; ròghuinn, choice. 

v X ù, long, like ù in tùbe ; as, ùr, fresh ; tùr, a tower. 
( u, short, like ù in bùsh ; as, rud^, a thing ; guth, avoice. 
u, faint, very like a faint, or ù in run ; as, mur, ifnot. 

Obs. — In words of more than one syllable, the vowels, chiefly 
the Broad, have an indefinite short quality of obscure sound in 
the second or final syllables ; * this has occasioned an indiscri- 
minateuse of the vowels as correspondents, and hence the reason 
that the same word is sometimes spelt in two different ways ; as, 
ìarrtas or ìarrtws, a request ; cànain or cànwin, a language; 
dìchmll or dìchfc'oll, diligence.f The spelling of the same word 
by different vowels is chiefly confined to the final syllable or 
syllables. A single vowel in the initial syllable of a word never 
assumes this obscure sound, and when the initial syllable con- 
tains an improper diphthong, one of the vowels is always pro- 
nounced in full, when the other is faint or quiescent. 



SOUNDS OF DIPHTHONGS. 

There are thirteen diph- 
thongs, of which four, namely 
ao, èu, \a, ua, are alwayslong; 
the rest are both long and short : 
thus, 



FUAIMEAN DHORAG. 

Tha trì Dòragan deug ànn, 
dhiùbh sin tha ceithir, eadhon, 
ao, èu, ra, ua, do-ghnà, fad ; 
tha 'n ccrr araon fad agus grad ; 
mar-so, 

Composed of 

1 2 

ae, long, as, Gaèì, a Highlander (seldom used) à and e. 

ài, long, as, fàidh, aprophet; càill, lose à and ì. 

* In like manner, the vowels in the final syllables of English words have an ob- 
scure sound ; as, a, e, o, i, io, in endear, suffer, suitor, action. The sound of the 
final syllable in each of these words is equivalent to short u. 

f So in reading Hebrew, where none of the vowels intervene between two suc- 
cessive consonants, a short a or e is employed to pronounce the word ; as, "^il 
(dbr), a word, read dàbàr or deber. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 7 
ai, short, as, ait, glad ; tais, soft a and i. 

3 3 

ao, long, as, taobh, a side ; faobhar, edge a and o. 

2 1 

ea, long, as, beann, a Mll ; ceann, a head e and à. 

2 2 

ea, short, as, meal, enjoy ; each, a horse e and a. 

2 

ea, improper, as, bean (ben), a wife ; fear (fer), a man...e alone. 

8 2 

èi, long, as, gèinn, a wedge ; èisd, hear è and i. 

r # m 22 

ei, short, as, ceist, a question ; teich,flee e and i. 

2 1 

eò, long, as, ceòl, music ; beò, alive e and o. 

2 2 

eo, short, as, deoch, a drink ; neo-ni, nothing e and o. 

3 

èu, long, as, tèum, a bite ; glèus, trim è alone. 

1 2 

ìa, long, as, cìall, sense ; pìan, pain i and a. 

nr ì * 

ìo, long, as, fìor, true ; lìon, a net i and o. 

. •( , „ 2 2 

io, short, as, flodh, timber; pioc, a crumb i and o. 

1 i 

iù, long, as, ciùrr, hurt ; fiù, worth i and ù. 

iu, shcrt, as, iuchair, a Tcey ; fliuch, wet i and u. 

òi, long, as, òigh, a virgin ; dòigh, manner ò and i. 

3 2 

òi, long, as, bòid, a vow ; còill, a wood. o and i. 

2 2 

oi, short, as, toit, steam ; poit, a pot o and i. 

i i 

ua^ long, as, fuar, cold ; cuan, ocean uand a. 

1 i 

ùi, long, as, sùil, an eye ; dùil, hope ù and i. 

2 2 

ui, short, as, fuil, blood ; tuil flood u and i. 



OF THE DIPHTHONGS AO, EA, EU, 10. 

ao has no similar sound in English; it is like the French eu 
or ev,x } or Latin dù in aurum, as, gaol, love ; saor, a wright* 

etj, the letter e, in èu, is always long, and has a compound 
sour,d, which is pronounced as if e was preceded by a short i, 
thus, tèum, fèum, pronounced tìèm, fìèm. 

The letter e has a shade of this sound also in the improper 
diphthong ea, as, cead, deas, pronounced lcìed, dìes. 

Before b, d, l, n, r, èu is uniformly pronounced in the North 



* See Exercise on Orthography,— Diphthongs -.—Artìcle 10. Pagc 20. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



Highlands like ìa, as, rìab for rèub, to tear ; cìad, a hundred, 
for cèud ; lan, abird, forèun; bìalfor bèul,fìar forfèur, &c. 

The o of io short, before a sounded dental, lingual, or paia- 
tial, becomes mute in some words, and serves only as a corres- 
pondent, or to qualify the next consonant; as, biocfeg, a dirJc ; 
fvos, notice ; ioghar, putrid matter ; pronounced bìdag, fìs, 
ì-yar. The i of io, after a sounded dental, lingual, or palatial, 
serves to qualify the sound of the consonant before it, and o has 
a short faint sound like o in son ; as, eTzonach, water-tight; 
aontach, guilty ; pronounced,;ìww-a;t;, hìunt-ax- 

TRIPHTHONGS. TRIRAGAN. 

There are five Triphthongs formed from the long Diphthongs 
ao, eò, ìa, iù 3 ua, by adding the vowel i. These Diphthongs 
preserve their own sounds, and the fìnai i is always short.* 

TRIPHTHONG SOUNDS. FUAIMEAN THRIRAG. 

aoi, as, caoidh (kao-y), lament ; laoidh (Uao-y), calves. 
eòi, as, treòir (treò-yr), strength; geòidh (keò-y), geese. 
ìai, as, cìaire (ki-ar-y), darker ; fiaire, more crooked. 
iùi, as, ciùin (ki-ùin), meek; fliùiche (fli-ui^-è), wetier. 
uai, as, fuaim (fua-ym), sound ; cruaidh (krua-y), hard. 

SMIDEAN. 

Is ì smid fuaim singilt. 
focaì, no pàirt a dh-fhocal ; 
rnar, a } haìg, agus mead 'am 
meadar. 

Fèumaidh an car à 's 
lugha aon fhuaimrag a bhi 
anns gach smid. . 

Theirear Aon-smìd li fo- 
cal aon smide ; mar, ptann. 
Theirear Dà-smid ri focal 
dà smide; mar, mear-achd. 
Theirear Trì-smid ri focal 
tlirì smidean ; mar, lìon- 
mìior-ìch. Theirear Ioma- 
smid ri focal thar thri 
smidean mar, lìon - mlior- 
ach-adh. 



* Final i, in a triphthong, is scarcely heard before a sounded lingual or palatia'L 



A syllàble is a single 
sound, a word, or part of a 
word, as a, an; màtk in 
màthair. 

There must be at least 
one vowel in every syllable. 

A word of one syllable is 
called a Monosyllable, as, 
pen. A word of two sylla- 
bles, is called a Dissyllable ; 
as, ò-ran. A word of three 
syllabìes is called a Trisyl- 
lable ; as, fì-rinn-ich. A 
word of more than three 
syllables, a Polysyllable ; as, 
ft-rinn-each-adh. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 9 



Spelling is the art of ex- 
pressing words by their pro- 
per letters. 



SPELLING. CUBADH. 

Is è cùbadh eòlas dean- 
aimh suas f hocal le 'n ceart 
'litrichean fèin. 

The spelling of the Gaelic language is chiefly regulated by the 
prevailing mode of pronunciation. 

The chief anomalies in the orthography arise from the 
number of silent letters used in many words, and the difficulty 
of describing their situations by general rules. 



Rule 1.* — When the last 
vowel in the preceding syllable 
of a word is a Broad, the first 
vowel in the following syilable 
of the same word must be a 
Broad, as, freagair, answer ; 
ceòlraidh, (the) muses. 

Rule 2,* — When the last 
vowel in the preceding syllable 
is a Small, the flrst in the 
following syllable of the same 
word must be a Small also ; 
as, caLÌleag, a girl ; fiììeàdh, 
folding. 

Note. — A vowel is never doubled in the same syllable of a 
Gaelic word, like oo in English, except in dèe, false gods; and 
there is no silent final vowel like e in English, as, in line, pine. 



Riailt 1.* — 'Nuair is ì 
Leathan an fhuaimrag dheir- 
eannach ann an smid thoisich 
focail, fèumaidh a' cheud fhu- 
aimrag anns an ath smid de'n 
f hocal chèudna, a bhi Leathan ; 
mar, obair, worh. 

Riailt 2.* — 'Nuair is ì Caol 
an fhuaimrag dheireannach 
anns an smid thoisich, is i 
Caol à dh'-f hèumas a bhi anns 
a' cheud fhuaimraig de 'n ath 
smid de'n fhocal chèudna ; 
mar cniìeàg, afly. 



ASPIEATION OF CONSONANTS. 

Each of the consonants 
except h, I, n, r, is aspirated 
by annexing the letter h to 
it ; as, bog, Mog, soft. 

A consonant without the 
h to it is in its plain form ; 
as, bàrd, apoet. 



S EIDE ACHADH CHONNEAGAN. 

Sèidichear gach aon de 
na cònnragaibh, ach h, 1, n, r, 
le cur na litreach h ri 'cùl ; 
mar, bòrd, Mòrd, a table. 

Tha cònnrag gun h rithe 
'n a staid lìdm, mar, peann, 
apen. 



* A knowledge of these two rules will make Gaelic orthography extremely easy, 
and it is to be remembered that the succeeding correspondent vowel is in most cases 
scarcely heard in the pronunciation ; where it is pronounced, it softens the harsh 
sounds of consonants, and gives a mellow sound to the language ; however, in many 
cases its use might be dispensed with, but the established system of orthography 
must be maintained, as any material or rapid interference with the present method 
of spelling would produce confusion and dissatisfaction. See pages 15 and lò'. 



10 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



The aspiràble consonants are 
b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t. 

In their aspirated state the 
consonants lose their plain 
soimds, and assume the sounds 
of the letters v, x, y,for <p, h, 
respectively. 



Is iad na cònnragan seideach, 
b, c, d, f, g, m, p, s, t. 

'Nan staid shèideich caillidh 
na cdnnragan am fuaimean 
loma, agus gabhaìdh iad fuaim- 
ean nan litrichean v, x-> V> f or 
0, h, fa-leth. 



Obs. 1. — The letters l, n, r have no aspirated form, that is, 
they do not take h after them like the rest of the consonants_,but 
they have aspirated sounds in cases* in which the other con- 
sonants are aspirated, and in this position they are distinguished 
by the spiritus asper (') ; thus, 'l, 'n, 'r. 

Obs. 2. — The sounds of 'I, c n, c r, (aspirated) are represented 
by 1, n, r in the following English words ; thus, 'l sounds like l 
in leet; c n like n in nip ; c r like r in wrong. 



The aspirated power or 
sounds of the consonants is re- 
presented by the letter placed 
under each of them, in the fol- 
lowing order ; thus, 



Tha cumhachd no fuaimean 
seidichte nan cdnnrag riochd- 
aichte leis an litir a ta suidh- 
ichte fo gach aon diùbh, anns 
an òrdugh à leanas ; mar-so, 



Plain b, c, d, g, f, m, p, s, t. 
Aspirate bh, ch, dh, gh, f h, mh, ph, sh, th. 

Sound v, X iy Vi Vi t> v > f ; P>§ h y h - 

Obs. 1. — The letter y representing the sound of dh, gh, is a 
consonant, like y in ye, yet. 

The aspirated sounds of nine of the consonants are here re- 
presented by the tive single letters v, y,f, and h, which, being 
evidently too few to prevent ambiguity, are never used to re- 
present the secondary or aspirated sounds of any of the conson- 
ants in Gaelic orthography. 

Examples of the sounds of the aspirates in speaking, with 
the pronunciation of the words placed below, and their rneari- 
ing in English placed above each word ; thus, 



* The letters l, n, r assume their aspirated or attenuated sounds in the vocative 
singular, and genitive and vocative plural of indefinite nouns ; in the aspirated 
cases of the adjective ; in the past tense and infìnitive of verbs, and after the pos- 
sessive pronoun, à, his, &c. See declensìon of nouns and adjectives and the con- 
jugation of verbs beginning with l, n, r. 

f X, a letter borrowed from the Greek, as best calculated to represent the 
sound of ch ; it is pronounced chì. Ch beginning a word or syllable may also be re- 
presented by wh, in which. 

X fh is always silent or eclipsed, except in the words fhathast, fhein,fhuair, in 
which the sound of h is retained ; as, ha-ast, hàne, huair. 

§ The sound of ph is fully expressed by/, or the Greek <p. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. H 



My table, his foot black, the moon, hand long, 

Mo bhòrd, à chas dhubh, a' ghealach, làmh fhada, 
Mo vòrd, ù xas yuv, ù yeal-az, làv ada. 

Folded I, fell my foal, thy great hero, 
Phaisg mì, thuit mo shearrach, do mhòr ghaisgeach, 
Faisg mee, hu-ij mo hear-rax, do vòr yaisk-a^;. 

CONSONANTS FOLLOWED BY L, N, R. 

A consonant followed by l, n, or r, is aspirated, as blàr, bhlàr 
(vlàr), a plain ; clùd, chlùd (^lùd), a clout ; bròg, bhròg, a 
shoe; dlùth, dhlùth (ylùh). warp ; glas, ghlas (ylas), a lock^ 
dròbh, dhròbh (yròv), a drove. 

The consonants f, s, aspirated before l, n, or r, become silent, 
and 1, n, r, retain their own sounds ; as, flath, fhlath (làh), a 
prince ; fròg, fhròg (ròg) afen; slat, shlat (lat), a rod ; snàth, 
shnàth (nàh), thread ; sruth, shruth (rùh), a stream.* 

The sound of h, in th, before l, n, or r, is slightly retained ; 
as, tlàth, thlàth (hlàh), mild ; tnùth, thnùth (hnùh), envy ; 
trèun, thrèun (hràne), strong. 

Obs. 1. — A consonant followed by another consonant, except 
by /, n, r, does not admit of aspiration ; as, st, sm, &c. 

Obs. 2. — L, n, r are the only letters doubled in the middle of 
a word and in the end of a syllable, but they are always single 
in the beginning of a syllable ; as eallach, a hurden ; connadh, 
fuel; earradh, clothing ; pdll, apool; càinnt, language ; bànn, 
band ; tòrr, a heap. 

SOUNDS OF THE CONSONANTS. | FUAIMEAN NAN CONNRAG. 

B plain is always pronounced like b in English, but requires 
a closer compression of the lips in uttering it - as, bàrd, apoet; 
obair, work ; sguab, a besom. 

1. Cbeginninga syllable, with a Broad vowel, is like c in 
cut; as, càrn, a heap ; corp, a body ; clàr, a stave. 

2. C before or after a Small vowel, is like k in Tcing and 
ck in ticìc ; as, cìs (kìsh), a tax ; mic (mick), sons. 

3. C at the end of a syllable assumes in many places a thick, 
flat, guttural sound much thicker than k dr ck, which, in the 
absence of a similar sound in English, is represented by ^y, 
as, mac (maxq), a son; ploc (plo%q), a block ; acair {axq-ar), 
an anchor ; tric {trixq), often. , 



* The consonants combine with l, n, r at the beginning of a word or syllable, 
as follows :—bl, br, | cl, cn, cr, j dl, dr, \fl,fr, | gl, gn,gr, J mn, I pl,pr, I sl, tn, 
tr, | tl, tn, tr. 



12 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



Obs. — This is the prevailing pronunciation of final c, but in 
some parts of the country, especially the North-east High- 
lands, it is pronounced like fìnal ck in English ; as, in lack. 

1. D joined to a Broad voweì, has a strong dental sound, pro- 
duced by distending the tongue and striking it against the inside 
of the upper teeth, it is like final t in tinc£ ; as, dòrn, a fist ; dag, 
a pistol ; dànadas, boldness. 

2. D joined to a Small vowel, or between two Small vowels, 
is like ch in charm, child ; as, dealt (ch-ealt) dew ; dìan (ch-ian) 
keen ; dìdean (chì chean), a defence. 

3. D preceded by ch, as, chd, is like xq ; as, achd (a%q) an 
act ; bochd (boxq),poor; nochd, to.night. 

jPplain like /in English; as, fan, remain ; fròg, ahole. 

G like g in got ; as, gob, a beak ; gàg, a chink ; gasag, a 
small branch. 2. G, followed by a Small, like g in give ; as, 
gibeag, handful of flax ; gin, bear. 3- G, preceded by a Small 
or between two Small vowels, like c in hic ; as, thig, come,- 
trèig, forsake ; bige, less. 

H, no word in the Gaelic begins with h, except interjections. 
It is only used as a mark of aspiration, as, gAabh è, he took. 
See page 10. H is also interposed between the cases of the articie 
which end in a, and a noun or adjective beginning with a vowel, 
as, na h-eòin, the birds ; na h-àrd shagairt, the high priests. 
In this position it is pronounced like h in hand. 

M plain like m in English ; as, mòr, great ; gàmag, a stride. 
P plain is always like p in English ; as, pàidh, pay ; copag, a 
dock-leaf; ròp, a rope. 

1. s = s in sot, pass. 2. s — sh in ship, ash. 

I. A^joined in the sarae syllable with a Broad, like s in Eng- 
lish, sot, pass ; as, Sàbaid, Sabbath ; bàsaich (bàs-i^), to die ; 
sop, a wisp ; bus, a snout ; musg, a musket. 

2. S before a Small, like sh in ship ; as, sèid, blow ; sìth, 
peace ; sean, old ; siùcar (shiù^^-ar), sugar. 

3. S after a Small, like sh in ash ; as, tùis (tuish), incense ; 
èisd (èishd), hear ; seis (sheish), a match. 

S in sl, sn, st, followed by a Small, is like sh ; as, sliabh 
(shliav), a hill ; snìomh (shnìov), spin ; stèud (shtèd) a steed. 

Excbpt. — So, this ; sud, yon ; pronounced sho, shud, and s in 
is, am, pronounced like s in discord. 

T before or after a Broad, has a strong dental sound, nearly 
similar to d; it has scarcely any sound like it in English. 

1. Twith BiBroad, sounds like the French t in ^en^an^ (tang- 
tang), or the Italian t in tempo ; as, talamh, land ; tog, lift; 
trod, a scold; cutach, short ; cat, a cat ; mart, a cow. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACADHH. 13 



2. T with a Small, is like ch in cka-rm or chin ; as, tìm (chìm) 
time ; teas, heat; teisteas (cheish-chas), testimony. 

Except. — T, in tigh, a house, has its first sound. 

3. 7*and D, final or middle, with a ASfoa//, like ch in charm ; 
as, toit (toich), steam; coitear (koi-char), a cottager ; frìd 
(frìch), a tetter ; ridir, a knight. 

L, Nj E. 

Z, n, r, have three varieties of the sanie sound ; namely, 
a simpìe or plain sound, a broad liquid, and a small liquid 
sound, as exemplifìed in the following order : — 

1. L has a simple sound after a Broad, something like l'm 
oil ; as, eàl, lcail ; alt. ajoint; mol, praise ; cùl, a èac£. 

2. L has a Sroaà 7 liquid sound before a Broad, hke # in 
as, las (llas), Jcindle ; ldm (Uòm), oare; lùb (llùb), a loop. 

3. L has a sma# liquid sound before or after a Small, like // 
in million, or French / in milieu (middle) ; as, lèus, a torch ; 
slige, a shell ; lios, a garden ; fììì, fold ; gèH\, yield. 

4. L single, after a short Small. has its simple sound like l in 
mtS ; as, mil, honey ; ceil, conceal. 

1. iVhas a simple sound after a Broad or Small, or between 
two Smalls, ìike n in wora ; as, dàn, a poem ; can, saj// bròn, 
sorroic ; min, meal ; teme,fire ; minidh, on aw?/. 

2. iV has a oroaa 7 Hquid sound before or after a Broad. like 
the French fi in notre (our) ; as, nollaig (nnollaig) Christmas ; 
nàdur (nnàdur), nature ; nuall, a lament ; bànn, a oawaV tònn, 
a icare ; lùnn, a oar. 

3. i\T has a s?72a// Hquid sound before or after a Small, like 
French w in regner (rai-ing-yai) ; as neart, strengtJi ; nimh, 
poison ; gèinn, a wedge ; sèinn, sing. 

Note. — N, preceded by c, g, m, t, is often pronounced like 
r ; as, cnod, pronounced crod, a Jcnot ; gmomh, grìov, an act ; 
mnà, mrà, ofa wife ; tnù (trù), envy. 

1. R has a simple sound after a Broad or Sma.II, like r in 
near ; as, car, a tum ; borb, fierce ; sàr, excellent ; mòr, 
great ; tùr, a tower ; muir, a sea ; cuir, sow?. 

2. R has a oroooJ liquid sound before or after a Broad, nearly 
like r in rasp ; as, ràn (rràn), a roar ; rud (rrud), a thing ; 
tròm (trròm), heavy ; bàrr, a crop ; tòrr, a /W^>. 

3. R has a s??2a// liquid sound before or atter a Small, nearly 
hke r, in ride,fir; as, rè, the moon, rèult, a star ; ridir, a 
Inight; rìan, a form; mir, a piece; tìr, /arco 7 . 



14 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



Note. — R, precedecl by s, is frequently, but improperly, pro- 
nounced with a t between the s and the r ; as, stràid for sràid, 
a street ; stròn for sròn, a nose. 

L, Nj R, DOUBLED. 

Rule 1. — L, n, r, doubled at the end of monosyllables, 
have always their liquid sound and the preceding vowel 
long; as, màll, slow ; tdnn, a wave ; còrr, remainder. 

2. L, n, r, doubled in the middle of a word, have always 
their liquid sound and the preceding vowel generally 
short; as, ballan, a tub; barrach, brushwood; uinneag, 
a window. 

DH, GH, TB, FINAL. 

Dh and gh, when sounded at the end of a word, have a 
peculiar sound to which there is no similar one in English ; ugh 
is given as the nearest to it : — it is produced by pressing the 
point of the tongue on the lower or upper gum, and then striking 
the breath against the roof of the mouth. 

Dh has this sound after ea, ia, ua, and in adh, in terminating 
the present participle and infìnitive of verbs ; as, geàdh 
(ge-à-ùgh), a goose; seadh (sè-ùgh), sense; biadh, food; 
stuadh, awave; dùnadh (dùn-ùgh), shutting ; a phasgac?A (a 
^asg-ùgh), tofold. 

Gh has this sound after a Broad ; as, tàgh (ta-#<?h) ohoose, 
deagh (deà,-ugh) , good ; sògh (sò-ùgh), luxury. 

Dh is silent after a single vowel in monosyliables, and after i 
and ai in words of more than one syllable ; as, ràdh (rà), say- 
ing ; minidh, an awl ; fanaidh, will stay. 

Dh and gh, after a Small, in a diphthong, are pronounced like 
y 'mye, aye; as, fèidh (fèi-y), deer ; tràigh, the seashore. 

Th at the end of a word, or between the syllables of a word, is 
always silent ; the use of th in the middle of a word is to separ- 
ate the coincident vowels of the different syllables ; as, cath (cà), 
a battle ; catfAag, (cààg), ajacJcdaw. 

Except. — Th in ith, eat, and ni^e, things, is for the most 
part sounded. 

Obsebvations. 

1. — When two vowels belonging to two different syllables of the 
same word come in contact with each other, the common prac- 
tice is to separate them by inserting a pair of silent consonants 
between them ; th, as stated before, is generally employed for 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 15 



this purpose; as, bi^eam, let me be ; cno^an, nuts ; crìatfAar, 
a sieve, instead of bieam, cnoàn, crìàr.* 

Dh and gh are also found interposed between the vowels 
or diphthongs of two distinct syllables, but these are for the 
most part not added, but form a part of the orthography of the 
word in its radical shape ; as, stuaJAach, billowy, from stuadh, 
a wave ; dèi^Aeil, desirous, from dèigh, a desire. 

2. The identity of sound, in many cases, as also the feebleness 
of sound in the combinations dh, gh, placed in the middle 
or at the end of words, has occasioned a variety of spelìing of 
some of the words in which they occur ; for, from the indiscrim- 
inate use of dh, gh, we find two of the words quoted above, 
spelt in two different ways ; as, dèidh, also spelt dèigh, dèidh- 
ei\, dèigheiì. But the difference of spelling, in these and similar 
cases, produces no difference of pronunciation. 

Another source among the consonants, which, in a few in- 
stances, produces a difference of spelling in the same word, is the 
identity of sound in the aspirates bh, mh; as, abh or amh, 
water, pronounced àv. See page 10. 

3. A difference of spelling arises also from the indiscriminate 
use of the rule " Broad to Broad," which requires that the first 
vowel of each succeeding syllable of a word should be a Broad, 
when the last vowel of the preceding syllable is a Broad; as, 
togaibh, lift ye. This rule also requires that the last vowel of 
the preceding syllable should be a Broad, when the first of the 
succeeding one is necessarily a Broad; as, biodag, a dirk. These 
two words are pronounced togìbh, bìdag ; whence it is seen, 
that the a in togaibh, and the o in biodag, form no part of the 
pronunciation of these words. 

In the application of this rule, either a, o, or u is sometimes 
written indiscriminately as the first of the succeeding syllable of 
a word ; as, abhainn or abhmnn, a river ; soìus or solas, light ; 
claigeann, claigeonn^ or claigiwnn, a skull. 

4. This variety of spelling can be accounted for in no other 
way than by the fact that the vowels a, o, u, have, in some in- 



* If it was legally permitted to interfere with the established orthography of a 
language by suppressing superfiuous letters at once, we would recommend that 
these intermediate and final silent consonants should be cut out altogether from 
some words and a diaeresis employed to distinguish the syllables ; as tuaànach, for 
tuathanach, a farmer. The letter h might also be employed like final silent e in 
English to mark the long sound of a final vowel ; as, lah, snah, for là, snàth. But 
as our present norma loquendi is opposed to innovations of this kind, the intro- 
duction of such improvements must be left to the gradual opL'rations of time. It is 
remarkable how much the English language has changed in its orthography within 
the two last centuries. About two hundred years ago the word soldier was spelt 
touldeour, and island spelt yland. Bee Holland's English Version op Livy, 
1600, 



16 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



stances, a similar quality of sound, as was already observed ; 
and that, in committing the language at first to letters, soine of 
the original writers probably made use of one vowel to express a 
certain quality of sound, while others employed a different 
vowel, but having a similar quality of sound, in writing the 
same word. 

5. In the application of the second part of the rule under 
consideration here, which requires that when the kst vowel in 
the preceding syllable of a word is a Small, the flrst in the suc- 
ceeding syllable should be a Small also, and vice versa; as, 
cua'leag, a fly ; fàedheadas'reachd, prophecy, cos'mh-leabach, a 
bedfellow, pronounced cuilag, fài-ad-ar-a^q, coi-lep 

A variety in the spelling of the same word is not so frequently 
occasioned by the use of this part of the rule, for there being only 
two small vowels, namely e and i, and these differing in their 
different degrees of sound, are not often indiscriminately em- 
ployed as correspondents. In simple words, as well as in the 
process of inflection, the e commonly follows the i, and in this 
situation the e is for the most part quiescent; as, smleag, pro- 
nounced sùilag, a little eye. 

6. In some compound words, that is, words connected by a 
hyphen (-), the vowel i is inserted in the preceding syllable 
when e or i is the fìrst vowel in the next ; as, cos'mh-leapach, a 
bedfellow, bam-teghearn, a lady, coimh-Yxm,fulfil. In this con- 
nexion both the correspondent vowels are sounded, as coi-lep-ax, 
bain-tiarn, coi-lìon. But theinsertion of a correspondent vowel 
in words of this description, does not frequently occur. 

7. Having demonstrated the powers of the letters, as also 
the peculiarities in the orthography and pronunciation of the 
language, it is proper to observe, that the difficulties to be sur- 
mounted in studying to pronounce the Gaelic, are not at all 
so formidable or so numerous as they may at flrst sight appear 
to a person who is unacquainted with the structure and genius 
of this powerful language. The combinations of vowels and 
quiescent consonants which present themselves in many words, 
impress the minds of individuals who have spent little or no 
time in examining the importance and nature of these combina- 
tions with the desperate idea, that the task of learning the lan- 
guage is impracticable. This is by no means the case, for it is 
quite easy by a little study and perseverance to acquire a complete 
knowledge of the Gaelic It is well known that several of our 
eminent Gaelic scholars both in Scotland and Ireland only com- 



* After o and oi, mh is commonly silent ; coimh is from eomh, or co, together. 



% 

ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 17 

menced to study the language, when they were considerably 
advanced in years.* 

8. In pursuing the study of GaeKc pronunciation, there are 
four leading principles in the orthography of the language, to 
which the student must constantly attend ; these are, 1. The 
quiescent correspondent vowels. 2. The aspirated sounds of the 
consonants. 3. The quiescent th final or middlef and commonly 
mh after o, the peculiar sound of dh, gh. And, 4. that every 
word is accented on the first syìlable. 

9. It is much more easy to learn the pronunciation and or- 
thography of the Gaelic than that of either English or French. 
The English is exceedingly capricious and anomalous in its 
orthography and accentuation, and there is scarcely a word in 
the French without one or more silent letters ; whereas, in the 
orthography and accentuation of the Gaelic there is an uncom- 
mon degree of uniformity, regularity, and primitive simplicity, 
such as palpably indicates the antiquity of the language, and 
affords incontestable proofs of its having been committed to 
writing at a very early period.^ There is no such irregular 
pronunciation in Gaelic as the following and many other un- 
couth English words have, viz., debt, gnat, phlegm, phthisic, 
through, rhetoric, asthma, believe, receive, apophthegm, trough. 

EXERCISES ON ORTHOGRAPHY. | CLEACHDADH AIR LITRE ACHADH . 

1. How many vowels and consonants are in each of the following words ? 

Ait, glad ; àrdan, pride ; fiadh, a deer ; fearanta, masculine; 
cìnnteach, sure; gruamach, gloomy ; tubaist, misfortune ; seòl- 
tachd, skilfulness ; brosnaich, incite ; coimeasach, comparative. 

2. Set the capital letters right in the following words :— 

albà, Scotland ; rìgh seòrus, King George ; Bhuail E tdmas, 
he struck Thomas ; Tha Trì Tunnagan Aig iain, John has three 
ducks ; Tha Abhainn iòrdain ag Eirigh Ann am Beanntaibh 
lebanoin, The river Jordan rises in the mountains of Lebanon ; 



* The author knows, at this day, several ladies and gentlemen, both in Brìtain 
and on the Continent, who, after arrivìng at the age of maturity, made a most 
creditahle proficiency in the acquisition of the Gaelic, so much so, that they can 
speak and write the ìanguage fluently. 

The Iate Mrs Ogilvie of Corrymony, an English lady in whom was combined 
every virtue which adorns the Christian and the philanthropist, acquired the 
Gaelic in a very short time, and, be it spoken to her hallowed memory, " went 
about doing good," through the medium of that language, among the rural pea- 
santry that lived around her Highland residence. 

t For an explanation of these, see pages 10 and 14. 

± " There is no doubt," says the learned Dr Stewart, " that the Gaelic hns 
been for many ages a written language."— Yide Stewart's Qaelic Granunar, p. 24, 
edit. 1801. 

B 



18 ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 



baile dhunèdinn, the city Edinìmrgh ; Tha sasunn gu deas Air 
àlba, England is to the south of Scotland ; ionar-nis, Inverness. 

chuala sìol lochlin am fuaim, 

mar shruth gàireach, fuar a' gheamhraidh. — Ossian. 

The men of Lochlin heard the sound, lihe the roaring, cold 
stream of tlie winter. 

PRONUNCIATION. FUAIMEACHADH. 

From the exemplification given of the different articulations 
of the consonants on page 11, 12, 13, &c. the following Gen- 
eral Rules are deduced, to guide the reader : — 

Rule 1. — Each of the plain letters h,f, m, p, and of the 
aspirates bh,fìi, mh, ph, sh, th, has the same sound, whether 
joined with a Broad or a Small vowel. 

Rule 2.- — The letters c, d, g, l, n, r, s, t, and the aspi- 
rates ch, dh, gh, have their broad sound when joined with 
a Broad, and their small sound when joined witli a SmalL 

Rule 3. — The article an (the) and nan (of the), and the 
possessive pronouns an, their, and 'n àn, or 'n an, 'nan, are 
always pronounced ùng, nùng, before words beginning with c 
and g : as, ung cù, iing gas, nùng gleann. 

3. Broad Sounds.— C like c in cut : c final like k or : d andt like French in 
tentant : g like g in got, dog : 1 Hke 1 in oil or all : 1. n like n in non ; 2. n like n 
in notre : 1. r like r in near ; 2. r like r in rasp : s like s in sot, pass. 

Aspirate bh, ch, dh, fh, gh, '1, mh, 'n, ph, 'r, sh, th. 
Like v. X. y. * y. leet. v. nip. /. wro'. h. h.* 

Pronounce. — An cù d(5nn, the brown dog : damh dubh, a blaclc 
o% : gabh lòn, taJcefood: tòil mòr, a big hole: mùr àrd, a high 
wall : nàdur math, good nature : post tròm, a heavy post : nan 
rosg gòrm, of the blue eyelids : do shlat ùr, thy new rod : thug 
an tònn garbh a-nàll an lòng, the rough wave brought over (to 
this side) the ship : cha tug an sònn òg a-nùll na brògan, the 
young hero did bring over (farther side) the shoes. 

Thog Tòmas, à chas, Thomas lifted his foot : cha do bhog è 
à 'làmh anns a' ghogan, he did not dip his hand in the kit : tha 
mo ghràdh dhut, / love thee : 'nochci thù do 'ràmh dhà, thou 
showedst thy oar to him: tha do mhàl trdm ort, thy rent is 
heavy on thee: phrònn a' chlànn na clachan, the children pounded 
the stones : gàmag f had, a long stride : anns an f hàsach theth, 



* For a raore particular description of the aspirated consonants, see page 10. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 19 



in the hot desert : shàbh an saor am bòrd, tke wright sawed the 
board : dh'-fhàg an làgh falamh è, the law left him destitute : 
is glan an solus an gas, the gas is a fine light. 

4. Small Sounds.— C like k in king, or tick : d and t like ch in chip, or j in jest : 
g like g in give ; g after a vowel like c in hìc : 1 like 11 in million : n like French n 
in regner : r like r in ring, fir : s like sh in ship, fish :— dh, gh, final, like y in ye 
and aye. 

Pronounce. — Ciste bhàn, a white ehest : mullach mo chìnn, 
(the) top of my head : thug am bàs è do 'n * chìll, death brought 
him to the grave : mic nan sònn, the sons of heroes : Am beil 
sibh tìnn ? areye sick f Tha mì, lam ; cha dìrich sìbh am fireach, 
you willnot ascendthe hill: cha dìrich a-nis ach is tric a dhì- 
rich sìnn è, not now but we often ascended it : Tha sìth gun dìth 
no airc agam, I have peace without want or distress : Tha mìle 
lòng aig rìgh nan tònn, the king of the waves has a thousand 
ships : tìr nan gaisgeach, the land ofheroes. 

Is fìrinn focal Dè, the word of God is truth : Innis an fhìrinn 
agus cha dìtear thù, tell the truth and thou wilt not be con- 
demned: 'lùb an gille à ghlùn agus 'rinn è ùrnuigh, the lad 
boioed his Jcnee and prayed: 'las lain an lòchran, John lighted 
the lamp : am beil ola 'ròn agaibh ? Haveye seals' oil? 

Thug a' ghràisg ràn asda, the mob roared ; cha n-è sin a- 
mhàin ach 'nàirich ìad sìnn, not only that, but they affrontedus : 
a 'nighean bhàn dùn an uinneag, fair maid, shut the window : 
thug an lèigh ìocshlaint dhomh, the doctor gave me a remedy. 

ON THE VOWELS. I AIR NA FUAIMRAGAIBH. 

First sound oftJie vowels — long. | Ceud fhuaim nam fuaimrag — fad. 

5. à like à in fàr ; è like è in thère ; ì like ì in fìeld, or eè in see; ò like 6 in 
6ak, còrn ; ù, like u in tube, or Oò in moon. 

Pronounce. — Màg, apaw; ck\,kail; fàg,leave; \kn,full; 
òg, young ,• bròg, a shoe ; cìr, a comh ; mìr, a piece ; mùr, a 
wall ; tùr, a tower ; ùr, fresh ; è, sè, he or him ; rè, during ; 
mìnn, kids ; mìll, spoil ; òl, drink; pòg, a kiss ; mòr, big ; 
dùn, shut ; sgòd, conceit ; sgòr, a rock. 

Second Sound. — short. | An dàrafuaim. — grad. 

6. a like à in fàt ; e like è in mèt, lèt, or Greek " : i like I in pln, fìg, klck ; o 
like ò in òn, mòb : u like ù in full, bùsh. 

Pronounce. — Car, a tum ; far, where ; glan, clean ; fan, 
stay ; leth, half ; tre, through ; teth (che) hot ; sir (shir), 
seek ; sin (shin), that ; fìr, men ; pris (prish), bushes ; bric 
(bri^q), trouts; bil, a lip ; roth, a wheel ; trod, scold; olc, 



* When a consonant stands alòne between two words, which is often the case to 
prevent a hiatus, it is pronounced with the final vowel of tbe word preceding it, or 
with the initiaì vowel of the next word following it ; as, do 'n chtll, to the grave ; 
m' òrdag, my thumb, read don ckìll, mòrdag. 



20 ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 

evil; boc (bo^q), a buck ; cnoc, a hnoll ; muc (mu^q), a sow ; 

lus, an herb ; rud, a thing ; bus, a snout ; cur, sowing. 

Third Sound.—LOHG. | An treasfuaim.—vAB. 

7- à before dh, gh, has a long diphthongal sound made up of à and ò, like èux 
in Prench ; and nearly like ugh : è like a in fate ; 6 like ò in hold, hòw ; as, 

Adh,*^ ; àdhradh, worship ; àdhmhor (àùghvor), joyful ; 
rè, themoon; ce, the earth; tè (chè), a female; mòìì, chaff; 
tdm, a hillocìc ; tònn, a wave ; sònn, a hero ; bdnn, a base ; ldm, 
bare ; ddnn, brown ; fdnn, a tune ; bd, a cow. 

Fourth Sound. — short. | An ceathramhfuaim. — grad. 

8. à before dh, gh, has a short quantity of its third sound ; e fìnal, like è in hèr ; 
o like ò in pòt, nòt ; as, 

Adharc (augh-urk), a horn ; làgb, law ; tagh, choose ; fràdh- 
arc (fraugh-urk), ej/esight, viszon ; aghaidh (augh-y), face ; 
cìrte, combed; sìnte, stretched; tog, lift; bog, soft ; gob, a 
beak; crodh, cattle. 

Fifth and Sixfh Sound ofo. ] An coigeamh 's an seathamhfuaim aig o. 

9. ò before dh, gh, has two diphthongal sounds, 1. a long sound like Ow in owl, 
own,- 2. a short quantity of the same sound, like òw in now, or òù in our. 

Sògh, luxury ; sòlas, comfort ; slògh (slò-ùgh), people ; fògh- 
lum, learning ; fòghan, a thistle ; fòghainn, suffice. 

o = ow in now, or ou in our ; as, 

Mòdh, manner ; foghar, autumn ; ròghuinn (roùgh-inn), 
choice ; gròdh, a lever ; òchd (o^q), eight ; cònnadh, fuel ; 
tolladh, boring. 

ON THE LONG DIPHTHONGS. | AIR NA DORAGAIBH FADA. 

Note. — [The reader must become acquainted with the different articulations of 
the consonants and sounds of the vowels, as exemplified on page 10 and 5, before 
he begins the more complicated sounds of the letters in the following exercises.] 

Obs. 1. — In words of more than one syllable, a long vowel or 
long diphthong seldom or never occurs but in the first syllabie 
of the word. 

Obs. 2. — In nearly all the diphthongs, except ao, ìa, ua, the 
sound of one of the vowels prevails more than that of the other ; 
the prevailing vowel, when it sounds long, is commonly marked 
with the long accent. 

10. ao.— The a and the o of this diphthong are melted into one broad heavy 
sound, like 6ux in French, or Latin àu in aurum. For the composition of the 
diphthong sounds, see page 7- 

Aobhar, a cause; aodach, clothes ; aon, one ; aonach, a 



* Words containing this sound of the vowel a, are not very numerous. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 21 

Mll ; aonta, consent ; baobh, a witch ; baoghal, peril ; caoi, 
small; caolas, a frith; caomh, gentle ; daolag, a beetle ; daor, 
dear ; faobh, booty ; faobhar, edge ; faod, may ; gaoì, love ; 
gaoth, wind ; laoch, a hero ; laogh, a calf; maodal, a paunch ; 
Siàol, bald; maor, an inferior officer ; maoth, tender ; naodh, 
nine ; naomh, holy ; raon, afield; saobh, erroneous ; saoghal, 
world ; taod, ahalter ; taom, pour ; taosg, brimful. 

11. èu like a in fate ; the u after è is not heard in the pronunciation, and è is 
sounded as if it was preceded by 1 short. Vide page 7» 

Eud (ìèd), zeal; èug (ièg), death ; èucail, disease; èuchd, 
exploit ; èu-cor-ach, unjust ; èugasg, a countenance ; bèud, 
loss ; bèum, a cut or taunt ; brèunag, a slut ; cèum, a step ; 
crèud, a creed; dèur (jèr), a tear ; fèur, grass ; drèuchd, 
office-work ; gèum, a low ; gèur, sharp ; lèugh, read; lèum, 
jump ; mèud, size ; pèucag, a peacock ; pèur, a pear ; rèul, a 
star ; rèusan, reason ; sèud, ajewel: stèud, a race ; tèud, a 
music-string ; trèun, valiant ; trèubh, a tribe. 

12. ìa like ì in fìeld and à in fat : — this diphthong is pronounced nearly like the 
old Scottish sound of ea, in fear, ear.- the ì absorbs the sound of a short. 

ìad, they ; ìadh, surround ; ìall, a thong ; ìar, west ; ìarr, 
ash; ìasad, a loan ; ÌA^fish ; bìadh, food; bìan, ashin; bìast, 
a beast ; cìad, a hundred ; cìall, sense ; cìan, long ; cìar dark ; 
cìatach, handsome ; Dìa, God ; dìan, vehement ; dìas, an ear of 
corn ; fìacail, a tooth ; fìach, worth ; fìadh, a deer ; fìal, 
generous ; f ìat, shy ; gìal, a jaw ; gìamh, a defect ; grìan, a 
sun ; lìath, gray ; mìadh, respect ; mìal, a louse ; mìann, 
desire ; pìan, pain ; sgìamh, beauty ; sgìan, a knife ; sgìath, a 
wing ; srìan, abridle; tìamhaidh (chia-vy), lonely. 

13. ua long, like wa, in wan, or Latin ua, in tuam. 

Uam, /rom me ; uan, a lamb ; uasal, noble ; uabhar, pride ; 
buachaill, a cow-herd ; buan, lasting ; cuachag, a little cup ; 
dual, afold; duan, apoem ; fuar, cold ; fuath, hatred ; glua- 
sad, motion ; gruamach, gloomy ; guag, a giddy person ; gual, 
coal ; guanach, light,giddy; luan, the moon ; luasgadh, tossing ; 
luath, swift; nuall, a lamcnt ; nuas, from above, down ; ruadh, 
brown, red ; ruagadh, banishing; stuadh, a billow ; suarach, 
mean; suas, up; truas, pity ; truaghan, an object ofpity. 

ON THE LONG AND SHORT DIPH- I AIR NA DOBAGAIBH FAD' 'US 
THONGS. GBADA. 
14. ài long like à in fàr and ì in f ield ; as, 

Ait, a place ; àill, will ; àillidh, fair; bàigh, kindness ; 
bàis, ofdeath ; bàite, drowned ; càis, cheese ; càisg, thepassover ; 



22 ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 

dàil, delay ; dàir, to bull ; fàisg, squeeze ; gràisg, arabble; fàil, 
a ring ; tàilt, welcome ; làidir, strong; màileid, awallet ; 'nàird, 
up ; nàire, shamc ; pàisd, a child ; pàirc, a park ; pàirt, a part ; 
pàirtich, impart ; sàil, aheel ; sàile, salt water ; 'ràinig mì, / 
reached ; ràidh, a quarter of a year ; tàillear, a tailor ; tàir, 
contempt ; tràigh, shore ; tràìll, a slave. 

15. ai short, like à in fat and I in pin ; as, 

Ait, glad ; aimsir, season; aingeal, an angel ; ainnir, a 
virgin ; airc, distress; aisig, restore; aithnich, hnow ; bailc, a 
balTc ; baile, a town ; baist, baptize, caisg, restrain ; caith, 
spend ; caisteal. a castle ; dail, a meadow ; daimh, oxen ; faic, 
see; faigh, find ; fairc, a mallet ; gaineamh, sand ; gainne, 
scarcity ; gairm, call; laidh, lie ; maide, a stich ; mair, last ; 
naisg, 5«W ,• paisg, fold ; paidir, paternoster, the LoroVs Prayer; 
paidhir, a pair ; raigead, stiffness ; raineach, fern ; tais, soft ; 
taisg, lay up, treasure ; taibhse, a ghost, or spìrit. 

16. èa long, like è in thère and à in fàr,— the flrst sound of a before r is, in mpst 
cases, more distinctly heard than before the other consonants; in ea long, a 
before r nearly absorbs the sound of e ; as, 

Eàrr,* an end ; beàrr, shave; beàrn, a breach ; beàrnach, 
full of breaches ; ceàrd, a tinker; ceàrdach, a smithy ; ceàrr, 
wrong ; deàrbh, prove ; feàrr, better ; geàrr, cut ; teàrr, tarl 

17. The same sound of ea continued, but à not so clearly heard as before r: the 
two vowels are melted into one long sound ; as, 

Eanntag, a nettle ; eang, a gusset ; beann, amountain ; ceann, 
a head ; deagh, good ; dealbh, a picture ; dealg, a pin ; dean, 
do ; dearg, red ; feall, guile ; feann, flay ; geall, promise ; 
gleachd, wrestle ; gleann, a glen ; greann, a scowl ; leann, 
heer ; leam, with me ; meanbh, little ; meang, blemish ; meann, 
a Md ; neamh, heaven ; seall, looh ; steall, a spout. 

18. ea improper, or e like è in mèt or n ; the a is mute ; as, 

E«r (er) east ; eagal, fear; eaglais, a church ; eas, awater- 
fall; easbuig, a bishop ; beag, small; beath, life; cead, leave ; 
ceasnaich, examine ; deas, ready ; fead, a whistle ; fear, a 
man ; geas, a charm, sorcery ; leamh, importunate ; lean, fol- 
low ; lear, (the) sea ; leasan, a lesson ; mear, merry ; meat, 

* In the north-east, and in the district of Kintyre, the à of ea long before r is 
chiefly sounded ; as, teàrr. In the south-west and middle districts, the è, for the 
most part, carries the sound ; as, tèàrr or tèìtrr. 

A practice similar to that which is observed here, regarding the use of the vowels 
à and è, is visible in the Greek language, the broad « prevailed in the dialects of 
the Dorians and Aeolians, instead of which the lonians adopted >Jor6 ; as, Dorie 
and Aeolic <rJ,4t«, T^«<pai. The Ionic dialect pronounced these words tì/loi, 
rgèipeo.— g ee Dunbab's Greek Grammar. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 23 

timid ; am-measg, among ; nead, a nest ; neasgaid, a hoil ; 
peasair, pease ; preab, hich ; preas, abush; teasach, afever. 

19. ea short, like è in mèt and à in fat — both vowels are heard ; as, 

Ealt, acovey ; ea.vr&sa.id, garment for women ; ealaidh, science ; 
beachd, notion or idea ; cearc, ahen; ceart, right ; deachd, 
indite ; feachd, an army ; feannag, a crow ; feart, a virtue or 
quality ; geal, white ; leac, a flag ; leabhar, a booh ; neach, a 
person ; neart, strength ; reachd, a statute ; reamhar,/b£; seac, 
wither ; seachd, seven ; teach, a house ; teachd, coming. 

20. èi long, like à in fate and I in pln ; as, 

Eid, clothe ; èigh, cry ; èigin, diffìculty ; èiric, a ransom ; 
èisd, hear ; èisg, a satirist ; bèist, a monster ; cèin, far off ; 
cèir, wax ; dèidh, desire ; dèirc, alms ; fèile, a hilt ; fèill, a 
festival ; fèin, self ; gè\\\,yield; gèiread, sharpness ; gèinn, a 
wedge ; lèigh, a physician ; lèin, a shirt ; lèireadh, harassing ; 
mèin, a mine ; nèip, a turnip ; pèin, ofpain; sèid, blow. 

21. ei short, like è in mèt or »7, and I in pln ; as, 

Eich, horses ; eigh, ice ; eilean, an island ; eisir, an oyster ; 
beir, bear ; beithir, a bear ; ceil, conceal ; ceisd, a question ; 
ceithi r, four ; deil, an axletree ; deireadh, an end ; feith, wait ; 
geilt, terror ; leig, let ; leis, with him ; meidh, a balancQ ; peic, 
apech; peilistear, a quoit ; seich, a hide ; seillean, a bee; seirc, 
charity; te\ch,flee; teismeid, a will ; teisteas, testimony. 

22. eò long, like è in mèt or >j, and 6 in òak or còrn ; as, 

Eòl, hnowledge ; eòlas, art ; eòlach, shilful ; eòrna, barley ; 
Eòrpa, Europe ; beò, alive ; ceò, mist ; ceòl, music ; ceòl- 
raidh, (the) muses ; deò, a breath ; feòraich, ash ; geòc, glut- 
tony ; geòcair, a gormandiser ; leòb, a shred; \eòmsLch, foppish; 
leòmhan, a lion ; ìeòn, wound ; meòg, whey ; meòraìch, medi- 
tate ; neònach, strange ; peòdar, pewter ; reòth, freeze ; 
seòmar, a room ; teò, warm ; treòraich, guide. 

23. eo short, like è in mèt and ò in òn. There are not many words with eo short. 

Beothaich, hindle; deoch, a drinh ; deoghail, such ; feothas, 
improvement ; neo, else, not, un ; neoni, nothing ; seothag, 
ahawh; sreothart, a sneeze ; reothadh,/ro5«. 

24. io long, like ì in field and ò in nòt. The o in io long and short, sounds like ò in 
sòn, before c, g, d, l, n, r, t, not silent. See page 8. 

loc, pay ; ìochdar, bottom ; ìonnsuich, leam; ìorguil, strife; 
ìosal, low ; ìotadh, thirst ; cìoch, a pap ; crìoch, an end ; 
dìomhain idle ; dìon, protect ; dìosg, barren ; fìon, wine ; 
fìor, true; gìomh, a defect ; glìong, a clang ; gnìomh, an act ; 



24 ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 

lìomh, smooth ; lìon, fiax or net ; fill ; mìog, a smirk ; mìos, 
a month ; nìos, from below ; prìomh, prime ; sìol, seed ; sìoman, 
a rope ofstraw; sìon, astorm; sìorruidh, eternal ; sìos, down. 

25. 16 short, like I in pln and 6 in sòn : — the o is obscure ; as, 

Iochd, pity ; iodhal, an idol ; iolach, a shout ; iolar, an eagle ; 
diog, a voice ; fiodh, timber ; fionnar, cool ; friogh, sharp ; 
gliocas, wisdom ; pioc, pich ; riochd, likeness ; spiol, pluck ; 
spiorad, a spirit ; tiorc, save ; tioram, dry. 

26. iù long, like i in fìeld and u in tùhe. 
Iùl, a guide ; biùthas, fame ; ciùrr, hurt ; diùc, a duke ; 
diùlt, refuse ; fiùran, a branch; giùlain, carry ; liùgach, abject; 
miùran, a carrot ; niùc, a corner ; siùbhìach, swift ; siùrsach, 
a strumpet ; stiùradair, a leader ; triùcair, a rogue. 

27. iu short, like I in pln and ù in bùsh, or iu like ew in dew ; as, 
Iubhar, yew-iree ; fliuch, wet ; giuthas,^r liuthad, many ; 
riut, to thee ; siubhal, walking ; tiugainn, come, let us go ; tiugh, 
thick ; triubhas, trowsers ; piuthair, sister. 

28. òi long, like 6 in oak and ì in fìeld, or òi=òl in oil ; as, 

Oige, season of youth ; òigeach, an entire horse ; òigheil, 
virgin-like ; ò'mid, a fool ; òigear, a youth ; òirnn, on us ; 
bòilich, bombast ; còir, honest ; fòir, help ; fòirneart, violence; 
dòirt, spill ; mòid, greatness ; nòin, noon ; pòit, drinking ; ròist, 
roast ; tòir, pursuit, tòisich, begin. 

29. òi, Iong, like 6 in own, I like I in pln ; as, 
Bdid, a vow ; còig, five ; cldinn, to children ; cdill ? a wood ; 
fdid, apeat ; fòillseachadh, revealing ; ldinn, beauty ; sdillsich, 
enlighten ; tdinn, twist ; ròinn, divide. 

30. oi short, like 6 in òn and I in pln, or oi=oi in coin pronounced as one 
syllable ; as, 

Oide, a step-father ; oibrich, to work ; fois, ease ; oilean, 
education ; oiììt, terror ; oir, an edge ; coigreach, a strangcr ; 
coileach, a cock ; coimeas, like ; coin, dogs ; coinneal, a candle ; 
coit, a boat ; coisinn, gain ; doille, blindness ; goirtich, make 
swe ; loinid, a churn-staff; moit, pride ; poit, a pot ; soilleir, 
clear ; toiseach, beginning ; toit, steam ; toileach, willing. 

31. ùi long, like Q in tùbe and ì ìn f ield ; as s 

Uig, a nook ; bùidheag, a linnet ; ayellow flower ; bùir, roar 
as a deer ; bùirich, dig ; ciaibhrig, a cover ; cùil, a corner ; 
cùimhnich, remember; cùin, to coin; cùirt, a court; cùis, a case ; 
dùil, hope ; dùisg, awake ; mùig, a gloom ; mùinntear, people ; 



ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 25 

mùirn, joy ; ipmnsean, poison ; rùisg, peel ; rùidhtear, a waster ; 
sùil, an eye ; sùis-teadh, threshing ; tùisear, a censer. 

32. ui short, like ù in bùsh and I in p!n ; as, 
Uidhear, as much ; uidheam, dress ; uile, all ; uilear, enough ; 
uime, about him or it ; uireasbhuidh, want ; uisge-beatha, 
whishy ; buidheann, a company ; builg, bags ; builionn, a loaf; 
buitseach, a wizard ; cuid, some ; cuir, put ; duileasg, dilse ; 
duilghead, difficulty ; fuirich, stay ; guirmean, indigo ; guit, 
a corn-fan ; muileann, a mill ,- ruigsinn., reaching ; ruith, 
run ; sìuig, swallow ; suiridheach, a suitor ; tuilleadh, more. 

ON FINAL AND MIDDLE I AIB SMIDIBH DEIREANNACH 'uS 

SYLLABLES. MEADHONACH. 

33. The final syllahles al, ar, as, are pronounced Hl, Ur 8s. — 2. Air,* ear, eir, 
ir, mhor oxor, are always shortand partly obscure ; in raost cases, approaching the 
sound of u short. — 3. Final ail, eil, are also short, the vowel i is scarcely heard ; as, 

Eagal (ègùl), fear : co-thional, a congregation : caisteal, a 
castle : clàbar (clàbùr), mud : togar è, he will be lifted : 
ceartasj justice : tinneas, sickness : ma dhèarbhas è sin, if he 
will prove that. 2. Clachair, a mason : òsdair, ahost: sgoilear, 
a scholar : misgear, a drunkard : pàipeir, paper : suipeir, 
supper : ridir, aknight : gr ^àsmhor, gracious : glòrmhor, glori- 
ous. 3. Banail, modest : cosdail, costly : prìseil, precious : 
duineil, manly. 

34. Final ach or eacìi sounds like itch : final ch is like gh in the Scottish words 
haugh, laigh, loch; as, 

Balach, teach, Turcach, marcach, canach, sionnach, aolach, 
darach, cailleach, manach, lurach, lùireach, rìatach. Ach, rach^ 
a-mach^ dch, troich, moch, croch, eich, teich. 

35. Final a and e sound like & in ritn ; as, 
Fada, bala, còta, rola, dearbhta, cala, calla, reòthta, dalta, 
galla. Baile, caile, cèile, dìle, mìle, fàine, aire, lite, slàinte, 
ròiste, pòsda, nise, mise, ise, sinne, sibhse. 

36. Final adh sounds like Sgh. 2. dh is often silent after a single vowel in 
monosyllables and always after i and ai, in words of more than one syllable ; as, 

Bual-adh, crom-adh, marbh-adh, dùsg-adh, fàr-adh, pasg-adh, 
deòn-ach-adh, àrd-ach-adh, gàr-adh, sparr-adh. — 2. ràdh_, 
fìlidh, minidh, burraidh, dachaidh, pearsaidh. 

37. Ag, eag, ig, og, ug, final or middle sound like ac, ic, oc, uc ; as, 

Bànag, corag, cogadh, duilleag, ealag, filleag, gàgach, gigean, 
lonag, lìonag, mùig, mùgach, neadag, òrdag, pronnag, piseag, 
'rug, sùidheag, sliseag, togail, ùigean, ulag. 



* Air is sometimes pronounced and written oir, and ail is rendered oil; as 5 
cealgoir for cealgair, a hypocrite : làthoil for làthail, daily. 



26 ORTHOGRAPHY. LITREACHADH. 

38. Final or middle achd, or eachd, and uchd, sound like àXq, or ìtchq. 
2. chd sounds Xq or chq in the first syllable of a word ; as, 

Aontachd, unanimity ; bàrdachd, poetry ; Crìosdachd, 
Christendom ; dìllseachd, faithfulness ; drèuchd, an office ; 
èifeachd, effect ; f ìrinnteachd, righteousness ; Gaèltachd, High- 
lands ; irioslachd, humility ; lànachd, fulness ; mearachd, 
error ; naigheachd, news ; rìoghachd, a kingdom ; seòltachd, 
prudence. 

2. Achd, an act ; beachd, an idea ; bochd, poor ; deachd, 
dictate ; feachd, an army ; lochd, harm ; luchd, a load ; òchd, 
eight ; uchd, a hosom. 

39. The letter s pure, or followed by l, n, r, is always silent after t-, placed be- 
tween the noun and the article an (un) the as, 

An t-soluis (ùn to-lish), of the light : an t-salm (ùn talm), 
the psalm : an t-sùil, the eye : an t-slige, the shell: an t-slat 
(ùn tlat), the rod : an t-slugain, of the gullet : an t-snàthad 
(ùn tnàthad), the needle: an t-snuaidh, ofthe colour : an t-srad 
(ùn trad), the sparh: an t-sùist,- the flail. 

40. The combinations Ib, rb, Ig, Im, rm, rg, at the end of a syllable, are 
generally pronounced, after a Broad, with a short u between them ; thus, lùb, 
r&b, lùg, litm, rUg, rùm. 2. These again, after a small vowel, sound with a short 
ì between them ; as, 

Sgealb (sgealùb), split ; earb, a roe; càlg (càlùg), awn ; 
earbull, a tail ; bàlg (balùg), a bag ; mèalg, a milt ; calm, 
brave ; alm, alum ; fearg, anger ; dearg, red ; lòrg, a staff ; 
gòrm, blue ; àrm, arms ; òrm (orùm), on me. 

2. Gìlb (gìhb), a chisel ; do'n chìrb dheirg (don ^irib-yeing), 
totheredrag; hxàìg,bags; meirg, rust ; stoirm (stoirim), a 
storm. 

41. The combination rt, at the end of a syllable, is commonly pronounced with 
an s between the r and the t ; as, 

Mart (marst), a cow ; ceart, right ; gartan, a garter ; ort 
(orst) on thee ; port, a tune ; toirt, value. 

EXEBCISES ON SPELLING. | CLEACHDADH AIR CUBADH. 

Correct. — Adeg, amhil, aneam, aovar, àrich, bachleg, bagid, 
baleach, bàngid, baralich, bidag, bonneach, bre'nag, mòrer, ceal- 
geach, imair, madinn, obir, pìobir, dòcheas. 

Cìn, heads : mìl, to spoil: àò\, a method: feran, land: co- 
rak, a finger : pìl, return : ban-maistear, a mistress : comh- 
irla, advice : baila, a city : laun, a sword, 6$c. : slegh, a spear : 
keò, mist: leassich, mend ; caddal, sleep: ammor, a trough: 
bechq, an idea : togg, lift : brèggaddar, a liar. 



ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LITREACHADH. 27 



Ailag, aingal, àiruidh, baista, baistach, bilag, cailach, càin- 
adh, cruinnaich, sgeigar, peitag, cìbar, òigar, saìllar. 

Correct. — Bàr, a crop : bare, a barrow : cliah, a harrow : 
bechd, an opinion: cairst, a cart : gaiskach, a hero: paisk, 
fold: gaoig, a blemish : deicknar, ten persons: ga, a sting : 
geallagh, moon : tòn, a wave : cèm, a step : creak, a rocJc : kròc, 
an antler : foish, ease : lìoneadh, filling : lù^airt, a palace : 
tackq, choke: shean, old: shearug, wither : dealv, an image. 

Bìa, meat t aair, father : baoairachd, folly : baar, goods : 
caaich, fight : ceaarnach, a brave fellow : claair, a poltroon : 
cuog, cuckoo: dlùaich, approach : dràvag, dregs : faiinn, get- 
ting : frieala, attending : glei, keep : gnàich, to use: bàtta, a 
boat : ceark, a hen. 

Set the right accents on the vowels in the following words :—• 

Bòrd, a table : bàs, death : càs, a foot : òr, gold : bòg, soft : 
fèur, grass: cèum, a step : àm, time: 7pYÌs,price: bò, a cow : 
fònn, a tune : iò\m,awave: è, sè, he or him : ùr,fresh: làgh, 
a law : òl, drink ; sògh, pleasure. 

Bràdàn, a salmon: gùrràcag, a hay-cock: àrdanàch, proud: 
spòrsàil, jocose : ceòlmhòr, musical. 

Pronounce the following words of three and of four syllables, according to the 
preceding rules for pronunciation : — 



Ain-diadh-achd, wngodliness. 
Ain-iochd-mhor, cruel. 
Aoidh-eal- achd, hospitableness. 
Balg-air-ean, foxes, vulpes. 
Bead-aidh-eachd, petulance. 
Boir-ionn-ach, afemale. 
Caoch-laid-each, changeable. 
Coimh-lion-tachd, perfection. 
Crios-ad-air, a belt-maker. 
Dubh-ar-aidh, dowry. 
Eu-daing-neachd, infirmness. 
Fair-each-adh, feeling. 
Gràin-each-adh, abhorring. 
lom-ad-aidh, too much. 

Polysyllables. 
An-a-meas-ar-ra, intemperate. 
An-èif-eachd-ach, ineffectual. 
Ath-bheoth-aich-te, revived. 
Ath-chomh-air-leach-adh, re- 



Làimh-seach-adh, handling. 
Lugh-daich-te, diminished. 
Maigh-dean-as, virginity. 
Mùinn-tear-ach, a servant. 
Naomh-ach-adh, sanctifying. 
òn-rachd-an, a lonely person. 
Peac-ach-adh, sinning. 
Rìomh-ach-as, finery. 
Righ-neach-adh, making tough. 
Sgealb-air-eachd, splitting. 
Sgainn-eal-ach, calumnious. 
Truaill-idh-eachd, pollution. 
Taibh-sear-achd, the second 



Ioma-smidean. 
Buth-ainn-each-adh, beating. 
Coimh-fhreag-ar-rach, corre- 



Cùl-sleamh-nach-adh, back- 



Bràth-air-each-as, brotherhood. Do-lèir-sinn-each, invisible 



28 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Eun-ad-air-each, fowling. 
Fèin-fhios-rach-adh, self-ex- 

perience. 
Iom-a ghneith-each, of many 

Jcinds. 

lon-rogh-nuidh-eachd, eligi- 
bility. 

Mi-chùin-ich-idh, will forget. 



Maigh-dean -mha-ra, a mer~ 
maìd. 

Neo - chrìoch - naich - te, un- 

finished. 
Oil-ean-ach-adh, educating. 
Proc-ad-air-eachd, pleading. 
Riagh-ail-tich-te, regulated. 
Uchd-mhac-ach-adh, adopting. 



Part II. 
ETYMOLOGY. 
Etymology treats of the dif- 
ferent parts of speech into 
which words are divided, 
and their Classification, In- 
fiection, and Derivation. 

CLASSiriCATION 0F WORDS. 

The words of the Gaelic lan- 
guage may be divided into nine 
classes, or parts of speech. 

The names of the parts of 
speech are, the Article, the 
Noun, the Adjective, the Pro- 
noun, the Verb, the Adverb, 
the Preposition, the Conjunc- 
tion, and the Interjection. 



Earran II. 
FOCLACHADH. 
Tha Foclachadh a' teagasg 
mu gach seòrsa focail air- 
leth 's àn roinnear a'cliàinnt, 
àn Seòrsachadh, àn Tèarn- 
adh, 'us àm Frèumhachadh. 

SEÒRSACHADH FHOCALAN. 

Faodar focail na càinnte 
Gaèlig a 'roinn gu naodh seòr- 
saibh, no pàirtean càinnte. 

Is ìad ainmean nam pàir- 
tean càinnte, am Pùngar, 
an t-Ainmear, am Buadhar, 
Riochdar, an Gnìomhar, Co- 
ghnìomhar, an Roimhear, an 
Clisgear, agus an Naisgear. 



1 . The Article. — An Article 1 . Am Pungar. — Is è Pùng- 
is a word placed before a ar focal à chuirear roimh 
noun, to point it out and to ainmear chum à chomh- 
limit its meaning ; as, arrachadh a-mach ; mar, 

A'mhuir, the sea ; an rìgh, the king ; na morairean, the lords ; 
o' bhùird, of the table ; nan òrd, of the hammers. 

2. The Noun. — A Noun 2. An t-Ainmear. — Is è 
is the name of a person, Ainmear, ainm neàch, àite, 
place, or thing ; as ; John, no nì ; mar ? lain, Lunuinn, 
London, pen. peann. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 29 



The noun is the only part of speech which expresses a dis- 
tinct idea without the help of another word. 

Tha Ainmearan ceart no 



Nouns are either proper 
or common. 

A Proper noun is the name 
given to a person or place, to 
tlistinguish such from the rest 
of the species ; as, James, Lon- 
don, Nile. 

A Common noun denotes any 
one of a kind or species; as, 
man, citj/, river. 

A Collective noun is a word 
which signifies many; as, co- 
munn, company. 

3. The Adjective. — An 
Adjective is a word joined 
to a noun to express its 
quality; as, 

Balachan math, a good boy ; sònn trèun, a brave hero ; bean 
chòir, a civil woman ; daoine fnòra, great men. 

Thus when we use the noun " day," the term is indefinite, 
because we do not express what sort of a day it is ; but when 
we say cold day, liot day, dry day, wet day, fyc. we express four 
qualities of the noun day, by the adjectives, cold, hot, dry, wet. 



cumanta. 

Is è ainmear Ceart an t-ainm 
à bhuineas do neach no, àit gu 
'eadar-dheal-achadh o 'Ieithid 
eile ; mar, Sèumas, Lunuinn, 
Nìlus. 

Tha ainmear Cumanta a' 
nochdadh aoin air-bith de she- 
òrsa ; mar, duine, baile, abh- 
ainn. 

Is è ainmear Lòdach, focal 
à ta 'cìallachadh mòrain ; mar, 
sluagh, people. 

'à. Am Buadhar. — Is e 
buadhar focal à chuirear ri 
ainmear a 'nochdadh à bhu- 
aidh; mar, 



4. An 
Riochdar 



Riochdar. — Is è 
focal à chuirear 



an ait ammeir ; mar 



John reads 



4. The Pronoun. — A Pro- 
noun is a word used instead 
of a noun ; as, 

Leughaidh Iain à leabhar, ach cha mhìll sè è 
his book, but he abuses it not. 

5. The Verb. — A Verb is i 5. An Gnìomhar. — Is e 
a word which signifies to be, Gnìomhar focal à tha 'eial- 
to do, or to be done to. lachadh a bhi, a bhi 'dean- 

i amh no 'bhi deanta do. 

Tha mì, I am. Bhuail h, he struck. Bhuaileadh sìnn, we 
were struck. 

The verb always affirms or says something of its nominative 
which is either a noun or pronoun. The verb may justly be 
called the life or essence of the sentence, for without it nothing 
can be affirmed or said of any person or thing. Thus, in the 



30 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



sentence, " I read and John writes," the verbs are " read" 
and " writes." Without these two words / and John would 
express nothing in this sentence. 

6. TheAdverb. — An Adverb 



6. An Co-ghnìomhar. — Is è 
Co-ghnìonihar focal a* chuir- 
ear ri gnìomhar, a 'nochdadh 
nah-ùine, anàite nona dbigh 



is a word joined to a verb, 
to express the time, place, 
or manner in which a thing 
is done. 

Tha Peadar a' lèughadh a 
a-nìos, corae up, 

7. The Preposition. — A 
Preposition is a word placed 
before nouns to point out 
their relation to one an- 
other; as, 

Tha 'chuach air a' bhòrd, the cup is on the table. 
gu làimh, from hand to hand. 

8. The Interjectìon. — An 
Interjection is a word which 
expresses a sudden emotion 



air an deanar nì ; mar, 

, Peter is now reading. Thig 
Shèinn an òigh gu-binn, the maid sung sweetlì/. 

7. An Roimhear. — Is è 
Roimhear focal à chuirear 
roimh ainmearan, a 'nochd- 
adh an t-seasaimh anns àm 
beil ìad do chèile ; mar, 

O làimh 



of the mind ; as, Och I Alas ! 



9. The Conjunction. — A 
conjunction is a word used 
to connect words and sen- 
tences together ; as, 



8. An Clisgear. — Is è Clisg- 
ear focal à tha'nochdadh glua- 
said ghraid na h-inntìnn; 
mar, mo thruaigh, mise ! 
pity me l 

9. An Naisgear. — Is è 
Naisgear focal à ghabhar gu 
focail agus cìallairtean a 
'nasgadh ri chèile ; mar, 



Tha Peadar agus Iain sona do-bhrìgh gu'm beil iad math, 
Peter and John are happy because they are good. 



DECLENSION OF WORDS. 

Declension is that change 
whicli the beginning and 
termination of a word un- 
dergoes to express its va- 
rious relations. 



TEARNADH FHOCAL. 

Is è Tèarnadh an t-athar- 
rachadh sin à nìthear air 
toiseach 'us air deireadh 
focail, chum à chaochla 
seasamh a 'nochdadh. 



Declension is also called Inflection, and a declinable word is said 
to be declined or inflected, when it receives diflFerent changes. The 
changes made upon tbe beginning and end of words by inflection, 
are called Accidents. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 31 



Thus, the word " corag," a finger, is changed by inflection, 
cora,ige, comig, cAorag, coragara, coragaiAA, chox&ga. The inflec- 
tions or accidents of corag are therefore, ige, ig, ch, an, aibh, a. 

Tèarnar am Pùngar, an 
t-Ainmear, am Buadhar 
agus an Riochdar, le Air- 
eamh, Gin, Car, agus Staid. 

Aireamh. — Is è Aireamh 
aon, no na's mò na h-aon. 

Tha dà Aireamh ànn, 
eadhon, Aonar agus Iomadh. 

When we speak of one object it is said to be in the singular 
number ; when two or more than two objects are spoken of, the 
noun is said to be in the plural number. 

Tha Aonar a' cìallachadh 
aon chuspair, a-mhàin ; mar, 
cèann, a head. 

Thalomadh a'cìallachadh 
na's mò chuspairean, na 
h-aon ; mar, cìnn, heads ; 
cuachan, cups. 

Gin. — Theirear eadar- 
dhealachadh ghineil ri Gin. 

Cha n-'eil ach dà Ghin 
anns a' Ghaèlig, am Fear- 
anta agus am Boireanta. 

Tha an gin fearanta 'cìall- 
achadh nan gineal firionn; 
mar, each, a horse ; coileach, 
a cock. 

Thaan ginboireanta'cìall- 
achadh nan gineal boirionn ; 
mar, làir, a mare ; cearc, a 
hen. 

Tha gach nì neo-bheò, 
fearanta no boireanta anns 



The Article, Noun, Ad- 
jective, and Pronoun, are 
declined by Number, Gender, 
Case, and Form. 

Number. — Number is one 
or more than one. 

There are two numbers, 
the Singular and the Plural. 



The singular signifies only 
one object ; as, bòr d, a table. 

The Plural expresses more 
objects than one ; as, bùird, 
tables ; brògan, shoes. 

Gender. — Genderh called 
the distinction of sex. 

There are only two Gen- 
ders in theGaelic,the Mascu- 
line and Feminine* 

The masculine gender de- 
notes animals of the male 
sex ; as, duine, a man ; tarbh, 
a bull. 

The feminine gender de- 
notes animals of the female 
sex ; as, bean, a woman ; bo, 
a cow. 

Every inanimate object in 
Gaelic, is either masculine 



* The Gaelic language is not singular in the distribution of Gender, for the 
Hebrew, French, and Italian distribute Gender to inanimate objects precisely 
in the same manner as the Gaelic. Each of these languages makes every inaniniafe 
object either masculine or feminine. 



32 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



or feminine ; * as, bòrd, a 
table, is masculine ; clach, 
a stone, is femìnine. 

In English there is an- 
other gender called the Neu- 
ter, which signifies neither mas- 
culine nor feminine, and it is 
used to denote any object 
which has no animal life ; as, 
pen, stone. 

The English is said to be the only language which follows the 
order of nature in the distribution of Gender. 



a' Ghaelig ; mar so, tha tigh 
(a house), fearanta agus 
craohh (a tree), boireanta. 

Tha gin eile anns a' Bheurla 
ris an abrar an Neotaìr ; tha 
'm focal so 'cìallachadh nach 
'eil an cuspair fearanta no boi- 
reanta, gnàthaichear è a chìal- 
lachadh cuspair neo-bheò ; 
mar, peann, clach. 



There are three modes of dis- 
tinguishing sex. 

1. By different words ; as, 



Tha trì dòighean eadar-dheal- 
achaidh ghineil ànn. 

1. Le mùth focail ; mar, 



Firionn. 


Boirionn. 


Male. 


Female. 


Athair 


màthair 


Father 


mother 


Balachan 


caileag 


Boy 


girl 


Bioraiche 


loth 


Colt 


filly 


Boc 


earb 


Buck 


doe 


Bodach 


cailleach 


Gaffer 


gammer 


Bràthair 


piuthair 


Brother 


sister 


Coileach 


cearc 


Cock 


hen 


Cù 


galla 


Dog 


bitch 


Cullach, torc 


muc 


Boar 


sow 


Damh 


atharla, àgh 


Bullock 


heifer (hefer) 


Dràc 


tunnag 


Drake 


duck 


Duine 


bean 


Man 


woman 


Each 


làr, capull 


Horse 


mare 


Fleasgach, 


maighdean 


Bachelor 


maid, spinster 



* As there are but two Genders in the Gaelic language, a Highlander in his first 
attempts to enunciate his ideas in English, frequently applies the pronouns he and 
she to objects which are represented by the pronoun it in English ; this is indeed 
most natural, because in his own language every inanimate object is either mascu- 
line or feminine : as, bòrd, a table, is masculine, and clach, a stone, is feminine. 
From this circumstance, a Gaelic speaker, not acquainted with the pronominal re- 
presentative of the Neuter Gender in English, will very naturally say, in conversing 
about a table or a stone, " he is a fine table ,•" she is a large stone ;" instead of " it 
is a fine table ;" " it is a large stone." It is known that there are persons who do 
not scruple to ridicule the Gael for such natural expressions as these ; but such per- 
sons would do well to consider that the language of every nation has its own pecu- 
liarities, and any one who indulges in sneering at an expression based on the pecu- 
liar idiom of another language, because it does not in every point correspond with 
his own favourite tongue, is at once chargeable with ignorance of the philosophy, 
not only of the Gaelic language, but also of other languages. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 33 



Fi rionn. 


JDOl/ lO/l/l. 




§i 0111 /7 10 


Gànra 


o-padh 

gcaon 


Gander 




AlaC 


li 1 ii I icall 


Son 


LlaUì^Ll Lcl 


Alanach 


CdlllCaCXl- Cill U Uil 


ATnnt 


nun 


Oirlp 


m 111 TTl p 
111 UliliC 


OLtrJJlclLIlCl 


cfpnm nf n pt 

S LC U LllU LLICi 


Reithe 




Ram 




Sir 


bain-tighearn 


Sir 


madam 


Slaodair 


brèunag 


Sloven 


slut 


Stèudair 


rìbhinn 


Beau 


belie 


Tarbh 


bo 


Bull 


COW 



c 2. By prefixing the terrn 
lan (bean a female) to the 
mascuhne noun ; as, 
Albannach, a Scotckman. 
Arach, a coicfeeder. 
Ceàrd, a tinìcer. 
Cèile, a husband. 
Diùc, a duke. 
Iarla, a count. 
Maighstear, a master. 
Morair, a lord. 
Oglach, a male servant. 
Tìghearn, a lord. 
Sasunnach, an Englishnan. 



2. Le roimh-ìceadh an fho- 
cail ban ris an ainmear fhear- 
anta ; mar, 

Ban-albannach, a Scotch icoman. 
Ban-arach, a dairj/ maid. 
Bana-cheard, a tinìcer-icoman. 
Bana-chèile, a wife. 
Ban-diùc, a duchess. 
Ban-ìarla, a countess. 
Bana-mhaighstear, a mistress. 
Bana-mhorair, a lady. 
Ban-oglach. a female servant. 
Bain-tighearn, a lady. 
Ban-Sasunnach, an English- 



1 woman. 

Obs. — Nouns beginning with d, t, or s are generally plain 
after ban ; as, ban-diùc ; and in most cases ban becomes bana 
before the rest of the consonants which are commonly aspirated 
after it. Ban is ahvays used without the final a before a vowel 
and /, l, n, r; as, ban-iarla, a countess ; ban-fhàidh, a pro- 
phetess ; ban-Iaoch, a heroine ; ban-naomh, a feinale saint, a 
nun ; ban-figh, a queen. 



3. By postfixing the word 
Hrionn (male) for the mascu- 
line, and boirionn (female) 
for the feminine ; as, 
Cat firionn, a he-cat. 
Laogh firionn, a he-calf. 
Mèann firionn, a he-lid. 
S arrach firicnn, a hefoal. 

a he-lamb. 



3. Le ris-ìceadh an fhocail, 
firio-nn air-son an fhearantà 
agus an fhocail boirionn air-son 
a' bhoireantà ; mar, 
Cat boirionn, a she-cat. 
I.aogh boirionn, a she-calf. 
Mèann boirionn, a she-kid. 
Searrach boirionn, a she foal. 
I Uan boirionn, a she-lamh. 



Can fiiionn, 

Obs. 1. — When tbe adjective firionn is joined to the name 
of the female individual of a species, it agrees with the noun in 

c 



34 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



the feminine gender, even when an ohject of the male sex is 
spoken of ; as, gobhar/Airionn, a he-goat. 

Obs. 2. — When the adjective boirionn is joined to the name 
of the male individual of a species, it agrees with the noun in 
the masculine gender, when the object signified is of the female 
sex ; as, cat Joirionn, a she-cat. 

The masculine of some forest animals is distinguished by pre- 
fixing hoc, a buck, and coileach, a cock, to the name of the 
female ; the prefixed word governs the other in the genitive ; 
as hoc-gòibhre, a he-goat ; hoc-earba, a hart. Some of the 
feathered tribes are also distinguished by prefixing coileach and 
cearc (a hen), to the name of the place which they inhabit; as, 
coileach-coille, a woodcock ; cearc-fhraoich, a moorhen. 



rulesfordistingutshing the 
Gender of Nouns by their 
Terminations. 
3. Nouns whose last vowel 
is broad, and Diminutives in 
an, are generally masculine ;* 



RlAILTEAN gu comharrach- 
ADH GlN AINMEARAN LE 'n 
DUNADH. 

3. Tha ainmearan aig àm 
beil àm fuaimrag dheiridh 
leathan 'us Crìneanàn le an, 
gu-cumanta fearanta ; mar, 

Bdrd, a table ; ceò, mist ; cath, a hatile ; bròn, sorrow ; sùrd, 
alacrity ; clagan, a little hell ; balgan, a little bag. 

4. Derivatives in -ach, -adh, -as, -air, -ear, -eir, -iche, and 
• ire, for the most part, signifying agents or doers, are generally 
masculine ; as, mnrcach, a rider ; cònnadh,/we/ ,• ceartas, jus- 
tice ; pìobair, a piper ; sgoilear, a scholar ; pàipeir, papcr ; 
sgèulaiche, a tale-teller. 

6. Nouns whose last vowel is derivatives in -achd, and 
diminutives in ag, are mostly feminine ; as, muir, sea; rìogh- 
achd. a kingdom ; sguabag, a little sheaf. 

Except. — Those in -air, -oir, -ire, and -iche, are masculine ; 
as, cùbair, a cooper ; cleasaiche, ajuggler. 

6. Most nouns of one syilable ptonounced by ua, are fem- 
inine ; as, cuach, a cup ; cluas, an ear. 

Except. — Cuan,fuath, gual, tuar, truas, sluagh, tuath, Sjc. 



Gender op Nouns from. 
their signification. 

7. The names of the ele- 
ments, of the seasons of the 
year ; days of the week, metals, 



GlN AlNMEARAN BHO 'n 
CIALLACIIADH. 

7. Tha ainmean nan dùilean, 
tràthan na bliadhna, 'iàithean 
naseachduin; nam miotailtean, 



* From each of these rules there are several exceptions. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 35 



tries, and heavenly bodies, are 
for the most part feminine; 



colours, grain, vegetables, li- 1 nan dàthàn, nan gràn, nan 
quors, and timber, are, for the j lusàmnandeòchàn/snamfiodh, 
raost part, masculine ; as, | mar a*s trice fearanta ; mar, 

Teme.fi re ; earrach. spring ; di-luain. Monday ; ìarunn, iron ; 
corcur, scarlet ; cruineachd, wheat ; càl, kail ; leann, beer ; 
giubhas fir. 

8. Names of diseases, cour- 8. Tha ainmean ghalaràn, 
dhùchan, 'us chorpàn spèur- 
ail mar a's trice boireanta; 
mar, 

A' bhuidheach, the jaundice; a' ghriuthach, the measles. An 
Olaind, Holland ; a' ghrìan, the sun ; a' ghealach, the moon. 

Obs. — A few nouns are used as masculine in some districts, 
and as femininein others ; as, àirea??ih, cailinn. fàsach, leabhar, 
fwi, tobar, salm* fyc. In a grammaticdl sense, the nouns boi- 
rionnach, or bainionnach, a fe?nale ; capull. a mare ; mart, a 
cow, are masculine ; and sgalag, a farm-servant , is feminine. 

Car. — Tha coig caran ànn, 
an t-Aìnmcach, an Ginteach, 
an Doò^tach, an Cusparach, 
agus an Gairmeach. 

Tha ainraear no riochdar 
anns a' char ainmeach 'nuair 
is è ainm neàch no nì à ta 
'spreigeadh, no ainmichte. 

Tha ainmear, anns a' char 
ghinteach 'nuair a tha è 'nochd- 
adh sèilbh no còire ; mar, pèann 
Pheadair, Peter's pen. 

Tha ainmear no riochdar 
anns a' char chusparach 'nuair 
is è ainm an neàch no 'n nì à 
tha 'nà chuspair a' fulang fo 
ghnìomh, no fo ghluasad. 

TEARNADH a' PHUNGAIE. 

Cha n-'eil ach aon Ffmng- 
ar anns a' Grhaeìig, eadhon, 
an Chmtcach, An, the. Tèar- 
nar è mar so : — 



Case. — There are nv-e cases, 
the Nominative, Genitive, 
Datìve, Accusative, and Vo- 
cative. 

A noun or pronoun is in the 
no??ii?iative case when it is the 
name of the person or thing 
which acts, or is spoken of. 

A noun is in the genitive case 
when it expresses ownership or 
possession ; as, tigh Thòmais, 
Thomas's house. 

A noun or pronoun is in the 
Accusative case when it is the 
name of the person or thing 
which is the object suffering 
from an action or movement. 

INFLECTION OF THE ARTICLE. 

There is but one Ai^ticìe 
in the Graelic, namely, the 
Definite, An, tìic. It is thus 
declined : — 



* The Gender of all Gaelic Nouns denoting inanimate objects is established by 
custom, and uniformly marked in all the Gaelic Lexicons ; and, once fixed, i"t 
should certainly remain unchanged every-where. 



36 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACIIADH. 



Nom. 
Gen. 

Dat. < 

Acc.f 



mas. 
an,* am 
an, a' 
an, an 
'n, a' 
an, am 



An, the. 

Singular. 

fem. 

the. | an, a' the. 

of the. | na of the. 
i to the or j an, an ) to the or 
! on the. { 'n, a' ! on the. 

the. \ an, a' the. 



Plural. 

w?as. andfcm. 

Nom. na, *Zt£. 

Cr'ew. nam,nan, of the. 

n . „„ Wo^/ieor 
x*ar. na, < 

Acc. na, tf/ze. 



F0SITI0N OF THE ARTICLE. f SUIDHEACHADH A PHUNGAIR. 

1. Am is prefixed only to masculine nouns beginning with the 
labials, b, f m, p ; as, am bòrd, the tahle. 

2. An of the nominative case is prefixed to nouns masculine 
beginning with a vowel or any of the other eight consonants ; 
as, an t-adhar, the air : an càmp, the camp. 

3. An of the nominative case feminine, is prefìxed to nouns 
feminine beginning wiih a vowel, with/ or any of the other eight 
consonants, except c, and g ; as, an osag, the breeze: an fheòil, 
the flesh : an dealt, the dew ; an lòn<r, the ship. 

4>. A' of the nominative is prefìxed only to feminine nouns 
beginning with b, c, g, m, p; the feminine noun after a? is 
always aspirated ; as, a' bhròg, the shoe. 

5. An of the genitive is prtfixed to nouns masculine begin- 
ning with a voweì and with d, f, l, n, r, s, t. 

6. Nam of the genitive plural is prtfixed to all nouns begin- 
ning with the labials b,f, m, p, and nan is prefixed to all nouns 
beginning with a voweì, or any of the other eight consonants. 



DECLENSION. 
There are two Declensìons, 
the First and the Second. 

When a noun of the first or 
second declension, beginning 
with a vowel, s pure, or sl, sn, 
sr, is declined with the article, 
it has another inflection called 
the Articulated Form. 

A noun whose last vowel 
is Broad, is of the First de- 
elension ; as, bùrd, òran. 



TEARNADH. 

Tha dà Thèarnadh ànn, a' 
Cheud agus an Dàra. 

'Nuair a thèarnar ainmear de 
'n cheudno de'n dàra tèarnadh, 
a' tòiseachadh le fuaimraig, le 5 
glan, no, sl, sn, sr, leis a' phùn- 
gar, tha claonadh eil' aige ris àn 
abrar an Staid Phùngaichte. 

Tha ainmear d' am beil 
'fhuaimrag dheireannach 
Leathan, de 'n Cheud tèar- 
nadh ; mar, cuach. 



* The inflections of the article are am, na, nam, and nan ; the other forrns are 
onlv elisions of an. 
t Tlie Gaelk anicle, like that of otlier languages, has no rocative. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 37 



The declension of nouns and adjectives is chiefly efFected by 
inserting the letrer i, aspirating an initial consonant, and chang- 
ing a final diphthong in the ntminative singular. 



GENERAL RULES FOR FORMING 
THE CASES OF AN IN- 
DEFINITE NOUN OF THE 
FIRST DECLENSION. 

1. The nominative,dative, 
and accusative singular of 
noims masculine, are alike. 

2. The genitive and voca- 
tive singular of nouns mas- 
culine are alike, but the 
vocative is aspirated. 

3. The nominatìve and 
accusative plural are like 
the genitive singular. 

4. The genitive plural is 
generally formed by aspir- 
ating the nominative sin- 
gular. 

5. The dative plaral gen- 
eraìly ends in ibh ;* but in 
some 5io ims it is like the 
nominative. 

6. The vocative plural ge- 
nerally ends in a. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

A noun of the First de- 
clension forms its genitive 
singnìar by inserting the let- 
ter i betvveen the last vowel 
and the next consonant after 
it in the nominative ; as, 
bàrd, gen. bàerd. 



RIAILTEAN CUMANT' A CHU- 
MADH CHAR AINMEIR NEO- 
CHINNTICH DE 'n CHEUD 
TÈARNADH. 

1. Tha ainmeach, doir- 
tach agus cusparach aonar, 
àinmearn fearanta co-ionan. 

2. Tha ginteach agus 
gairmeach aonar àinmearan 
fearanta co-ionan, ach sèid- 
ichear an gairmeach. 

3. Tha an t-ainmeach 'us 
an cusparach iomadh, co- 
ionan ris a' ghinteach aonar. 

4. Nithear an ginteach 
iomadh mar a's trice, le 
seideachadh an ainmich 
aonair. 

5. Dìmaidh an doirtach 
iomadh mar a's trice le ibh ; 
ach 'an cuid a dh-ainmear- 
an, tha è ionan ris an ain- 
meach. 

6. Dhnaidh an gairmeach 
iomadh mar a's trice le a. 

a'cheud tèarnadh. 

c Ni ainmear de 'n Cheud 
tèarnadh à ghinteach aonar 
leis an litir.f, a chur a-stigh 
eadar an fhuaimraig dheir- 
eannaich agus anath chònn- 
raig 'na dèigh anns an ain- 
meach; mar, òran,^m. bram. 



* In the spoken language the dative plural commonly terniinates like the nomi- 
native. The tenuination ibh or aibh is principally contìned to the written language. 



38 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 



EXAMPLES. 



Bàrd, mas. a poet. 
Indefinite. 



Samplairean. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Acc* 



Singular. 

bàrd, apoet. 
bàird, ofapoet. 
bàrd, to apoet. 
bàrd, a poet. 



7 J. 

Voc. a bhàird, poet. 

DEFINITE NOUNS- 

A noun declined with the 
article prefixed to it, is Deji- 
nite, and a noun without the 
article is Indefinite. 

7. A definite noun mas- 
culine beginning with a con- 
sonant, except d, Z, n, r, s, £, 
aspirates the genitive and 
dative singular. It has no 
vocative. 

Obs. — A definite noun, masculine or feminine, beginning with 
a consonant, is always pluin in every case of the plural. 
Am bard, mas. the poet. 
Definite. 



PluraL 

Nom. bàird, poets. 
Gen. bhàrd, of poets. 
Dat. bàrdaibh, to poets. 
Acc. bàird, poets. 
Voc. a bhàrda, poets. 

AINMEABAN CINNTEACH. 

Tha ainmear tèarnte leis a' 
phùngar roimhe, Cinnteach 
agus ainmear gun am pùngar 
roimhe, Neo-chìnnteach. 

7. Sèidichidh ainmear cìnn- 
teach fearanta, 'toiseachadh, 
le connraig, ach c?, Z, n, r, 5, 
t, an ginteach agus an doirt- 
ach aonar. Cha n-'eil gair- 
meach aige. 



Singular. 

iY. am bàrd, the poet. 
G. a' bhàird, ofthe 
D.f a' bhàrd, to the poet. 
A. am bàrd, thepoet. 

Note. — In declining the 
bhàrd, or do'n bhàrd, to the 



Plural. 

N. na bàird, the poets. 
G. nam bàrd, ofthe poets. 
D. na bàrdaibh, to the poets. 
A. na bàird, the poets. 

singular, say always, ris a' 
poet, and in the dative plural do na 



bàrdaibh, to the poets. Say likewise for other nouns. 

After the same manner decline bàlach, mas. a lad : bonnach, 



* The Gaelic noun, like the Eng-lish noun, has no accusative form dift'erent from 
the nominative, but whsn the noun becomes the object of the action of a verb, it 
cannot be said that it is governed in tlie nominative. The noun in both languages 
has an accusative or objective state ; tlierefore it has been found necessary to intro- 
duce the term employed to descrilie it in that state. 

t This case requires always a preposition before it ; as, air a' bhàrd, or do'n 
bhàrd, on the poet, or to the poet. The dative case expresses no terminational 
variety of' meaning in either number without a preposition expressed before it. Any 
otlier shnple preposition may be used ; as, aig, as, de,fo, mu, o, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 39 



m. a cake or bannoch : cat, m. a cat : bodach, m. an old 
man : coimhearsnach, m. a neighbour : firionnach, m. a man : 
manach, m, a monk : canach, m. mountain-down : fleasgach, 
m. a young man : ciomach, m. a captive : Caimbeulach, a 
Campbell ; giomach, m. a lobster, astàcus. 

Oglach, mas. a servant. 

Indefinite. 



Singular. 

N. òglach, a servant. 
G. òglaich, ofa servant. 
D. òglach, to a servant. 
A. òglach, a servant. 
F.* òglaich, servant. 

ARTICULATED FORM. 

8. A deHnite noun masculine 
beginning with a vowel requires 
t-, with a hyphen before it in 
the nominative singular, and 
h-, with a hyphen in the nomi- 
native, dative, and accusative 
plural; thus, 



Plural. 

N. òglaich, servants. 
G. òglach, ofservants. 
D. òglachaibh, toservants. 
A. òglaich, servants. 
V* òglacha, servant. 

STAID PHUNGAICHTE. 

8. Gabhaidh ainmear cìnn- 
teach a' tòiseachadh le fuaim- 
raig, t-, agus tàthan, roimbe 
anns an ainmeach aonar,agus h-, 
le tàthan, roimhe anns an ain- 
meach, 'san doirtach agus anns 
a' chusparach iomadh ; mar-so, 



An t-oglach, mas., the servant. 
Definite. 



Singular. 

N. an t-òglach, tlie servant. 
G. an òglaich, of the servant. 
D. an òglach, to the servant. 
A. an t-òglach, the servant. 



Plural. 

N. na h-òglaich, iheservants, 
G. nan òglach, of the servants. 
D. na h-òglaich, to the, fyc. 
A. na h-òglaich, the servants. 



Thus decline, abstol, an apostle ; ablach, a carrion ; Abrach, 
a Lochaber-man ; àrach, a cowfeeder ; eòlas, science ; Inn- 
seanach, an Indian ; òr, gold ; Àlbannach, a Scotchman. 



9. A defmite noun mas- 
culine beginning with 5 pure, 
or sZ, sii, sr, requires t- with a 



9. Gabhaidhainmearcìnn- 
teach a' tòiscachadh les glan, 
no sl 7 sn. sr, t- agus tàthan, 



* A noun beginning with a vowel or / pure, wants a, the sign of the vocative in 
both numbers; as 'òglaich, servant 't'hirionnaich, man ; not a òglaich and 
a fhirionnaich. Inpointed and affectingaddress, is used before the vocative ; as, 
" O Dhàniel òglaicli an Dè bheò." And sometimes both O and A are used ; as„ 
" O a'rìgh, king. " — B ible. 



40 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



hyphen before it in tìie geni- 
tive and dative 
tlms, 



singular 



roirahe amis a' ghinteach 
'us anns an doirtach aonar ; 
mar-so, 



Solus, mas. light. 
Indefinite. 



Singular. 

N. solus, 
O. soluis, 
D. solus. 
V. a sholuis. 



Plural. 

soluis. 
sholus. 
solusaibh. 
a sholusa. 



An solus, mas. the light. 
Definite. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. an solus, na soluis. 
G. ant-soluis,* nan solus. 
( ris an t-solus, f na solusaibh. 
' \ do 'n t-solus, \ na solusaibh. 



Thus, decline sàbh, a saw ; saor, a carpenter ; saoghal, a 
world; siùcar, sitgar ; sluagh, people ; snothach, sap ; sràbh, 
a straw. 



OF FEMININE NOUNS. 
RULES FOR THE CASES. 

10. The nominative, ac- 
cusative, and vocative sin- 
gular of nouns feminine are 
alike ; but the vocative is 
aspirated. 

11. The genitive and da- 
tive singular of nouns fem- 
inine are alike ; but the 
genitive ends in e. 

12. The nominativc pluraì 
is formed from the nomina- 
tive singular by adding àn 
and sometimes a. 



AINMEARAN BOIREANTA. 
RlAILTEAN NAN CAR. 

10. Tha ainmeach, cus- 
parach agus gairmeach 
aonar ainmearan boireanta 
co-ionan ; ach seidichear an 
gairmeach. 

11. Tha ginteach agus 
doirtach aonar àinmearan 
boireanta co-ionan ; acli 
dùnaidh an ginteach le e. 

12. Nithear an t-ainmeach 
iomacìh o 'n ainmeach aonar 
le an, agus air uairìbh le a, 
a chur ris. 



Obs. — The other cases of the plural are formed like those of 
lìiasculine nouns. See rules 4, 5, and 6. 

13. Sèidichidh ainmear 



13. A definite noun fem- 
inine aspirates the nomina- 
tive, dative, and accusative 



sìngular; thus, 



cìnnteach boireanta, an t- 
ainmeach, an doirtach agus 
an cusparach aonar; mar-so, 



* For the sound of s after t-, see Exercises on Orthography, page 26,— No. 39. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 41 



N. 

G. 



BròGj fem. a slioe. 
Indefinite. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. bròg, brògan. 
G. bròige, bhròg. 
D. bròig, brògaibh. 
A. bròg, brògari. 
V. a bhròg, abhròga. 

Thus. decline biodag, a dirk 
cluas, an ear ; cròg, a paw ; 



A'bhpvÒg, fem. the shoe. 



Definite 

Singular. 

a' bbròg, 
na bròige, 



D { a' bhroig, 



{ 



Plural. 

na brògan. 
nam bròg. 
na bnWaibh. 



na brògaibh. 
na bròjran. 



mulachag, a cheese ; marag, a pudding. 



bhròig 
a bhròg, 

bruach, a banJc ; cuach, a cup; 
fèusag, a beard ; glas, a loch ; 



14. A definite noun fem- 
inine beginning with a 
vowel requires 



14. Gabhaidhainmearcìnn- 
teach boireanta, 'tòiseach- 
h- before it 1 adh le fuaimraig h- roimhe, 



in the genitive singular, and | anns a' ghinteach aonar 'san 
in the nominative, dative, ! ainmeach, 's an doirtach 'us, 
and accusative plural ; thus, ! anns a' chusparach iomadh ; 

| mar-so, 

An adag, fem. the stook. 
Definite. 

Singular. Plural. 

an adag, na h-adagan. 
nah-adaige,nan adag. 



D f ris an adaig, f na h-àdagaibh. 
' \ do 'n adaig, \ 



ADAG,fem. a stook. 
Indefintte. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. adag, adagan. 
G. adaige, àdag. 
D. adaig, adagaibh." 
V. adag, adaga. 

Thus, decline osag, a breeze _ 
ikumb ; ospa^, a sob ; ùpag, a tlirust. 

15. A definite noun feminine beginning with s pure, or 
with sl, sn, sr, requires t- before it in the nominative^ 
dative, and accusative singular ; thus, 

Slat, fem. a yard. An t-slat , fem. the yard. 

Definite. 

Singular. Plural. 



iomlag, 



na h-adagaibh. 
a navel ; òrdag, a 



Indefinite. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. slat, slatan. 
G. slaite, shlat, -an. 
D. slait, slataibh. 
V. a shlat, a shlata, -an. 



an t-slat. 



na 



* The accusative bein^ 
every example. 



na slatan. 
nan slat. 
f na slataibh. 
na slataibh. 

always like the nominative, it is needless to repeat it in 



slaite 3 
D ( ris an t-slait, 
' ^do 'n t-slait, 



42 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Thus, decline salrn, a psalm ; sìolag, a 
twig ; snàthad, a needle ; srad, a sparh ; sròn 



slatag, a 



16. A definite noun mas- 
culine or feminine beginning 
with d, I, n, r, s, t, aspirates 

Dùn, mas. a heap. 
Indefinite. 

Plural. 

dùnàn, dùin. 
dhùn. 
dùnaibh. 
a dhùna,-àn. 



16. Cha sèidich ainmear 
fearanta no boireanta, 'tòis- 
eachadh le d, l, n, r, s, t, car 
sam-bith; mar, 

An dùn, mas. the heap. 

Dbfinite. 

Plural. 

na dunàn. 
nan dùn. 



Singular. 

N. an dùn. 
6r. an dùin 
fris an dùn, 
' 1 do 'n dùn, 



fna dùnaibh. 
\na dùnaibh. 

m. a poem ; dòran, an otter ; durrag, /. a worm ; 
tàsg, m. a ghost ; tùr, m. tower ; tunnag, /. 



Singular. 

N. dùn, 
G. dùin, 
D. dùn, 
V. a dhùin 
So, dàn, 
sonas, m.fortune; 
a duck. 

Obs. — When a masculine noun of the fìrst declension is made plural 
by -an, it is marked with the acute ; thus, dùnàn to distinguish it 
from masculine diminutives which all end in -an, for dùnan may 
signify either heaps or a little heap. All masculine as well as fem- 
inine nouns might be pluralized by adding -an, but to avoid the 
ambiguity which may arise from using the syllable -an, both as a 
plural and as a diminutive termination, the n is frequently cut off ; 
as, dùna for duiìdn* For the same reason the plural of many mas- 
culine nouns is lengthened by inserting ch before an ; as, tobar, a well, 
pl. tobraicAean. This form of the plural is not marked with the 
acute. 



NOUNS BEGINNING WITH 
L, N, R. 

Lùs, mas. an herb. 



N. 
G. 
D. 
V. a 



Singular. 

lùs, 
luis, 
lus, 
luis, 



Sing. 



Plural. 

lùsàn, lijsa. 
'lus, 'lusa. 
lusaibh, -an. 
i 'lusa, -àn. 

LÀMH,/m. a hand. 

Nom. and Acc. Gen. Dat. 

làmh, làimhe, làimh, 



AlNMEARAN a' TOISEACH ADH LE 
L, N, R. 

An lùs, mas. the herb. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. an lùs, na lùsàn. 
O. 

ris an lus, Jnalusaibh. 
do 'n lus, ^ na lusaibh. 



Plur. làmhan, 'làmh, 



làmhan, 



Voc. 

a 'làmh. 
a 'làmha. 



* The particle -an forming a diminutive is genei-ally pronounced with greater 
emphasis; as, ^iìnan', a small keap. In forming tlie plural its souud is less 
stroDg and partly obscure, siinilar to short u ; as, dùnàn, heaps. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 43 

An lamh, the hand. 

Noni. Gen. Dat. 

Sing. an lànih, na làiinhe, ris an làimh. 

Plur. na lànihan, nan làmh, ris na làmhan. 
So, lòd. m. a burden ; ladar, m. a ladle ; lùdag, f. a Httle 
finger ; nasg, m. a tie ; nàdur, m. nature ; nionag, f. a girl ; 
ròu, m. a seal ; rarìan, m. a rat\; ròcus, m. or f a rook ; rion- 
nag. /. a star. 

Special rules for the Riailtean araib do'n 

plural. iomadh. 

Nominative plural mascuUne, in -an or -a, &c. 

17. Masculine nouns in -al, -an, -ar, -ear, -n, -r, -s, -t. &c. 
add -a?i, or -a, for the plural; as, buideal, a cask ; pl. buideal- 
àn ; putan, a button ; pl. putanàn,* or putanG j,- seilear, a 
cellar ; pl. seilearàn ; galar, a disease ; pl. galaràn j turus, a 
journey ; pl. turusàn, &c. 

1. — Some masculines of one syllable in -n, make the plural 
by inserting t between an and the genitive singular ; as, cuan, 
an ocean, gen. cuain ; pl. cuainfean ; lòn, a marsh, gen. lòin ; 
pl. lòin^ean. A few nouns in -èann and -id insert the t between 
an and the nominative singular; as, glèann, a glen ; pl. gleann- 
tan, or glìnn ; rèul, a star ; pl. rèultfan. 

Obs. — The use of this t is to strengthen the sound, and to distinguish the plural 
from the diminutive in -an. 

2. — Xouns in -al and -ar which make their plural in ichean 
syncopate or transpose -al and -ar ; as, ceangal, a bo/id or tie ; 
pl. ceangfeichean ; leabhar, a book, liber ; pl. leabhraichean. 
So, eathar, locar, meadar, tobar, seòmar, usgar, a jewel. 

3. — The termination -adh is changed into -annan or -aidh- 
ean ; as^ peacadh, sin.pl. peacannan, peacaidhean. 

Gcnitive, Dative, and Vocative Plural. 

4. — When the plural is lengthened^, the genitive terminates 
either like the nominative sing. or nominative plur., according 
to the pleasure of the speaker or writer. 

5. — \Yhen the plural ends in -annan, or -ichean, the dative in 
-ièAisformedfrom thenominative sing. ornominative plur. ; as, 

Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Dat. Plur. 

Anam, soul, anamannan, anamaibh,t or anamannaibh. 



* This form of the plural of maseulines, is principally confined to nouns whose 
nominative and genitive sing. sound alike or nearly alike. For the formation of 
the plural like the genitive sing. v No. 3) scarcely differs in sound from the nomi- 
native sing. in such words as putan, galar, &c", on that account, the syllable -an 
or -a is added, to give the plural a more distinctive sound. 

t The dative in ibh is sometimes used for tlie nominative plur. ; as anamaibh for 



44 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Nom. Sing. Nom. Plur. Dat. Plur. 

Peacadh, sin, peacmnan, peacaibh, or peacannaibh. 

Tobar, a loell, tohraichean, tobraibh, or tobraichihh. 

Bàta, a boat. bàtaichean, bàtaibh, or bàtaichibh. 

Obs. — Trisyllables and tlie terminations -bh, -dh, -Ibh, -mh, &c. seldom make 
the dative in -ibh. 

6- — The vocative plural is always aspirated ; it is of the same 
size as the nominative, and commonly ends in -a; and in -e, if 
the preceding vowel is small. 

■ach and -each into -ichean. 

18. Feminine nouns of more than one syllable in -ach or -each 
add an to the genitive sing. ; as, gruagach, a maid, gen. -aiche ; 
pl. gruagaichean : maigheach, a liare, gen. -iche ; pl. maighich- 
ean. — Also, amhach, buarach, boglach, ceàrdach, closach, 
dùdach, làrach, lùireach, &c. 

Except. — Cailleach, an oldwoman, vetida; pl cailleachan. 

1. — The following masculine nouns in -ach, &c. form the 
plural by adding -ean to the genitive sing. , as, teaghlach, m. 
and f. a family gen. -aich ; pl. teaghlaichean. — So, aodach, 
bealach, boslach, cladach, cùibhreach, dòrlach, fireach, mionach, 
mullach, monadh, òtrach, soitheach, tulach. 

Special bules for the Riailtean araid air-son 

GENITIVE SINGULAR. a' GHINTICH AONAIR. 

MONOSYLLABLES. AONSMIDEAN. 

19. Some nouns having a or o in the nominative singular, 
change a or o into ui in the genitive, and are then declined 
through the other cases according to the general rules ; thus, 

Balg, mas. a bag. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. 

Sing. Balg, builg, balg, balg, a bhuilg. 
Plur. Buiig, bhalg, balgaibh, builg, a bhalga. 

LdNG,/m. a ship. 
Sing. Ldng, luinge, lùing, ldng, a 'ldng, 
Plur. Longan, 'ldng, longaibh, longan, a 'longa, or -an. 
The follovving are nearly all the nouns which form their 

genitive according to this rule. These are for the most part 

masculine : — 

A into ui. — As, àllt, gen. ùillt, a streamlet ; alt, ajoint ; balt, 



anamannan. Might we not as well say animabus for animae? Since the termina- 
tion -ibh is generally adopted for the dative plural, it oughtto be strictly adhered 
to in that sense by every person, and never confounded with the nominative. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 45 



a welt ; bàll, a member ; càlg, awn ; bàlg or bolg, a bag, uterus ; 
car, a turn ; càrn, a cairn ; clag, a bell ; falt, hair ; gad, 
a K7«£/*c (^ew. gaid or goid). 

O into ui. — As, boc, gen. buic, abuck ; bolg, abag ; bdnn, a 
base ; bòrd. a fao/e ,• broc, a badger ; brod, a ^'a 7 cdm, the 
cavity of tke human body ; corc, /. a knife ; còrd, a string 
corp, a body ; cnoc, a knoll ; crodh, cattle ; dòrn, afist ; drdnn, 
f. a rump ; fdnn, land ; tune ; gob, a bird"s bitl ; gòrn, an 
ember ; lòrg, /. a foot-print ; mòll, chajf ; olc, m7,- òrd, a 
hammer ; -ploc, a clod ; prònn, bran ; prop, a support ; pdll, 
apool; port, aferry ; a tune ; sìoc, a pit ; soc, a ploughshare ; 
sònn, « ^ow? wiara / sop, a wisp ; stoc, a stock ; tòll, a Ao/e ,• 
tolm, a round hillock ; tòm, a round hill ; tònn, a wave ; torc, 
a òoar ; sgònn, m. a dolt ; spòng, m. sponge. 

Except. — The following nouns in -all, -ann, -as, and -ach, 
change a into oi, in the genitive ; as. bas,*/. (gen. boi&e.) pahn of 
the hand ; bànn, /, boinne or bainne. a hinge or band ; cas,/ 
coise, afoot; clach, cloiche, a stone ; clànn./ cloinne, children ; 
crànn, m. (gen. cruinn, croinn, or 'crainn) m. a plough ; a tree ; 
dàli, m. dòill, a blind one ; fras, / froise, a shower ; Gàli, m. 
GdilJ, Lowlander. 

20. Sevt ral nouns having a diphthong in the nominative sing. 
change it in the gemtive ; and are then deciined through the 
other cases according to the geneval rules ; thus, 

Nom. Sing. Gen. Sing. Nom, Plur. 

ea is changed into ei, as, each, m a horse, eich, eich. 

èa is changed into i. as, mèann, m. a kid, mìnn, mìnn. 

eò is changed into iài. as, seòl, m. a sail, siùil, siùiL 

èul is changed into eòil, as, nèul, m. a cloud, neoil, neòil. 

èur, §c. is changed into eòir, as, de'ur, m. a tear, deòir, deòir. 

ia is changed into èi, as, grìan,/ a sun, grèine, grìanan. 

ìo is changed into ì, as, cìoch,/ a pap, cìche, cìochan. 

EXA.MPLES. SAMPLAIREAN. 

Fìadh, mas. a deer. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Voc. 

1A j Sing. Fìadh, fèidh, fìadh, f'ìadh, 'fheidh. 
( Plur. Fèidh, fhìadh, fèidh, fèidh, 'fhìadha. 

Crìoch, fem. an end. 
j Sing. Crìoch, crìche, crìch, crìoch, a chrìoch. 
I0 ' ^Plur. Crìochan, chrìcch, crìochaibh, crìochan, a ehrìocha. 

* Bas, cas, clach, clànn, are often spelt bos, cos, clolch, cloinn, inthe noniii:ative. 



46 ETYMOLOGT. 



FOCLACHADH. 



The rest of the nouns which make their genitive by this rule, 
are nearly enumerated as follows : — 

ea into ei. — As, bèann,/. gen. beinne, a hill ; ceàrd, m. gen. 
ceird or ceàird, a tinker ; cèalg, /. deceit ; dèalg, m. a pin ; 
deàrg, m. a red deer ; each, m. a horse ; eag,/. notch ; fèall, 
m. deceit ; feàrg, /. anger ; leàrg, /. a rain-goose ; nèart, m. 
strength ; nèamh, m. heaven ; sèalg, /. hunting ; sealbh, m. 
possession. 

ea into ì — As, breac, /. gen. brice, smalLpox ; breac, m. -ic, 
a trout ; ceap, m. a last ; cearc, /. a hen ; cearb, / a rag ; 
cèann, m. ahead ; fear, m. a man ; gèall, m. a pledge; glèann, 
m. a glen ; leac,/ aflag ; mèall, m. a lump ; nead, /. a nest ; 
pèann, m. a pen ; preas, m. a bush ; stèall,/ gen. stìll or stèill, 
a spout. 

eò into iùi. — As, ceòl, m. music ; seòl, m. a sail ; seòl, a 
method, has seòil. 

eu. eu into eòi. — As, bèul, m. (gen. beòil or bèil), a mouth ; 
dèur, m. a tear ; eun, m. a òird; fèur, m. grass ; mèur,/. a 
finger ; lèus, m. a torch ; neul, m. a cloud ; sgèul (gen. sgeòil 
or sgèil), a tale ; sèud, m. ajewel, a hero. 

ia into ei. — As, biadh, m. meat ; (gen. bèidh or bidh), cìall, 
m. sense ; clìabh, m. a hamper ; clìath,/. a harrow ; Dia, God, 
(gen. Dhia, Dhè, Dè) ; ìall, / a thong ; ìasg, m.fish ; lìadh,/ 
ladle ; pìan, m. & /. pain ; rìasg, m. a fen; strong grass ; 
sgìan (gen. sgeine or sgine), a knife ; sgìath, /. a shield or 
wing ; slìabh, m. a mountain ; srìan,/ a hridle. 

ìo into ì. — As, lìon, m. gen. lìn, fiax ; sìol, m. gen. sìl, seed; 
sìon,/. gen. sìne, a blast or storm ; airgiod, m. -id, money. 

Except. 1. — Thefoìlowing nouns nnd some others in -ea, -ia, 
and -io form their genitive according to No. 27 : — 

Eang, /. a leg ; earb, /. a roe ; eàrr, m. a tail, cauda ; fleadh, 
m. a feast; gèadh, m. £<; f (gen. geòidh), agoose; seadh, m. 
sense ; sèap, m. a long tail ; sèarg, m. a lean person ; seàrr, m. 
a sickle ; sgeamh, m: disgust ; sgt an ih, /. polypody ; sgread, m. 
ascreech ; sgealp,/ a slap ; sleagh,/. aspear, hasta ; spleadh, 
m. romance. — ia. cìabh, f. a lock of hair ; giall, m. ajaw; mìal, 
/ a louse ; trìath, m. (seldom trèith in the gen.), a lord, chief 
princeps. — io. bìog, m. (gen. bìoga), a chirp ; bior. m. a stake 
orwire; Criosd, Christ ; crios, m. a belt ; driog, m. a drop ; 
fìon, m. wine ; fios, m. notice ; . lios, m. a garden ; sgrìob,/ a 
scratch ; sgrìos, m. destruction ; gnìomh, m. an act ; lìomh, m. 
a gloss ; snìomh, m. spinning. 

Except. 2. — The following nouns in -ea, -ia, -eu, are inde- 
clinable in the singular : — Cead, eas, fead, greann, meas, ìar, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 47 



mìadh, mìann, rìan, trìall, trìan : bèud, bèus, cèud, èud, leud, 
meud, &c. 

21. The terminations, -èug, -èum, -èur,*m nouns and ad- 
jectives, change èu into èi ; and make the plural of mascuHnes 
in -annan ; as, cèum, m. a step, gen. cèim, (plural, cèum- 
annan). Also, bèum. brèun, brèug, fèum, gèug, gèum, gèur, 
lèum, pèur, tèum, trèun: but some of these make their gen. 
also according to No. 27. 

DISSYLLABLES- DA-SMID. 
-ea of dissyllables into ei. 

22. The diphthong ea in the last syllable of a noun, is gener- 
ally changed into ei, in the genitive ; thus, 

Cailèag, fem. a girl. 

Nom. & Acc. Gen. Dat. Voc. 

Sing. Caileag, caiieige, caileig, a chaileag. 

Plur. Caileagan, chaileag, caileagaibh, a chaileagan. 

Saighdear, mas. a soldier. 
Sing. Saighdear, saighdeir, saighdear, a shaighdeir. 
Plur. Saighdearàn, shaighdear, saighdearaibh, a shaighdeara. 
Also, bùidheag, /. a linnet ; duilleag, /. a leaf ; cuigeal, /. 
adistaff; sùidheag,/. a rasp ; piseag,/.-«. kitten. — Tàillear, 
m. a tailor ; ministear, m. a minister ; buideal, m. a casJc ; 
cuilean, m. a whelp ; isean, m. a gosling ; eilean, m. an island. 

Obs. — The termination -ear, is sotnetimes written, -ir and -eir 
in the nominative, thus, both the nominative and genitive of a 
few nouns end in -ir, -eir. The proper termination of the no- 
minative is -ear. 

-each into -ich, and -eann, -ionn into -inn. 

23. The terminations -each* and -eann, or -ionn, change ea 
and io into i, in the genitive ; as, eileach, m. a mill-dam, gen. 



eilich ; muileann or muilionn 
lean_, or muìllean. 

Coileach 
Nom. & Acc. Gen. 
S. coileach, coilich,* 
jP. coilich, choileach, 

C raidhneach, feffi. a skeleton 

S. craidhneach, craidhniche, craidhnich 



i miLL, gen., muilinn ; pl. muìn- 
mas. a cock. 



Dat. 

coileach, 
coilich, 



Voc. 

a choilich. 
a choileacha. 

sceletos. 

a chraidhneach. 



P.craidhnichean, chraidhneach, craidhnichean, achraidhneacha.t 



* In several nouns and adjectives of two syllables, the termination -each h 
changed into eich, in the genitive ; but c is not always added to the gen. feminine. 
t The examples under No. 18, and all similar ones, are declined like craidhneach. 



48 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



So, baisteach, m. a haptist ; cinneaeh, m. anation ; clèireacb, 
m. a clerk ; gaisgeach, m. ahero; inneach, m. woof ; òirleach, 
/. (pl. òirh'ch), rni inch ; seileach, m. willow. Buileann or 
builionn, m. a loaf ; craicionn, m. a skin ; boicionn, m. buck- 
skin ; cuilionn, m. hollj/ ; crithionn, an aspen-tree. 

Obs. — Most nouns ot' two or more syllables in -eann or -ionn, 
change these terminations into nean in the nominative plural ; 
as, craicionn, pl. craÀcncan. 

24. Nouns in -chd, are indeclinable,* or end alike in the sin- 
gular, and form their plural in -an ; thus, 

Beannachd, mas. a blessing. 
Nom. & Acc. Gen. Dat. Voc. 

S. beannachd, beannàcbd, beannachd, a bheannachd. 
P. beannachdàn,bheannachd, beannachdaibh, a bheannachda. 
Also, achd,t m. an act ; beachd, m. an idea ; feachd, m. 
an army ; f ìreantacbd,/. uprightness ; naomhachd,/. holiness ; 
oighreachd./. an estate ; rìogbachd,/ a kingdom, S^c. 

Obs.— Most polysyllables in -chd, are feminine, and for the most part want the 
plural. 

25. Nouns of one syllable ending in a vowel, are indeclinable 
in the singular, and to prevent a hiatus, insert th before an of 
the plural ; thus, 

C~sb,fem. a nut. 
Nom. Gen, Dat. Acc. Voc. 

Sing. cnòj cnò, cnò cnò, a chnò. 
Phir. cnotlian, chnò, cnothan, cnothan, a chnothan. 
Also, ceò, m. mist ; Ciò, m. cloth ; cliù, m. praise ; gnè, /. a 
kind ; te',/. a she one ; là, m. a day, pl., làithean or lathachan ; 
nì, m. a thing, pl., nithean, nithe or nitheannan. 

26. Nouns of more than one syllable ending in a vowel, are 
indeclinable in the singular, and make their plural in -ichean ; 
and some of them in -achan ; thus, 

BàrA, mas. a boat. 
Nom. & Acc. Gen. Dat. Voc. 

Sing. bàta, bàtà, bàta, a bhàta. 

Plur. bàtaicliean,^ bhàtaichean, bàtaichean, a bhàtaichean. 
Also, aonta, m. a lease ; balla. m. a loall ; bara, m. a barrow ; 
bòlla, m. a boll ; cala, m. a harbour ; canna, m. a can ; clobha, 

* Indeclinable nouns ànd adjectiyes are aspirated in every case like those that 
are declinable. 

f Tlie genitive of rnonosyllables in ctid, is sometimes formed according to No. 
27 ; as, achd, qen. achda. 

X The reason for lengthening the plural iu this way is explained on page 42.— 
Ons. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 49 



m. a pair of tongs ; còta, m. a coat ; dalta, m. a step-son ; 
galla, /. a bitch ; ìarna, / a hank ; tuba, /. a tub ; urra, a child. 

Obs. — The nominative plural of a few nouns ending ina vowel, is made by add- 
ìag -idh,- as, pearsa. a person, pl. pearsaidh. " Tha trì pearsaidh 's an Dìadh- 
aehd." — Gaelic Catechism. 

27. In nouns of one syllable. the terminations -ch, -dh, -gh, 
-Ip, -It, -th, -rr, and -m, -n, -r, -s, -t, &c, after a broad vowel, 
add a short a for the genitive, and make the plural in -an or 
-annan ; as, 

Nom, Sing. Gen. Sing. Nom. Plural. 

Lach,/ a wild duck. lacha ; lachàn or la.chanìian. 

Modh, m. mode, modha; modhàn. or modhannan.* 

Lr!gh, m. a law, lagha ; laghàn. or laghannan. 

Calp, m. a brawn } calpa ; calpàn, or calpannan. 

Dealt, / dew, dealta ; 

Ath,/ a kiln, àtha ; àthàn, or àthannan. 

Tòrr.vw.a heap ahilh torra ; torràn. 

Am, m. time, season, ama ; amàn, amannan. 

Fìon, m. wine, fìona ; 

Bior, m. a spit, biora ; bioràn. 

Siios, m. a side, sliosa ; sliosàn. 

Gàt, m. an iron bar, gàta ; gàtàn, gàtaichean. 

IRREGULAR NOUNS. | AINMEARAN NEO-RIAILTEACH. 

Aingeal, m. gen. aingil, an angel, angelus ; pl. -il, -gle, -glean ; 
àra, m. àrà a kidney ; pl. àirnean. Èesn\,f.gen. mnà, mnàtha, 
at wife; pl. mnathan, mnài ; bd,/ gen. bd cr boin, a cow ; pl. 
bà, bàtìia; brù, /. brònn, (dat. broinn), a belly ; pl. bròn- 
naichean, brònnan, broinnean, brùthan ; buidheann or buidh- 

ionn./. buidhne, r. a company ; pl. buidhnean, r. . Caora, 

f.gen. caorach, a sheep ; pl. caoraich ; gen.pl. chaorach ; cain- 
neal or c>inneal. / càinnle, cdinnle, a candle ; pl. càinnlean, 
cdinnlean ; ci ìadh or crè,/ crèadha, clay ; cù ; m. ccin, ot dog ; 

pl. coin, cona . Dìa. gen. Dè, Dhè, Dhia, God pl. dèe, dia- 

than .; deoch, / dibhe, flt drinJc ; pl. deochan ; dorus, m. -uis, a 

door, dorsàn . Fear, m.fir a man; pl. flr, or feara ; fiodhul', 

gen. fidhill and fidhioll, gen. fìdhle, afiddle ; pl. fiodhlan, f ìdh- 

lean . Gobhar./ g^ibhre, a goat ; pl. gobhair ; gnìomh, m. 

-a. an act ; pl. -an, -annan, -arra, -arran; gobhal, m. -ail, 

gdibhìe. aforkor prop ; et perineunv; goibhlean . Leanabh. 

m. leinibh ; pl. leanaban, -annan ; lìon, m. lìn, fiax ; pl. lìn, 

* For the reason stated under No. 16, nouns of the ahove ternvnations mak Q 
their plural more frequently in -annan. Some nouns in -ath make their plural in 
-aithean ; as. fiath, a prìnce, pL flaithean. And in certain books, we findit oceu- 
sionally in -ithin : as flaithin. 

D 



50 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



lìontan;luch,/. -a, -ainn, amouse; -an, -aidh . Mac, m.mìc, 

a sonj pl. mic; màla,/. -aich, aneyebrow ; -aidh,^. -ichean . 

Rathad, m. a road, -aid, rothaid ; pl. ràidean, ròidean ; sabhal, m. 

a barn, -ail ; pl, sàibhleàn . Saighead,/ sàighde, an arrow, 

sagitta ; pl. sàighdean ; sgìan, /. -ine, a Jcnife; dat. sgìan, 
sgithin ; pl. sgionan, sgeanan ; sluagh, m. -uaigh, r. people ; 

pl. slòigh . Tarrang, tarrann,/ tairge, -airgne, r. tàirne, a 

nail ; pl. tairgnean, tàirnean ; talamh, m. talmhuinn, land ; 

talmhuinnean . Uileann, uilionn, /. ùinnle, ùilne, an elbow ; 

pl. ùinnlean, ùinlean; ubhal, m. -ail, an apple, ùbhlan. 

The irregular nouns Fear and JBean are declined thus : — 



Fear, mas. a man. 



Singular. 
N. fear, 
G. fìr, 
D. fear, 

V. 'f hir, 

Bean, fc 

Singular. 

N. bean, 
G. mnà, 
D. mnaoi, 
V. a bhean, 



Piural. 

fìr, feara. 
fhear. 
fearaibh. 
'fheara. 

n. a wife. 

Plural. 

mnathan. 
bhan. 

mnathaibh. 
a mhnathan. 



Am fear 

Singular. 
am fear, 
an f hir, 



mas. 



the man. 
Plural. 
na flr, na feara 
nam fear. 
na fearaibh. 
na fearaibh. 

A' bhean, fem. the wife. 

Singular. Plural. 

a' bhean, na mnathan 
na mnà, nam ban. 
mhnaoi 



jy | do 'n f hear, f 
( ris an f hear, \ 



fdo'n 
(ris a' 



-! na mnathaibh 
mhnaoi, ( 



Proper names. 



AlNMEAN CEARTA. 

28. The name of a man aspirates the genitive sin<_ ; ular, and 
the name of a woman is generally plain in the genitive ; as, 
Tomas, m. Giorsal, /. 

Frangach, m. 

Singular. 

Fràn^ach, 
Fràngaich, 
f doFhràngach 
t ri Fràngach, 
a Fhràngaich, 



Thomas. 

Singular. 

T. Tdmas 
r. Thoniais 



Grace. 

Singular. 
Giorsal 
Giorsaile 



do Thòmas f Ghiorsail 
Tòmas \ Giorsail 
Thòmais a Ghiorsal 



a Frenchman. 

Plural. 

Fràngaich. 
Fhràngach. 
do Khràngaich. 

Fràngaich. 
a Fhràna;acha. 



All Patronymics and Gentiles in -ach, are declined like Fran- 
gach or bàrd of the First Declension ; thus, 

Patrony3iics. — Dònullach, a Macdonald, nom. pl Dònul- 
laich, Macdonalds ; an Dònullach, the Macdonald ; na Dònul 
laich, the Macdonalds. Also, Caraaronach, a Cameron ; Fris. 
ealach, a Fraser ; Stiùbhardach, a Stewart ; Bana-Chanu. 
ronach, a woman ofthe name of Cameron, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 51 



Gentiles. — Albannach, a Scotsmarì; Albannaich, Scotsmen ; 
an t-Albannach, the Scotsman ; na h-Albannaich, tìie Scotsmen. 
Also, Sasunnach, an Engli.shman ; Eadailteach, an Italian ; 
Gr èugach, a Greek ; Galàtianach, a Galatian ; Athallach, an 
Atholl-man ; Glaiseach, a Strathglass-man ; Sgiathanach, an 
Isle of Skye man ; Ileach, an Islay-man, &c. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 

Nouns whose last vowel is 
ij are of the Second Declen- 
sion. 

GENERAL RULES. 

29. Nouns, masculine and 
feminine, form their genitive 
singular by adding e to the 
nominative singular ; as ; 
tìr, gen. tìre. 

30. The nominative, da- 
tive, accusative, and voca- 
tive singular end alike ; but 
the vocative is aspirated. 

31. The nominative plural 
ends in -an, and sometimes 
in e. 



AN DARA TEARNADH. 

Tha ainmearàn aig am beiì 
ij 'n à fuaimraig dheirean- 
naich, de 'n Dàra Tèarnadh. 

RIAILTEAN CUMANTA. 

29. 'Nì ainmearan fea- 
ranta 'us boireanta, an gin- 
teach aonar, le cur e, ris an 
ainmeach aonar ; mar, cuilc, 
gin. cuilc<?. 

30. Dùnaidh an t-ainm- 
each, an doirtach, an cus- 
parach 's an gairmeach, co- 
ionan ; ach sèidichear an 
gairmeach. 

31. Dimaidh an t-ainm- 
each iomadh le -an, 'us air 
uairibh le e. 



The other cases, definite and indefinite ; plain, aspirated, and 
articulated forms of nouns of the second declension, are regu- 
lated like similar cases of nouns of the First Declension, begin* 
ning with the same letters. 



EXAMPLES. 





MÌR, 


mas. a piece. 






Singular. 


Plural. 




K 


mìr, 


mìrean. 


N 


G. 


mìre, 


mhìrean 


G. 


I). 


mìr, 


mìribh. 


D. 


A. 


mìr, 


mìrean. 


V. 


a mhìr, 


a mhìre, -an. 


A. 



SAMPLAIREAN. 

Am mìr, mas. the piece. 



Singular. 
am mìr, 
a' mhir, 

/do 'n mhìr ; 

{ ris a' mhìr, 
am mìr, 



Plural. 

na mìrean. 

nam mìrean 
J namìribh. 
( na mìribh. 

na mìrean. 



Also, bìd, m. a chirp ; braigh, m. or f. anhostage ; cleith, m. 
a stake ; fòid, m. a clod ; tigh or taigh, m. a house ; breid, m. 
a patch. 



52 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Porr,/m. a pot. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. poit, poitean. 

G. poite, phoir. 

D. poit, poitibh. 

Fiaphoit, aphoite-an. 



A' fuoit, fem. the pot. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. a' phoit, na poitean. 
G. na poite, nam poit. 
rv f do 'n phoit, f . , 
^lris a phoit! ( na P° ltlbb - 

Also, cìr, acomb; ceist, a question ; clais, a furrow ; cuilc, 
a reed ; mionaid, a minute ; cùis, an affair ; truaiìl, asheath ; 
leis, a tltigh. 

AHTICUIiATED FORM. 

An t-Àit, m. the place. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. an t-àit,*nah-àitean. N. 
G. an àite, nan àitean. G. 

na h-àitihh. 
na h-àitibh. 
A. an t_àit, na h-àitean. A. 

Also, ainm, m. a name ; ìm, m. butter ; oir, m. a border ; àirc, 
/. an ark ; àin,/. heat ; ainnir, f. a virgin ; èisg, m, and/. a 
satirist ; uair, f an hour ; ìc, /. an affix. 



/ do 'n àit, f 
( ris an àit, ( 



STAID PHUNGAICHTE. 

An òigh,/. the virgin. 
Singular. Plural. 

an cigh, nah-òighean. 
na h-òighe nan oighean. 
jy f do 'n òigh, Jf na h-òighean. 
* \risan òigh, (_nah- ighean. 
an òigh, na h-òijj-hean. 



N. 
G. 



An snaim, m. the knot. 

Singular. Plural. 

an snaim, nasnaimean.f 
an t-suaime, nan snaim. 
t-snaim, jna snaimibh. 
t-snaim, \na snaimibh. 

Also, so : r, m. a sack ; smùid, 
sùim,/. a sum ; sèirm,/. a noise ; subhailc,/ virtue. 

Except. — The following feminine nouns form the genitive 
irregularlv, as : — 



D.V* \- 
(_an t- 



An t-suist,/ the flail. 

Singular. Plural. 

N. an t sùist, na sùistean. 
G. na sùiste, nan sùistean. 

f 'n t-sùist, J na sùistibh. 
? iist, (na sùistibh. 



(an t-su 
m. smoke ; sràid, /. 



street 



Nom. 

Braich, malt, 
Bnain, reaping, 
Cruaidh, steel, 
Cuid, a part, 
Dàil, deìay, 
Dàil, a meadoio, 
Drùim, a back, 



Genitive. 

bracha 

buana 

cruadhach 

codach, r. 

dàlach 

dàlach 

droma 



Nom. 

Feò\\,flesh, 
Fuil, blood, 
Làir, a mare, 
Mil, honey, 
Muir, sea, 
Sàil, a heel, 
Sùil, an eye, 



Genitive. 

feòla 

fola or fala 
làrach, r. 
meala 
mara 
sàtach, r. 
sùL, or sùlach 



* A few nouns such as àit, fàilt, slàint, uisg, are often written with the e of 
thc genitive in the nominative ; as,' àite, fàilte, slàinte, uisge, &c. 

\ Sometiines snaimeannan. Some masculine nouns of this rìeclension lengthou 
the plural, by adding -annan, for the reason stated under No. Pagc 42. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 53 



An t-iasgair, m. the fisherman. 



Singular. PluraL 

N. an t-iasgair, na h-i 

O. an iasgair, nan iasgairean 
f'n iasgair, f na h4asgairihh 
( an ìasgair, ( & 



SPECIAL RULES. RIAILTEAN ARAID. 

32. Masculine nouns of two or more syllables ending 
in -*>, are generally indeclinable in the singular ; as, 

Iasgair, m. a fìsher- 
man. 

Singular. PluraL 

N. iasgair, iasgairean 
G. iasgair, ìasgairean 
D. iasgair, iasgairibh 
V. iasgair, iasgairean 

Also, eunadair, a game-keeper ; seòladdr, a sailor ; pìobair, 
a piper ; morair, a lord ; uaireadair, a ciock or watch ; tosgair, 
a herald ; fàladair, a scythe ; smàiadair, a pair of snujfers. 

Obs. — Masculine nouns of two or more syiJables in -air, &c. 
make their genitive singular occasionaliy by adding e; as, nom. 
iasgair, gen. iasgair^. Nouns of this class have the genitive in e 
given after them in Gaeiic Lexicons ; but as the addition of e 
lengthens the word another syllabìe, its sound is seldom uttered, 
especially when it would rendtr the pronunciation tedious, diffì- 
cult, or harsh. For the same reason, several nouns of one or 
tvvo syllables, principalìy those ending in two consonants, are 
sometimes pronounced and written in the genitive of both de- 
clensions without the fìnal e. Tl)is deviation from 
rule is chiefly confined to poetry. 

33. Feminine nouns in -azr, change -air into -rach in 
the genitive, and form the plural by changing -rach* into 
-raichean* and into -richean after a small ; thus, 

Natliair, fem. a serpent. 

Nom. and Acc. Gen. Dat. Voe. 

S. nathair, nathrach, nathair, a 'nathair. 

P. nathraichean, 'nathraichean, nathraichibh, a 'nathraichean. 

The most of the rest of this class are, — acair, gen. acrach, an 
anchor; cathair, a chair ; faidhir, a fair; iuchair, a key ; la- 
sair, a flame ; luachair, n. rushes ; machair, a field ; pe.i^air, n. 
pease; paidhir, a pair ; pònair, n.beans; saothair, r. labour ; 
socair, n. ease ; srathair, a pack-saddle ; staidhir, a stair ; ur- 
chair, a shot. 

* Sorae nouns in -al and -ar of the fìrst declension, occasionally fall under this 
rule in forming the genitive ; as, cuigeal, /. a disti{tf', gen. cuigei) or cuigealach. 
Tobar, m. a welt, yea. tobair or tobrach. These clearly follow this rule in forming 
the plural ; as, cui^ealaichean, tobraicliean, leabhraicheau, &c. See page 43.— No. 2. 



54 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Except. — The foliowing nouns make their genitive in -ach, 
and the plural in -ean ; as, aimsir, f. -each, r. * season, pl. 
aimsirean ; dìnneir, f. -each, r. dinner, pl. -ean ; suipeir, /. 
-each, a supper, pl. -ean ; inneir, f -earach n. manure ; anail, 
f. analach , breath, pl. anailean ; barail,/ -ach, r. an opinion,pl. 
-ean ; litir, f. a letter, gen. litreach, pl. litrichean ; muinntir, 
rather muinntear, people, has sometimes muinntre.ieh, r. in the 
gen. ; seidhir, /. a chair ; gen. seidhre, seidhreach, pl. sèidh- 
richean. 

34. Some nouns of two syllables in -air, &c. form tlie 
genitive by eliding the letter i; as, 

Athair, a father, gen. athar ; plur. athraichean. t 

Màthair, a mother, — màthar ; — màthraichean. 

Bràthair, a hrother, — bràthar ; — bràithrean. 

Nàmhaid, an enemj/, — nàmhad ; — naimhdean. 

Seanair, a grandfather, — seanar ; — seanairean. 
Seanamhair. agrandmother, — seanamhar; — seanamhairean. 
Piuthar, a sister, gen. peathar, dat. piuthair; pl peathraichean. 

PLURAL. | IOMADH. 

85. Some nouns ending in -l, -ìe, -n, or -ne, insert t before 
-ean of the plural ; as, cùil, f. a corner ; pl. cùil^ean ; fèill, f. 
a festival ; pl. fèilltean ; baile, m. a town ; pl. bailtt an ; càin, 
f. a tribute ; pl. càintean. Also, àithn, a command ; fèile, m. 
ahilt ; coille, f a wood ; mìle, m. a mile ; aiìiousand; sàil, r. 
f aheel ; smuain, m.athought ; teine, m. a fire ; tuil,/. a flood ; 
tàin,/. cattle, pecus ; dèile, f a deal, has dèileachan ; sàil,/ a 
beam, trabs, has sàilthean, r. ; linne, f a pool ; pl linneachan, 
linnichean, lìnntichean, or lìnntean. Vide page 43. — No. 1. 

1. A few nouns ending in e, not preceded by l or n. make 
their plural in -achan, or -annan ; as, fairge,^ a sea ; pl. fair- 
geachan, or fairgeannan ; uisg, or uisge, m. water ; pl. uisg- 
eachan. Also, cridhe, m. a heart ; òidhche, or òi'che, /. night ; 
seich, or seiche,/. a Mde ; reithe or reath, m. a ram, aries. 

PROPER NAMES. j AINMEAN CEARTA. 

Ceit, fem. Gatharine. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Voc. 

Sing. Ceit, Ceite,^ do Cheit, ri Ceit, a Cheit. 



* The nouns followed by n have no plural, and those followed by r sometimes 
fovm their genitive regularly, i. e. according to No 29. 
t Spelt also aithrichean and aithriche, or athraiche. 

$ The genitive of the names of female8 is aspirated in some places ; as, Cheite, 

tQIuorsaile* 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 55 



An Fhrkmg, fem. France. 

Nom. Gen. Dat. Voc. 

An Fhràing, na Fràinge, do'n Fhràing, risan Fhràing, aFhràing. 



IRREGULAR NOUNS. 
Nom. Sing. 

Abhainn,/. a rwer, 



AINMEARAN NEO-RIAILTEACH. 



Gen. Sing. 

aibhne ; 



Nom. Plur. 

aibhnichean, aibh- 

nean. 
ai^hnean. 
bàinsean. 
càirdean. 



Aghainn. /. a pan, aighne ; 

Banais /. a wedding. bàinse ; 

Càraid. m. afriend. 
Clìarnhuinn, m.ason-in-law, cleamhna, r.; cleimhnean, cleamh- 

nan, r. 

Cnàimh, m. a bone, os, cnàmha ; cnàmhan, r. 
Còir,/ right, còrach, r. ; còraichean. 

Còlluinn / abody, colla,colna, r.; colluinnean. 

Dìsinn, / a die (f'or gaming), dìsne ; dìsnean, dìsean. 

Duine, m. a man, duine ; daoine. 

Dùthaich, dùich, /. countrj/, dùthcha, dù- dùchannan, dùchan. 

cha ; 
èilde ; 
fiacla ; 
gàmhna ; 
guaiile 
leapa, leap- 

ach ; 
maidne, r. ; 
Oisne, r. ; 
Oibre ; 
RLh; 
sàmhna ; 

Slìasaid, /. a thiqh, { s ]^j s< ^ e ' 

,J * ( sleisne ; 

Obs. — Tì (chì), m. aperson; tì (chì), /. a 
tea ; and rè, m and / moon, luna, are indeclinable. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

Having treated of the inflections of nouns,it will be observed that the 
various t'ormations of the genitive singular constitute the principal 
part of this business. That this case is generally formed by inserting 
the letter i in nouns of the fìrst declension, and by adding e to nouns of 
the second ; that there are numerous exceptions to the general rules ; 
that the increase of the obiique cases depeuds chiefly on the structure 
of the genitive singular ; and that, after forming the genitive, a close 
uniformity of flectional terminations pervades all the other cases of 
nouns uf both declensions. 



Eilid, / a hind. 
Fiacail,/ a tooth 
Gamhuinn, m. a stirh, 
Gualainn,/ the shoulder, 
Leabaidh, ìeaba,/ a bed, 

Madainn,/ morning, 
Oisinn /. an angle. corner, 
Obair, /. worìc, opus, 
Rìgh, m. a king, 
Samhuinn,/ Hallow-tide, 



èildean. 
fìaclan. 
gàmhna, -an. 
guailnean, guaillean. 
leapaichean, leapan- 

nan. 
maidnean. 
oisnean, r. 
obraictnan, oibrean. 
rìghrean, rìghre. 
sàmhna. 
slèisdean, slèis- 

nean, 



; ti, m. 



56 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



The classification of nouns utider two declensions is evidently the 
most judicious aud convenient arrangement that can be adopted. The 
same arrangement is followed in Dr Stewart's Grammar and in all 
other Gaelic grammars, with the exception of one, in which an attempt 
is made to classify the nouns under five declensions, assimilating the 
Gaelic in this respect to the Latin, but such a distrìbution is vain, and 
unadapted to the infiection of the Gaelic noun. 

If different forms of the genitive singular constitutes a sufficieni 
reason for a separate declension, a survey of the various formations of 
that classified in this work, will enable the reader to discover 

at once, that no fewer than fifteen declensions should be adopted ; a 
division which wouid confer no advantage whatever ; because the 
noun does not undergo a corresponding change of termination in the 
other cases of both numbers. 

A separate declension is employed in the Latin and Greek only for 
a class of nouns which, in the process of inflection, assume a different 
termination in the majority of the cases of both numbers. A separate 
declension is not imposed on either of these languages for the sake of 
a crement or an anomaJy in the genitive singular ; as, ullus: iter, 
jecur, pietas, gen. ullius : itineris, jecinoris, pietatis. And in the Greek, 
varieties in the gemtive of the same declension arenumerous \ as, 
honey ; ogvts, a bird ; vccvs, a ship ; cco-rv, a town ; opo:, a hill ■• gen. 
f/ÀXiTos ; ogyìèo$ ; vctos, vnos, or vs&i; ; ciimo; ; o^tos. All these geuitive 
forms are classified under one declension, and the same practice has 
been generally followed in regard to the Gaelic Noun. 

Several nouns have two forms of the genitive singular and nomina- 
tive plural ; as, leabaidh, a hed, gen. leapa, leapach ; pl. leapannan, 
leapaichean. To dissipate any prejudice that may be opposed to the 
character of the language, on account of incidental anomalies which 
are common to ali languages, it may be observed that the Greek 
abounds in various forms of the same case of a noun as well as in the 
tenses and persons of verbs, e. g. the word y'ow, the knee, has four 
genitives and two forms of the nominative plural ;as, gen. y'owos, yov- 

vos, yovccTOS, yovvocros', pl. yovctra, yovvccTcc. 

The lengthened plural ; as, leapaichean, bàtaichean, cathraichean, 
&c. emits a very melodious sound. This crement instead of being an 
encumbrance, adds greatly to the beauty and power of the language. 



INFLECTION OF ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives are of the first 
or second declension. 



TEARNADH BHUADHARAN. 

ThaBuadharan de 'n chkid 
no de 'n dara teàrnadh. 



Obs. — The oblique cases of the singular number of adjectives, 
are formed from the nominative singular, according to the rules 
given for the formation of nouns having the same vowel, diph- 
thong, or termination in the nominative. 



GENERAL RULES. 

36. The norainative sin- 
gular, masculinCj and femi- 



RIAILTEAN CUMANTA. 

36. Dùnaidh an t-ain- 
meach aonar feareanta 'us 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 57 



boirsanta co-ionan, acli sèid- 



ichear am boireanta. 

37. Sèidichear do-ghnà 
an ginteach aonar fearanta. 

38. Tha 'n gintcach aon- 
ar boireantado-ghnà, ldm'us 
gu-cumanta 'dunadh le e. 



nine end àìike, but the femi- 
nine is aspirated. 

37. The genitive singular 
masculine is always aspir- 
ated. 

38. The genitive singular 
feminineis always plain, and 
generally ends in e. 

39. The genitive and vocative singular masculine of 
adjectives are aspirated, with or without the article. 

The nominative, dative, accusative, and vocative, fem- 
inine are aspirated, with or without the article. 

Obs. — The dative of an adjective joinerì with a deflr.ite noun 
is aspirated in both szenders ; as, air a bhòrd mhr, mas. on the 
hig table: anns a' chiste mhòìr fem. in the bìg chest- When the 
noun wants the article, the dative masculine is plain ; as, air 
bòrd niòr, on a big table. 

40. The plural of adjectives of one syllable ends in a, 
and in e when the preccding vowel is small. The plural 
of adjectives of two or more syllables generally ends like 
the nominative singular. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 

EXAMPLES. SAMPLAIKEAN. 

Bàn, fair. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. Mas. & Fem. 

N. bàn, bhàn, N. bàna. 

G. bhàin, bàine, G. bàna. 

I). bàn, bhàin, D. bàna. 

A. bàn, bhàn, A. bàna. 

V. bhàin, bhàn, V. bàna. 

A^so, dubh, black ; cas, steep ; caol, small ; gàrg, wild ; 
gàrbh, rough ; ^ràd, quick ; rnaol, blunt ; sa.or,free; mòr, 
great ; marbh, dead , lag, weak. 

Like bàn, are decliued all adjectives of two or more syllables 
in -ach, -ar, -or. These seldom make the genitive f'eminine in 
•e, or the plural in -a ; as, cìallach, mòdhar, gràsmhor. 

41. Adjectives of one syllable having -ea, -ia, -èu, or -io, 
change these diphthongs like nouns in the genitive. — 
SeeNo. 20. 



58 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



ea changed into eì. 

Dearg, red. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 



N. dearg, dhearg, dearga. 

G. dheirg, deirge, dearga. 

D. dearg, dheirg, dearga. 

V. dheirg, dhearg, dearga. 



ea changed into i. 

Beag, little. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 

N. beag, bheag, beaga. 

G. bhig, bige, beaga. 

D. beag, bhig, beaga. 

V. bhig, bheag, beaga. 

Like dearg, decline — deas, right ; ceart, just ; leasg or leieg, 
searbh, bitter ; tearc, rare. — Like òeag, decline — geal, 
white ; breac, speckled. Crìon, little, gen. mas. chrìn, fem. 
crìne. 

a into oi, and o into ui,— See No. 19. 

42. Adjectives of one syllable, ending in -all, -om, -orb, 
-orm, and -onn, change a into oi, and o into ui in the 
genitive ; thus, 

Bòrb, wild. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 



N. bbrb, bhbrb, bbrba. 

G. bhuirb, buirbe bbrba. 

D. bbrb, bhuirb, bbrba. 

V. bhuirb, bhbrb, bbrba. 



Dall, blind. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 

N. dàll, dhàll, datla. 

6r. dhdill, doille, dalla. 

D. dàll, dhoill, dalla. 

V. dhdill, dhàll, dalla. 



Like dàll, decline — màll, slow ; glan, clean. — Like bòrb, de- 
cline — bog, soft ; crdm, crooJced ; ddnn, brown ; dorch, darh ; 
gòrm, blue ; ldm, bare ; o\c, bad ; prdnn, pounded ; trdm, 



èu changed into èi, 

Treun, brave. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 



ia changed into èi. 

Liath, hoary. 

Mas. Sing. Fem. Plur. M. & F. 

N. liath, 'liath,* liatha. 
G. 'lèith, lèithe, liatha. 



D. hath, 'lèith, 
V. 'lèith, 'liath, 



liatha. 
liatha. 



N. trèun, 
G. thrèin, 
D. trèun, 
V. thrèin, 



thrèun, trèuna. 

trèine, trèuna. 

thrèin, trèuna. 

thrèun, trèuna. 



Like liath, decline, — fial, generous, cìan, far, distant ; dìan, 
impetuous. Like trèun, — brèun, rotten ; gèur, sharp. 

43. Adjectives ending in -chd, -rr, -r, -mh, or in a vowel, are 
indeclinable in the singular ; and adjectives beginning with a 
vowel have no initial change ; thus, — 



* For the aspirated sounds and forms of l, n, r, see page 10. — Obs. 1, 2. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 59 



Bochd, poor. 



Mas. 

N. bochd, 
G. bhòchd. 
D. bochd, 
V. bhochd, 



Fem. 

bhochd. 

bòchd. 

bhochd. 

bhochd. 



pl. bochda. 



Ceàrr, wrong. 

Mas. Fem. 
ceàrr, cheàrr. 
cheàrr, ceàrr. 
ceàrr, cheàrr. 
cheàrr, cheàrr. 
pl. ceàrra. 



Beò, living. 



Mas. 

beò, 

bheò, 

beò, 

bheò, 



Fem. 

bheò. 
beò. 
bheò. 
bheò. 



pl. beò or beòtha. 



Ur, fresh- 

Mas. Fem. 
ùr, ùr. 
ùir, ùire. 
ùr, uir. 
ùir, ùr. 
pl. ùra. 



Like bochd, or ceàrr, decline, — nochd, naked, bare ; geàrr, 
short ; mear, sportive ; leamh, impertinent ; sèamh, tranquil ; 
teann, tight ; bèurr, witfy ; cìar, dusky ; còrr, excellent. 

Likf beò, — blasda, palatable; dona, bad ; fada, long ; sona, 
happy ; tana, thin ; paisgte folded; deanta, or deante, done, 
and all pesfect or past participks of transitive verbs. hìkeùr, — 
àrd, high ; òg, young, &c. 

44. Adjectives of two or more syllables in -each, gen- 
erally make the genitive singular feminine without e, and 
tlieir plural like the nomìnative singular ; thus, 



Sing. Mas. 

N. cìnnteach, 
G. chìnntich, 
D. cìnnteach, 
V. chìnnteach, 



Cìnnteach, sure. 

Fem. 

chìnnteach, 
cìnntich, 
chìnntich, 
chìnnteach, 



Plur. Mas. & Fem. 

N. cìnnteach. 
G. cìnnteach. 
D. cìnnteach. 
V. cìnnteach. 



Also, dìreach, straight ; maiseach, beautiful ; lideach, lisp- 
ing ; tèinnteach^e/y. 



SECOND DECLENSION. 

45. Adjectives whose last vowel is small, are of the se- 
cond declension : as, 



N. 



Mìn, smooth, soft. 

Sing. Mas. Fem. Pl. M. & F. 



mhìn, 



mme. 
mìne. 
mìne. 
mìne. 



Còir, honest. 

Sing. Mas. Fem. Pl. M. & F. 

N. còir, 
6r. chòir, 

D. còir, chòir, còire. 



chòir, còire. 



G. mhìn, mme, 
D. min, mlùn, 
V. mhìn, mhìn, 

Also ait, joj/ful ; bìnn, melodious ; tìnn, sick ; caoin, soft. 
gentle; glic, wise ; goirid, short ; grìnn, elegant ; tais, soft. 



chòir, chòir, còire. 



60 



ETYMOLOGY, 



FOCLACHADH. 



46. All adjectives of two or more syllables, in -ail, -eil, -idk, 
are declined like rrìin or còir, but do not add e to any case in 
either number ; as, banail, duineil, fialaidh, &c. 

47. The following adjectives are regular in the genitive 
singular mascuìine, but contract the genitive singular feminine ; 
thus, — 



Bodhar, deaf ; 
Dìleas, dear ; 
Fada, long ; 
losal or ìseal, low ; 
Leathan, broad ; 
Odhair, pale, sallow ; 
Heamhar,/«if ; 
Salach,/o«/,- 
Sleamhninn, slippery; 
Tana, thin ; 
Uasal, nobte ; 



gen. m. bhodhair ; 
gen. m. dhìleis ; 
gen. m. fhada ; 
gen. m. osail, isil ; 
gen. m.'leathain ; 
gen. m.òdhair,oridhir 
gen. m. 'reamhair ; 
gen. m. shalaich ; 
gen. m. shìeamhuinn 
gen. m. thana ; 
gen. m. uasail ; 



fem. buidhre,/orbodhaire 
fem. dìlse 
fem. faide 
fem. ìsle 

fem. leithne, or leithe 
\ fem. idhir, ìdhre 

fem. reamhra 

fem. sailche 
;fem. sleamhna, r 

fem. taine 

fem. uaisle. 



EXAMPLES. 

Nouns and adjectives declined 
together. 
L— Cat bàn, m. a whiie cat. 
Indefimte. 



N. 
G. 
1). 
A 



Singular. 
cat bàu, 
cait bhàin, 
cat bàn, 
cat bàn, 



Plural. 
cait bhàna. 
chat b na. 
cataibh bàna. 
cait bhàna. 



V. a chait bhàin, a chata bàna. 

II — Bròg mhòr,/. a large shoe. 

N. bròg mhòr, brògan mòra. 
G. bròige mòire, bhròg mòra, 
D. bròig mhòir, brògaibh mòra 
^4.abhrògmh ir,abhròga mòra, 



SAMPI.AIREAN. 

Ainmearàn 'us buadharàn 

tèarnte le chèile. 
An cat bàn, m. the white cat. 
Definite. 
Singular. Plural. 
N. an cat bàn, na cait bhàna. 
G. a'chaitbhàin, nan cat bàna. 
p. / ris a'chatbhàn, f na cataibh 

* (. do 'nchatbhàn, ( bàna. 
A. an cat bàn, nacaitbhàna. 



III.— Ceap beag, m. a smalllast. 
N. ceap beag, cip bheaga. 
G. cip bhig, cheap beaga. 
D. ceap l eag, cip bheaga. 
V. a chip bhig, a cheapa beaga. 



A' bròg mhòr,/. the large shoe. 

N. a'bhrògmhòr, nabròganmòra. 
G. nabròigemoire, nambrògmòra. 
•a. i) S a ' bhròigmhòir, \ na brògaibh 
. | / 'nbhròigmhòir, { mòra. 

An ceap beag, m. the small last. 
N. an ceap beag, na cip bheaga. 
G. a' chip bhig, nanceapbeaga. 
n 5 a ' cheap bheag, \ na ceapaibh 

\ 'n cheap bheag, \ beaga. 



A noun beginning with a vowel : — 



[ IV. — Allt càs, m. a rapid 

stream. 
N. àllt cas, ùillt chasa. 
G. ùillt chais, ; llt casa. 
D. àllt cas, ùillt chasa. 
V. 'ùillt chais, 'àllt casa. 



An t- àllt càs, the rapid stream. 



an t- àllt cas, 
an ùillt chais, 
an àllt chas, 
'n àilt chas, 



na h- ùillt chasa. 
nan àllt casa. 

na h- ùillt chasa. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 61 



An adjective beginning with a vowel :• 



V. — Clach \xr,fem. a new stone. 
N. clach ùr, clachan ùra. 
G. cloiche ùire, chlach ùra. 
D. cloich ùir, clachaibh ùra. 
V. a chlach ùr, a chlacha ùra. 



D. 



A' chlach ùr, the new stone. 

a' chlach ùr, na cla-chan ùra. 
nacloicheùire,nan clach ùra. 



a'cloich ùir, } 
'n cloich uir, \ 



na clachaibh ùra. 



Both the noun and the adjective heginning with a vowel :- 
VI. — Eachòg, m.ayounghorse. 
N. eachòg, eich ga. 
G. eich òig, each ga. v 

D. each òg, eachaibh òga. ^ ( an each òg, 
V. 'eich òig, eacha òga. ' \ 'n each ( g, 



An t-each òg, m. the young horse. 
N- an t-each òg, na h-eich òga. 
an eich òig, nan each òga. 

\ na h-eachaibh ò<ra. 



G. 



An adjective terminating with a vowel : — 



VTL— Cnilc bhrùite,/ a brirìsed reed. 
N. cuilc bhrùite, cuilcean brùite. 
G. cuilce brùite, chuilcean brùite. 
J). cuilc bhrùite, cuilcibh brùite. 

V. a chuilc bhrùite, a chuilcean brùite. 



A' chuilc bhrùite,/. the bruised reed. 
N. a' chuilc bhrùite, na cuilcean brùite, 
G. nacuilcebrùite, nancuilceai) brùite. 
n i a' cbuilc bhrùite, ( -, •, , , v.. 
D - { 'n chuilc bhrùite, [ na cuilcibh bruite - 



A noun terminating with a vowel: — 



VIII.— Gille grìnn, m, afine lad. 
N. gille grìnn, gillein grinne. 
O. gille ghrìnn, ghilleàn grinne. 
D. gillegrìnn, gillibh grinne. 
V. a ghille ghrìnn, a ghillean grinne. 



I An gille grìnn, m. thefine lad. 
\N. an gille grìnn, na gilleàn grinne. 
[Gr. a' ghille ghrìnn, nan gillean grinna. 



IX. — Cuilean pràbach, mas. a blear wlielp. 

Plur. N. cuileanàn prabach. 



Sing. N. cuilean prabach. 
G. cuilein phrabaich. 
D. cuilean prabach. 
V. a chuilein phrabaich. 



G. chuilean ])rabach. 
D. cuileanaibh prabach 
V. a chuileana prabach. 



X. — Cathair 'rìoghail ; fem. a royal ihrone. 



Sing. N. cathair 'rìoghail. 
G. cathrach rìoghail. 
D. cathair 'rìoghail. 
V. a chathair 'rìoghail. 



Plur. N. cathraichean rìoghail. 
G. chathraichean rìoghail. 
D. caihraichibh rìoghail. 
V. a chathraichean rìoghail. 



After the same manner decline, I. — Manach gòrach, a sillj/ 
monk : tàrbh gàrg, a fierce bull : bonnach mòr, a big bannock : 
fleasgach cìallach. a sensible youth (young man). II.— Clach 
thrdm, a heavy stone : glas dhearg, a red loch ; craobh àrd, a 
talltree. III. — Gaisgeach treun, a brave hero : tear crìon, a 
littleman: leac ghlas, a gray fiag. IV. — Còrd caol, a smaìl 
string: alt lag, a weah joint : corp màrbh, a dead body. 



62 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



V. — Piseag òg, a young Jcitten : sgìan ùr, a new hiife : uinneag 
àrd, a high window : fuil chraobhach, streaming blood. 

Nèul dorch, a dark cloud: cearc dhubh. a black hen : tcrm 
gòrm, a blue wave : slat fhada, a long rod : bean mhìn, a 
gentle wife : cù ruadh, a reddog : clàrsach fhònnmhor, a tune- 
ful harp : eun gòrm, a blue bird: snothach bog, soft sap : tìr 
fhuar, cold region : èilid 'luath, a swift roe. 



COMPOUND NOUNS. 

A compound noun is com- 
posed of two nouns, or a 
noun and an adjective, &c. 
joined together with a hy- 



AINMEARAN MEASGTA. 

Nìthear suas ainmear 
measgta de dhà ainmear, no 
de ainmear 'us de bhuadhar, 
&c. naisgte ri chèile le tà- 
than: mar. 



phen ; as, 

Coileach-coille, awoodcock; dubh-f hocal, a darJc saying, a riddle. 

Rule. — When two nouns are joined together with a 
hyphen, the antecedent noun generally governs the other 
in the genitive. 

The antecedent noun is declined in both numbers, according 
to its own declension, with the subjunctive noun agreeing with 
it in every case, like an adjective, but always retaining the ter- 
mination of its genitive in both numbers ; thus, 



XI. — Fear-ciùil,w.,a musician 

Sing. Plur. 
N. fear-ciùil, fir-chiùil. 
G. fir-chiùil, fhear-ciùil. 
D. fear-ciùil, fearaibh-ciùil 
V. 'f hir-chiùil, 'f heara-ciùil. 



Am fear-ci il, m. the musician. 
Sing. Plur. 



N. 
G. 



am fear-ciùil, 
an fhir-chiùil, 

an f hear-chiùil, 



na fir-chiùil.* 
nam fear-ciùil. 

| na fir-chiùil. 



XII. — Muc-mhàra,yèm. awliale. 
N. muc-mhara, mucan-mara. 
G. muice-mara, mhuc-mara. 
D. muic-mhara, mucaibh-mara, 
V. a mhuc-mhara, a mhuca-mara. 



A' mhuc-mhara, fem. thewhale. 

N. a' mhuc-mhara, na mucan-mara. 
G. namuice-mara, nam muc-mara. 

L'ikefear-ciùil, decline — fear-astair, m. a traveller ; fear-fuad- 
ain, m. a straggler ; fear-saoraidh, a redeemer ; fear-tagraidh, 
an advocate; ceap-tuislidh, m. stumbling-block ; cù-uisge, a 
water-dog ; bòrd-smeuraidh, m. asmearing-stool; balla-cloiche, 
m. a stone-wall ; gille-coise, m afoot-man ; seòl-mara, m. a tide; 
tòm-fraoich, m . a heather-bush ; pòll-bùiridh, m. a rutting-pool, 
&c. 



* Also luchd-ciùil ; luchd is used as the plural of fear, to signify a coliective num- 
ber ; as, fear-oibre, a workman, pl. luchd-oibre. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 63 



Like muc-mhara — bean ghlùine, f. a midwife ; bean-shìth,/. 
a fairy, làmia ; cas-mhaide, /. a wooden leg ; crois-ìarna,/. a 
hand-reel ; cairt-iùil, /. a mariners chart or compass ; cearc- 
f hraoich /. {gen. circe- fraoich ), a moor.hen ; lòng-chogaidh,/. 
a ship ofwar; long-spùinnidh, a privateer, &c. 

2 When the antecedent noun governs the other in the geni- 

tive plural, the indefinite form of the genitive plural is retained 
in every case of both numbers ; as, 

An t-òrd-chlach, m. the stone-hammer. 
Singular. Plural. 
N. an t-òrd-chlach, na h-ùird-chlach. 
G. an ùird-chlach, nan òrd-chlach. 

A' choille-chnò,/. the nut-wood, 
N. a'choile-chnò,&c. na coilltean-chnò,&c. 

Like òrd-chlach — cù-chaorach, m. sheep-dog ; deargan-àllt, 
m. afcestrel ; gàradh-chàs, m. feet warming ; sàbh-shùl, m. eye- 
salve ; tigh-chon, m. a dog fcennel, S$c. Like coille-chnò— -cùing- 
dhamh, / a yofce of oxen ; fail-mhuc, /. a pig-sty ; craobh- 
ùbhal,/. an apple-tree. 

3. — A compound word having an adjective or an in^eparable 
preposition for its antecedent term, isdeclined in both numbers, 
as in its simple state, but the antecedent term admits of no 
change except aspiration ; as, 

Ard-shagart, a high priest, gen. àrd-shagairt ; pl. àrd-shagartàn. 
Gorm-shuileach, blue-eyed, gen. gòrm-shuileich ; pl. gòrm-shuil- 
each. Mì-bhèus, immodesty, gen. mì-bhèùs ; pl. mì-bhèusàn. 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. | COIMEASACH ADH BHUADMARAN. 

Adjectives denoting qualities that can be increased admit of 
infiection to express comparison, as, àrd, tall : mìn, smooth. 

There are three degrees j Tha trì cèuman coinieas- 
of comparison, the Positive, \ achaidh ànn, an Seasach, 
Comparative, and the Saper- an Coim.easach, agus an 
lative* t-Anardach. 

The Positive is expressed Fòillsichearan Seasachìeis 
by the adjective in its simple a' bhuadhar 'nà staid shing- 
form ; as, fear àrd, a tall \ ilt ; mar, clach mhìn ; a 
man ; cas bheag, a small foot ; i smooth stone ; tdnn gòrm, a 
casan beaga, small fcet. | blue wave. 

* Strictly speakiilg there are only two degrees of Comparison, viz. the Compa- 
rative and Superlative, for tlie Positive expresses no comparison. 



Ord-chlach, m. a stone-hammer. 



Singular. 
N. òrd-chlach, 
G. ùird-chlach, 
D. òrd-chlach, 
V. 'ùird-chlach, 



Plural. 

ùird-chlach. 
òrd- chlach. 
òrdaibh-chlach. 
'òrda-chlach. 



Coille-chnò, /. a nut-wood. 
N. coille-chnò, &c. coilltean-chnò, &c 



64 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



The Comparative expresses Fdilìsichidh an Coimeas- 
a greater degree of the qua- ach, cèum na's mò de 'n 
lity expressedbyth ePositive; bhuaidh a ta 'n Seasach ag 
as, ainmeachadh; mar, 

Is è Iain a's àirde na mise, John is taller ihan I. 
The Superlative* expresses . Fdillsichidh an t-Anard- 
the greatest degree of the ach an cèum a's mo de 'n 
quality expressed by the j bhuaidh a ta 'n Seasach ag 
Positive; as, | ainmeachadh ; mar, 

Is è Peadar a's àirde* de'n triùir ; Peter is the tallest of 
the three. 



FORMATION OF COMPARISON. 

48. The comparative de- 
gree is formed like the geni- 
tive singular feminine in -e, 
of adjectives ; tlms, 



DEANAMH COIMEASACHAIDH. 

43. Nithear an coimeas- 
ach le -e, cosmhuil ri gint- 
each aonar bhoireanta nam 
buadharan ; mar-so, 



Bàn,fair, gen. s.fem. bàine, comp. bàine, /aircr. 

Geal, white, gile, comp. gile, whiter. 

Gòrm, blue, guirme, comp. guirme, bhier. 

Deas, ready, deise, comp. deise, readier. 

Mìn, mild, mìne, comp. mìne, milder. 

Sùnntach,cAeer/W, sùnntaich,cow?/). sunntaiche,more cheerful. 

Cìnnteach, sure, cìnntich, comp. cmntiche, surer. 

49. When i is the last vowel in the Positive, the Com- 
parative is formed by adding e : as, banail, modest, comp. 
banaile, more modest. 

Except. 1. — The following adjectives make the Comparative 
by adding a to the Positive ; as, bochd, poor, comp. bochda, 
poorer, — so ceàrr, wrong ; bèurr^ Jceen ; dorch, r, darlc ; leamh, 
impudent; mear,««y; sèamh, mild. Beò, active, has beoth i. 
Clìth and rèith or rèidh make clìthe, rèithe. 

Except. 2. — The following, though irregular in the genitive 
of the Positive, make the Comparative regularly ; as, fànn, wealc, 
comp. fainne ; fada, long, faide ; fiar, aivry, fìaire ; gnàda, 
ngly, gnàide ; luath, swift, luaithe ; sean, old, sine ; tana, thin, 
taine ; tèann, tight, tinne or teinne.t 

Except. 3. — The following contract the Comparatìve ; as, 



* The Gaelic adjective has no superlative form of compavison different from the 
comparative. 

f As, an luchd co-bharail a's tcinne d'ar creidimli-ne, the striclcsl sect o/ our 
failh.—AcTS xxvi. 6. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 65 



bodhar, deaf, comp. bùidhre, deafer ; bòidheach, pretty, c. bòidh- 
che or bòiche : cumhang, narrow, c. cùinge, r. : domhain, deep, 
c. dòimhne : dìleas, dear, faithfid, c. dìlse ; fagus, near, c. 
faisge: ìosal, low,c. ìlse: leathan, broad, c. lèithne, leithe : milis, 
sweet, c. mìlse : odhar, sallow, dun-coloured, c. ùidhre, ìdhre : 
reamhar, fat, c. reamhra ; salach, foul, c. sàilche : uasal, noble, 
gentle, c. uaisle, uailse. 

The Comparative has Tha trl staidean aig a' 

three forms expressive of Choimeasach a' nochdadh 

comparison, the First, the coimeasachaidh, a' Cheud, 

Second, and the Third. an Dàra, 'us an Treas. 

Thefirst form, as stated before, is like the genitive sin- 
gular feminine, ending in e. The second is formed from 
the first by changing e into -id. The third is formed 
from the second by changing -id into -ead • thus, 

Positive. lst Comp. 2d Comp. 3d Comp. or Abs. Noun. 

Bkn,fair, bàine, fairer, bàinid, bàinead, whiteness. 



Cruinn, round, cruinne, rounder, cruinnid, cruinnead, roundness. 
Daor, dear, daoire, dearer, daoirid, daoiread, dearness. 
Dearg, red, deirge, redder, deirgid, deirgead, redness. 
Geal, white, gile, whiter, gilid, gilead, whiteness. 
Trdm, heavy, truime, heavier, truimid, truimead, heaviness. 

Obs. 1. — The first form of comparison is the one most com- 
monly used. Many adjectives, chiefly those of more than one 
syllable, do not admit of the second comparison ; adjectives, 
which want the second comparison, want the third also. Each 
form of comparison admits of aspiration ; and the first and 
second have no final inflection whatever. 

Obs. 2. — The third form of comparison is an abstract noun, 
feminine and sometimes masculine, of the first declension, de- 
clined in the singular according to No. 22, as, bàinead, gen. 
bàineid, &c. Abstract nouns ending in -ad and -as are declined 
like bàrd ; as, lughad, gen. -aid_, smallness ; olcas, gen. -ais, 
badness. They have no plural. 

IRREGULAR COMPARISON. | COIMEAS ACHADH NEO-RIAILTEACH. 
Positive. lst Comp. 2d Comp. 3d Comp. 

Beag, little, lugha r. lughaid r. lughad r. 



Crìon, little, crìne, ìess, 



crìnid, crìnead, littleness. 




Fàrasda, furasda, easy, fasa, fusa r. fasaid, &c. 



duilghead 
dorrad 
fasad, &c. 



E 



66 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Positive. lst Comp. 2d Comp. 3d Comp, 

Goirid, geàrr, short, giorra, giorraid, giorrad 
Gèur, sharp, geòire, gèire, geòirid,gèuraid, geòiread,&c. 

Làidir, strong, treasa r. treasaid, treasad 

Math, maith, good, feàrr, * feàirrd, feothas 
Mòr, great, mò, mu,t mòid, mòid, meud 

Olc, had, miosa, misd, olcas,miosad 

Teth, hot, teotha, teothaid, teothad 

The following adjectives make the fìrst comparative in -a, but 
want the second and third : as, càr, aìcin, friendly, carus ; first 
comp. càra : còir, proper, right, becoming ; c. còra and càra : % 
dogh, UJcely, probable, c. dòcha and dàcha : dùgh, natural ; c. 
dùcha : ionmhuinn, dear, beloved ; c. ànnsa, ionnsa r. : ion, pro- 
per,fit; c. iona: toigh, toigheach, loving, agreeable ; c. tòcha, 
dòcha. To these are generally added the nouns mòran, much, 
many ; a great number or quantity ; and tuille or tuilleadh, 
more. 

50. Both the comparative and superlative are expressed 
by prefixing the relative pronoun a, and the verb is (past 
bu), to the first comparative ; as, 

Is è Sèumas d's àirde na Iain, James is taller than John. 
A'chlach cfs truime 's an dùn, the heaviest stone in the heap. 
Thòisich è aig an fhear§ bu shine, agus sguir è aig an f hear d 
b'òige, he began at the eldest and left off at the youngest. — 

BlBLE. 

Obs. 1. — After the a, is elides the s ; as, a's àirde for a is 
airde. Bu elides the u before a vowel or f aspirated ; as, a 
b'òige, for a bu òige. A b'fheàrr, for a bu f heàrr. 

Obs. 2. — The verb Bi, to be, is used to express the compari- 
son of two objects, and the adjective takes na's or ni's\\ before 
it and na (than) after it; as, Tha so na's gile na sin, this is 
whiter than that. Tha mo bhròg-sa na's grinne na do bhròg-sa, 
my shoe is more elegant thanyour shoe, or by the verb is; as, Is 
gile so na sin ; or Is è so a's gile na sin. Is ì mo bhròg-s' as 
grinne na do bhròg-sa ; or Is grinne mo bhròg-sa na do 
bhròg-sa. 



* Also, feotha. 2. feàirrde, feothaid. 3. fearras. 
t Also, motha, mutha. 

t Cdrais, in several places, pronounced càra ; as, " bu chàra dhuit d'obaira 
dheanamh," U ivould better become thee to do thy work. 

§ The relative a disappears before bu, but remains before 6'/ as, air" an taobh 
bu mhò, on the greater or greatest side. Air an taobh à b' fhaide, on the longer or 
longest side. — Vide Syntax. Construction of the Comparative, &c. 

U The term ni's, though not so correct as na's, is much used by Gaelic writev?. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 67 



The comparative is often introduced after the conjunction 
gur (tliat) without any verb ; as, " gurbinne leam do chòradh na 
meòrach nan geugan,"(that) thy conversation (is) more melodious 
to me than the thrush of the boughs. — Ross. 

A superlative absolute, or of extent, is expressed by pre- 
fixing the words anabarrach, exceedingly, fìor, gle, ro, 
very, truly, &c. to the positive ; as, 
Pos. rnòr, great ; annabarrach mbr, exceedingly great. 
Pas. hesLg,small- fìorbheag, glebheag, ro bheag^verysmalL 

The quality denoted by the positive is also increased by re- 
peating the adjective ; as, olc, olc, bad, bad, i. e. verybad. Là 
fuar, fuar, a cold, cold day, i. e. a very cold day. 

Obs. — Ro also denotes excess ; as, ro mhòr, too large : ro 
bheag, too small. Roìs sometimes used as an intensive particle 
before nouns ; as, ro aire, ro chùram, great care. There is no 
right reason for placing a hyphen between gle,fìor, ro, and the 
words to which they are prefixed, as is sometimes done. They 
should be treated like the English words very, too, perfectly. 

51. USE OF THE SECOND AND THIRD COMPABATIVE. 

The second Comparative is used after the verb is, bu, to in- 
dicate that the object mentioned sustains a degree of advantage 
or disadvantage from some circumstance connected with the 
proposition ; as, Is truimid è sid, it is the heavier for yon. Is 
mòid ìad sin, they are the greater for that. Is f heàirrd mì mo 
theagasg, lam the better of (my teaching) being taught. Bu 
mhisd a' chraobh à rùsgadh, the tree was the worse of (its peel- 
ing) being peeled. Cha truimid a' cholluinn a cìall, tìie body is 
not the heavier (worse) of its sense or reason. Bu shocraichid 
mo cheànn a' chluasag, my head was fhe easier for the pillow. 

The third Comparative is used after the verbs Rach, pro- 
ceed, (get), and Cuib, put, place, render ; as, rach am feothas, 
get better, amend, improve, (literally, go into a better state, go 
into goodness). Tha 'mhin a' dol an daoiread, meal is getting 
dearer, (going into dearness). Chàidh prìs an t-siùcair an 
lughad, the price of sugar has got less, — diminished. 

Na cuir an lughad à chliù, do not render his praise less, 
diminish not his praise. Chuir ìad prìs an tì am mòid, they 
have raised the price of tea. 



* This form of the adjective expresses no comparison whatever ; it is simply an 
extension of the quality denoted by the positive. 



68 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



The third Comparative is frequently used after the preposi- 
tions air, and ann joined with the verb is ; as, gabh sin air à 
lughad, take that, however small (it may be, — let it be ever so 
small). Tha 'chraobh gàrbh, is ann air à gàirbhead, the tree is 
thich, it is of thichness, i. e. it has a'considerable degree of thick- 
ness. Tha 'n là bog, is ann air à bhuigead. Tha so grìnn, is 
ann air à ghrinnead. Nach bòidheach ì ? 'S ann air à bòidh- 
chead. 



NUMERALS OR 
NUMBERS. 

1. CARDINAL NUMBERS. 



1 aon, or 

2 dà, 

3 trì, 

4 ceithir, 

5 cpig,^ cuig, 

6 sè, sèa, sia, 

7 seachd, 

8 ochd, 

9 naodh, 

10 deich, 

11 aon-deug, 

12 dhà-dheug, 

13 trì-deug, 

14 ceithir-deug, 

15 coig-deug, 

16 sè-deug, 

17 seachd-deug, 

18 ochd-deug, 

19 naoi-deug, 

20 fichead, 

200 dà cheud. 
300 trì cheud. 
400 cithir cheud. 
500 coig ceud. 
600 sè ceud. 
700 seachd ceud. 
800 cchd ceud. 
900 naoi ceud. 



a h- aon. 
a dhà. 
a trì. 
a cithir. 
a coig. 
a sè, &c. 
a seachd. 
a h-6chd. 
a naoi, &c. 
a deich. 
a h-aon deug. 
a dhà-dheug. 
a trì-deug. 
a ceithir-deug. 
a còig-deug. 
a sè-deug. 
a seachd-deug. 
a h-6chd-deug. 
a naoi-deug, 
a fichead. 



I CUNNTAICH NO 

ATREAMHAN. 

I 1. CÙNNTAICH ARDAIL. 

21 aon thàr f hichead, a h-aon, &c. 

22 dhà thar fhichead, a dha, &c. 

23 trì thar f hichead, a trì, &c. 

30 deich thar f hichead, a deich, &c. 

31 aon-deug thar f hichead, &c. 

40 dà f hichead. 

41 dà fhichad agus a h-aon, &e. 

50 dà f hichead 's a deich. 

51 dà f hichead 's a h-aon deug, &e. 

60 trìfichead. 

61 trì fichead 's a h-aon, &c. 

70 trì fichead 's a deich. 

71 trì fichead 's a h-aon deug, &c. 

80 ceithir fìchead. 

81 ceithir fichead 's a h-aon, &c. 

90 ceithir fichead 's a deich. 

91 ceithir fichead 's ah-aon deug,&c. 

100 ceud, ciad, coig fichead. 

101 ceud 's a h-aon, &c. 
110 ceud 's a deich, &c. 

1000 mìle, deich ceud. 

2000 dà mhìle, 300 trì mìle, &c. 

10,000 deich mìle. 

100,000 ceud mìle. 

1,000,000 muillean, deich ceud mìle. 

5,000,000 coig muillean. 

20,000,000 fichead muillean. 

100,000,000 ceud muillean, &c. 



NUMERALS COMBINED WITH a I CUNNTAICH NAISGTE RI AINM- 
NOUN. S EAR. 

Rule. — The noun always follows its numeral, but, in com- 
pound numbers, it is placed between the numeral and deug? 
ten ; as, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 69 



Aon bhalg, m. 1 bag, dà bhalg,* 2 bags, trì builg, 3 bags, 

Ceithir builg, 4 bags, còig builg, 5 bags, sè builg, 6 bags, 

Seachd builg, 7 bags, òchd builg, 8 bags, naoi builg, 9 bags, 
Deich builg, 10 bags, aon bhalg deug, 11 bags, dàbhalgdheug,12&e. 
Trì builg dheug,13&c, ceithir builg dheug, 14 &c.,còigbuilg dheug,15&c. 

Aon bhalg thar f hichead, 21 bags, dà bhalg thar f hichead, 22 bags, 
Trì builg thar f hichead, 23 bags, ceithir builg thar f hichead, 24 &c. 
Dà f hichead balg, 40 bags, dà f hichead balg 's } 4R r 

Trì fichead balg 's a trì, 63 bags, a h-òchd, $ *° Dags ' 

Ceithir ficheadbalg's adeich,90&c, ceithir fichead balg, 80 bags, 
Ceud balg, 100 bags, mìle balg, 1000 bags. 



Aon bhròg,/<?ra. 
Ceithir brogan, 
Aon bhròg deug, 



dà bròig, 
còig brogan, 
dà bhroig dheug, 



trì brògan, 
sè brògan, 
trì brògan deug. 



Dà f hichead bròg, 40 shoes, S$c. ; dà f hichead bròg 's a deich, 
50 shoes : deich 'us dà f hichead bròg, or leth cheud bròg, 50 ; 
dà f hichead bròg 's a h-aon deug, 51 shoes, 8$c. ; deich 'us trì 
fichead bròg, 70 shoes, S$c. ; ceithir fìchead bròg 's a deich, or 
deich 'us ceither fìchead, bròg ; ceud bròg ; mìle bròg, &c. 



2. ORDINAIi NUMBERS. J c 2. CUNNTAICH ORDAIL. 



lst 

2d 

3d 

4th 

5th 

6th 

7th 

8th 

9th 

lOth 

llth 

12th 

18th 

19th 

20th 

21st 

30th 



An ceud, a'cheud f hear, 

An dàra, dàrna fear, 

An treas fear, 

An ceathramh fear, 

An còigeamh fear, 

An sèathamh fear, 

An seachdamh fear, 

An t-ochdamh fear, 

An naoidheamh fear, 

An deicheamh là, 

An t-aon là deug, 

An dara là deug, 

An t-ochdamh là deug, 

An naoidheamh là deug, 

An ficheadamh là, 

An t-aon là thar f hichead, 



the first man. 
the second man. 
the third man. 
the fourth man. 
the fifth man. 
the sixth man. 
the seventh man. 
the eighth man. 
the ninth man. 
the tenth day. 
the eleventh day. 
the twelfth day. 
the eighteenth day. 
the nineteenth day. 



the twenty-first 



An deicheamh là thar fhichead, the thirtieth day. 



* Dà bhalg, literally two bag. This peculiarity in the numeral dà has Ied some 
to suppose that there is a dual number in the Gaelic ; nothing can be more erro- 
neous than this notion, for neither the article, noun, adjective, pronoun, nor verb, 
has any form which can properly be called a dual. Moreover, the numerals 
Jichead, ceud, mìle, &c. require the noun in the singular as well as dà. The ad- 
vocates of a dual might therefore, with equal propriety, argue for a vicesimal, a 
emtesimal, and a milesimal— Vide Syntax. Construction of Numerals. 



70 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

31st An t-aon là deug thar fhichead, the thirty-first day, 
40th An dà f hicheadamh là, the fortieth day. 

lOOth An ceudamh bd, the hundredth cow. 

200th An dà cheudamh bò, the two hundredth cow. 

300th An tri cheudamh bò, the three „ ,, 

400th An cèithir cheudamh bd, the foar „ „ 

500th An cdig ceudamh bd, the five „ „ 

600th An sèa ceudamh bd, the six „ „ 

700th An seachd ceudàmh bd, the seven „ „ 

lOOOth Am mìleamh bd, &c. the thousandth „ 

3. Collective Numerals. — There are only nine of this class; 
namely, dithis, two persons ; triùir, three persons ; ceathrar, 
four ; còignear, còigear, five ; sèanar or sianar, six ; seachdnar, 
seven ; ochdnar, eight ; naonar, naoinear, nine ; deichnear, ten. 

These are applied to person only ; as, dithis, two persons ; 
triùir, three persons. They require the genitive plural indefl- 
nite of the noun following them ; thus, ceathrar mhac, four 
sons ; cuignear dhaoine, five men ; seachdnar bhan, seven 
women. 

Dithis is often used for dà, or dhà, in its absolute sense ; as, 
Am buail mì ach aon sguab ? Buailidh tu dithis. 

Fichead, ceud, mile, muillean, when used as nouns, have a 
plural form ; as, fìcheadàn, ceudàn, mìltean, muilleanan ; as, na 
ficheadàn diùbh, scores ofthem, &c. 

4. The distributive numbers are, leth, half; trìan, third ; 
ceathramh, a fourth, aquarter. Distributives higher than these 
are formed by placing the words pàirt or cuid after the ordinal 
numerals ; as, an còigeamh pàirt, an cdigeamh cuid, the fifth 
part ; an seathamh pàirt, the sixth part, &c. 

5. Multiplicative numbers are formed by annexing the word 
uair (a space of time) to the cardinals ; as, aon uair,* once, 
semel; dà uair, twice, bis ; trì uairean, thrice, ter, &c. Cuairt, 
a round, is sometimes used in a multiplicative sense ; as, " Trì 
chuairt dobhris mì à sgìath/'THRiCE IbroJce his shield. — Ossian 

FlNG. IV. 71. 

Fìllt or f ìllte, a fold, is also used in a multiplicative sense ; 
as, dà fhìllt, two'fold, double, duplex ; tri fìllt, three-fold, 
triple, triplex ; ceithir f ìllt, &c. 

EXERCISE ON NUMERALS. | CLEACHDADH AIR CÙNNTAICH. 

Translate. — 1. One table, two hands, eight sons, twelve 



* The word uair signifies also an hour ; so that aon uair is likewise the phrase for 
one hour, or one o'clock ; dà uair, for two hours or two o'clock ; tri uairean, for 
threc o'clock, &e. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 71 



days, sixteen horses, twenty-four hours, thirty heds, 38 sheep, 
40 bones, 46 trees, 50 stones, 59 grains, 60 larabs, 67 birds, 70 
pounds, 79 miles, 80 bolls, 90 letters, 94 kids, 100 soldiers, 116 
asses, 120 ships, 142beds, 219 gallons, 338 heads, 479 herrings, 
1012 goats, 10,159 cats, 13,470 eyes. £195, 14s. 9fd. 

2. The first verse, the second day, the eighth month, the 
fourteenth milestone, 19th degree, 23d fìgure, 27th boat, 38th 
captain, 40th year, 50th ruler, 55th assembly, 67th organ, 79th 
rider, 80th lord, 85th king, 96th star, lOOth inch, 138th foot. 

3. Three persons, four persons, seven persons, ten persons. 

4. Half, third part, fourth part, fìfth part, fifteenth part, &c. 

5. Once, twice, thrice, four times, ten times, twenty times, 
&c. — Double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, sevenfold. 



INFLECTION OF PRONOUNS. 

A Pronoim is a word used 
instead of a noun ; as, 



TEARNADH RIOCHDARAN. 

Is è Riochdar focal à 
ghnàthaichear an àit ainm- 
eir ; mar, 

" Tha Sèumas an-so, thàinig è o-chidnn uaire," James is 
kere, he came an hour ago. 



There are nine sorts of 
pronouns, viz. Personal, Re- 
ciprocal, Relative, Interro- 
gative, Possessive, Distri- 
butive, Demonstrative, In- 
definite, and Compound. 

1. The Personal pronouns are 
thus declined : — 



Tha naoi seòrsa 'riochd- 
aràn ànn, eadh. Pearsan- 
tail, Ionannach, Dàimh- 
each, Ceisteach, Seilbheach, 
Ròinneach, Dèarbhach, Neo- 
chìnnteach, 'us Measgta. 

1. Tèarnar na riochdaràn 
Pearsantail ; mar so, 



Singular. 
Nom. and Acc. 
Per. Simple form. Emphatic form. 

1. mì, mhì, mise, mhise, /, me 

2. tu, thu,* tusa, thùsa, thou, thee 

3. è, m. sè, esan, he, him, it 
3. ì, /. sì, ise, she, her, it 



Plural. 
Nom. and Acc. 
Simp. form. Emp. form. 
L sìnn, sinne, we, us. 

2. sìbh, sìbhse, ye, you 

3. ìad, ìadsan 



3. ìad, ìadsan, 



they,ihem- 



* The English pronoun thou is very seldom applied either in Avriting or familiar 
conversation, even in addressing a single individual. Its plural ye or you is always 
used in addressing an individual of any rank or age. This practice, which con- 
founds one of the most important distinctions of the language, affords a striking 
instance of the power of fashion, here springing from courtesy and complimental 
speech. In Gaelic this personal compliment ismore limited, for the second person 
singular, thu or thusa, is commonly used in addressing an inferior or an equal ; and 
sìbh or sìbhse in addressing a parent, an aged person, or a superior. The pronoun 
of the second person singular, in both languages, is universally employed in ad- 
dressing the Supreme Being. 



72 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Obs. I. — The pronouns are rendered emphatic by adding the 
syllables -se, -e, -sa, -san. The third person \ad is also written 
siad; and sè, sì, sìad, are used only in the nominative case. 
The third person esan is sometimes contracted es', eis', or esa', 
and ìadsan contracted tadsa, ìads. 

Obs. 2. — The personal pronouns terminate alike in the nomi- 
native and accusative. The plain form of the flrst and the 
aspirated form of the second person are used, when governed by 
a transitive verb ; as, bhuail è mì or mise, lie strucìc me ; chron- 
aich è thu or thùsa, he reproved thee. 

Fèin, self, pl. selves ; own. Lat. ipse, met. — Fèin is joined to 
every form of the personal pronouns, to give them greater force 
and emphasis, and a hyphen placed between it and each person ; 
as, mì-fèin, myself ; thu-fèin, ihyself ; è-fèin, himself; ì-fèin, 
herself; sìnn-fèin, ourselves ; sìbh-fèin, yourselves ; ìad-fèin, 



In very emphatic expressions, the emphatìc form of the pro- 
nouns and the simple form compounded with fèin are used ; in 
this case the emphatic pronoun is placed flrst ; as, Singular, 
mise mì-fèin, Imyself ; thùsa thu-fèin, thou thyself ; esan è- 
fèin, he himself; ise ì-fèin, she herself. Plural, sinne sìnn- 
fèin, we ourselves ; sìbhse sìbh-fèin, ye yourselves ; ìadsan iad- 
fèin, they themselves. — Fèin* is sometimes aspirated after the 
pronoun, and in thatstate it is pronounced hàne ; as, mì-fhèin, 
thu-fhèin, è-fhèin, ì-fhèin, sìnn fhèin, &c. 

2. Reciprocal pronouns are formedby annexing/ezw to the 
Personals ; as, bhuail mì mi-fèin, I struck myself, &c. 



3. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

A Eelative Pronoun is 
a word which relates to a 
noun or pronoun going be- 
fore it in a sentence ; as, 



3. RIOCHDARAN DAIMHEACH. 

Is è Riochdar Dàimheach 
focal à bhuineas do dh-ain- 
mear, no do riochdar a' dol 
roimhe ann an cìallairt; 
mar, 

Laoch à thuit, a hero who fell. Na fìr à dh'-f halbh, the 
men who departed. Fear nàch trèig à chdmpanach, a man 
who will notforsahe his comrade. 

The word or subject to I Theirear Rdimhean no Co- 
which the Belative refers, is | dhàimheach ris an f hocal d'àm 
called the Antecedent or Cor- | buin an Dàimheach. 
relative. 



* Fèin is pronounced fè, kè, hèin, in Perthshire, &c, and ìiìn, htin, in the 
North Highlands. Some say sib-pèin, for sibh-fèin. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 73 



The Relatives are a, nach, \ Is ìad na Dàimhich a, 
na. They are alike in both nach, na, tha ìad co-ionan 's 
numbers ; thus, an dà àireamh ; mar-so, 

Mas. Fem. 

Nom. à, a, who, which, that: qui, quse, quod. 

Nom. nàch, nach, who not, whom not, which not, that not. 

Dat. àm, àn, am, an, whom, which, that. 

Nom. na, m. & /. what, the thing or things which, fyc. 

Obs. 1. — The relative a becomes am* after a preposition and 
before a labial ; as, an tì aig am beil cluas èisdeadh è, he who 
has an ear let him hear. A' chas air am fuaighear so. The 
relative a becomes an after a prepositionj and before a vowel or 
any of the other consonants ; as, an t-eilean ris'an abrar Patmos, 
the island which is called Patmos. Na làithean anns àn robh 
sìnn ait, the days in which we were glad. 

Obs. 2. — The antecedent is often expressed before the rela- 
tive by another appropriate term, for the purpose of making the 
reference more obvious, by placing the antecedent in its proper 
position when several clauses intervene between it and the rela- 
tive ; as, " uime sin thug Dìa thairis wd, mar-an-cèudna, tre ana- 
mìannaibh àn cridhefèin, chum neò-ghloine, a thoirt eas-urraim 
d'àn corpaibh fèin eatorra fèin ; muinntir a chaochail f ìrinn Dè 
gu brèig." — Rom. i. 24, 25. 

The words used to represent the antecedent are, such as, fear, 
neach, rìì, tì, cùis, muinntir, feadhain, ceum, &c.t 

Obs. 3. — The relative am or an, preceded by the preposition 
do, to, (contracted d',) is used for whose, the genitive case of the 
English relative, to express ownership; as, " bha duine ann an tìr 
Uis d'dm b'ainm Iob," there was a man in the land of Uz whose 
name was Job : literally, to whom the name was Job. 

Na includes in itself both the antecedent and relative ; it has 
no antecedent expressed before it at any time ; as, Fhuair mì na 
dh'-ìarr mì, I got what (thing or things which) I asked. An è 
sin na th' agad ? Is that what^oij have ? Mu na thubhairt 's 
na 'rinn, thu, concerning what thou hast said, and what thou 
hast done. , 

4. INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. I 4. ROIMHEARAN CEISTEACH. 

Thes^g are used in asking Gabhar ìad so a dh-f haidh- 
questions ; as, | neachd cheistean ; mar, 

* The forms am and an are merely for the sake of euphony. When the ante- 
cedent is masculine the point is placed above the relative, and below it when the 
antecedent is feminine. 

t The want of inflection in the relative renders the repetition of the antecedent 
necessary in many cases to avoid ambiguity.— See Syntax. Position of the Rela- 
tive. 



74 



C6? 
Cia? 
Ciod? 
Creud ? 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Who ? Ciod è ? * What ? What ìs it ? Co aca ? Which 9 Whether? 
Which ? Co è ? mas. Who? Who is he ? Co dhiùbh ? Which o/them? 
What? Co ì ? fem. Who? Whoisshe? Cialian? )„ 
Which ? Co ìad ? pl. Who ? What ? Cia meud ? f How man ^ 9 



Obs. Cìa, ciod, creud., are pronounced Jcè, Jcut, crèt. 



INDEFINITE INTERROGATIVE RIOCHDARAN CEISTEACH 

PRONOUNS. NEO-CHIN NTEACH. 

These are indefinite words Is focail neo-chinnteach ìad 
composed of interrogatives and so iar àn deanamh suas de 
indefinites ; as, na ceistich 'us de neo-chinnt- 

ich ; mar, 

Co air bith,f co sam bith, cia bith, cia b'e air bith, 

wJioso, whosoever, wlioever. 

Ciod air bith, ciod sam bith, whatever, ivhatsoever ; ge 
b'e,J ge b' e sam bith, w/ioever, w/iic/iever, whicJisoever. 



5. POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

These are used before nouns 
to indicate that the object men- 
tioned belongs to a person or 
thing. 

1. 2. 

Sing. mo, m', my, do, d\ thy, 
Plur. ar, our, bhur/ur §, 



5. RIOCHDARAN SEILBHEACH. 

Cuirear ìad so roimh ainmear- 
aibh, a'nochdadh gu'm buin an 
cuspair ainmichte do 'neach no 
do 'nì. 

3. Mas. 3. Fem. 

à, his, its. à, her, its. 
, àm, àn, their, àm, àn, tJieir. 



Obs. — The possessives mo, do, elide the o before a vowel or f 
aspirated, and d, Jiis, or its, is cut out entirely before a vowel ; 
as, m'obair, for mo obair, my ivorJc ; d'ad,|| for do ad, your hat ; 
m' f hocal, for mo f hocal, my ward ; 'ord, for à òrd, his ham- 
mer. This elision may be conveniently avoided by varying the 
construction thus : An obair agam, an ad agad ; an t-òrd aige, 
na h-ùird aige, no à chuid òrd. Mo and do sometimes elide the 



* In conversation " Ciod è" is often corrupted into gu de and de ; as, Gu de do 
bharail ? What is yonr opinion ? De tha sìbh a' deanamb ? What are you doing ? 

+ For the sake of perspicuity and facility to tyros in parsing, and in tracing 
their meaning, these corapounds should be hyphened ; as, Co-air-bith, co-sam-bith, 
cia-bith, cia-be-air-bith, or incorporated into one word like their English corre- 
spondents ; as, Coairbith, cosambith, ciabith, ciodairbith, gebe, &c. Whatsoever is 
a compound of what, so, and ever, and ùnusquisque of iinus, quis, and que. There 
is no good reason why the same mode of compounding such words as these, should 
not be adopted in Gaelic as well as in English and Latin. 

^ Ge b'e, seems to be a corruption of cia air bith or cia bith. 

§ Ar and bhur, or 'ur, are often pronounced nar, nicr, and na. 

|| We fìnd this cT often changed into t': as, t'anail for d'anail, thy breath : but 
this change is certainly very improper ; may we not write " to bhèul," as well as 
" Vanail?" 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 75 

o before a consonant, when their noun is governed by a prepo- 
sition ending in a vowel ; as, ri m' thaobh, at my side : fo d' 
chois, under thy foot. 

The Possessives are rendered emphatic by placing the prono- 
minal affixes -se, -sa, -san, -ne, after the noun with which 
they are combined ; but -se of the first person is here changed 
into -sa. 

The Possessives combined with a noun beginning with a con- 
sonant : — 



Sing. Emphatic. 

mo mhac, mo mhac-sa, my son. 

do mhac, do mhac-sa, thy son. 
m. à mhac, à mhac-san, his son. 
f. à mac, à mac-san, her son. 
f. àcìr, à cir-se, hercomb. 



Plur. Emphatic. 
ar mac, ar mac-ne, our son. 
bhur mac, bhur mac-se, your son. 
àm mac, àm mac-san, their son. 
àm mac, àm mac*-san, their son. 
àn c r, àn cìr-san, iheircomb. 



The Possessives combined with a noun beginning with a 
vowel : — 



Sing. Emphatic. 

m' each, m'each-san, my horse. 

d' each, d' each-sa, thyhorse. 
m. 'each, 'each-san, his horse. 
f. àh-each, à h-each-san, Aer horse. 



Plur. Emphatic. 
ar n-each, ar n-each-ne, our horse. 
ur n-each, 'ur n-each-se, your horse. 
àn each, àn each-san, } their 
àn each, àn each*-san, § horse. 



When the noun is followed by one or more adjectives, the 
emphatic syllable is annexed to the last adjective; as, mo cheànn 
bàn-sa, my fair head ; mo cheànn bòidheach bàn-sa, my pretty 
fair head. 

The word fèin, here signifying ow?i, is frequently used in- 
stead of the emphatic syllables ; as, mo spòran fèin, my own 
purse, &c. Sometimes the emphatic syllable is added to the 
word before fèin ; as, mo spòran dubh-5<s fèin, my own black 
purse ; just my own black purse. 



6. DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUNS. 

These refer to persons or 
things separately. 



6. RIOCHDAEAN ROINNEACII. 

Gabhar ìad so 5 an labhairt 
mu 'neach no nì air-leth. 

Aon, one, gach, each; a h-uile, every ; as, gach làmh, each 
hand; a h-uile fear, every man ; a h-uile h-aon, every one. 

Uile placed after its noun signifies all or whole ; as, na caor- 
aich uile, all the sheep ; an saoghal uile. Uile with the plural 



* The same construction is used, in every person, for the plural noun; as, mo 
mhic or mo mhic-sa, my sons, &c. M'eich or m'eich-sa, my horses, &c. — Vide 
Syntax. Possessive Pronouns. 



76 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLÀCHADH. 



article, signifies all, when prefixed to a noun ; as, na h-uile 
dhaoine, all men. 



7. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

These are used to point out 
a person or thing ; as, 



7. RIOCHDARAN DEARBHACH. 

Gabhar ìad so, a chomhar- 
rachadh a-mach, neach no nì ; 
mar, 

So, (sho) this, these. Sin, that,those; this, these. Sid, sud, 
ud, yon, yonder. 

Applied thus, — Am fear so, tliis one, m. ; na fir so, these men ; 
an tè so, this one, f. ; na mnathan so, these women. 

A'chlach sin, that stone ; na clachan sin, those stones ; Sid 
am fìadh, yonder (is) the deer. Sid na fèidh, yonder (are) the 
deer. Sid è, yonder he (is) / sud an t-àit, yonder (is) the place. 

A'chraobh ud, yon tree ; na craobhan ud, yon trees ; so an 
abhainn, this (is) the river. An è so do bhràthair ? (Is) this 
your brother ? 

The demonstratives so and sin are compounded with the third 
personal pronouns ; thus, è so, m., ì so, /., this one; è sin, m., 
ì sin, /., that one ; ìad so, these ; ìad sin, those or these. 

8. RIOCHDARAN NEO-CHINN- 
TEACH. 



8. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 



Gabhar ìad so 'an labhairt 
mu'neach no'nithibh air dòigh 
neo-chìnnteachno choitcheann; 



mar 



These are used in speaking 
of persons and things in an 
indefinite or general manner ; 
as, 

Araon, 1 Chèile, both, 

Faraon, > both, Cuid, some, apart. Leithid, such, the UJce. 
Maraon, ) together. Eigin, some. Na h-uile, pl. all, whole. 

Air-bith, any. Eile, other. Sam-bith, any. 

Càch, the rest, other. Feadhain, pl. some. Tèile,/. (tèeile), another. 

Applied thus, — D'an sùilibh faraon, to botli their eyes. Fear* 
air-bith, any man. Taobh air-bith, any side. Rud air-bith, 
any thing. Càch a chèile, one another. Chì mì sìbh le chèiie, 
I shall seeyou both. Bhuail ìad a chèile, tliey struch each other. 
Cuid eigin, somebody. Cuid eile, some other, another part. 
Fear eile, another one. Rathad eile, another way or road. 
Feadhain eile, other people, others. An cualas rìamh aleithid ? 
JVas such a thing ever heard ? A leithid eile, such another. 
Dad sam-bith, nì sam-bith, any thing. 

* Fear, one, is applied to all nouns masculine, whether persons or things, and 
tè, one, is applied to all nouns feminine. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 77 



9. COMPOUND OR PREPOSI- 
TIONAL PRONOUNS. 

The personal Pronouns 
are elegantly united with a 
number of simple Preposi- 
tions, in which connexion 
both the prepositionand pro- 
noun are thrown into one 
word, expressive of the 
meaning of the two ; and 
hence called Compound or 
Prepositional Pronouns. 



9. RIOCHDARAN MEASGTA NO 
ROIMHEARAIL. 

Tha na riochdaràn Pear- 
santail iar àn aonadh gu- 
snasmhor riaireamh 'roimh- 
earàn sìngilt agus 's an 
aonadh so, tha ìad le chèile 
iar àn deanamh 'n àn aon 
fhocal a'nochdadh brigh' an 
dà fhocail, agus o sin their- 
ear Riochdaràn Measgta no 
Roimhearail riù. 



The prepositions used in these compound words are, aig, air, 
ann, à, de, do, eadar, fo, gu, le, mu, o, ri, roimh, thar, troimh. 
Some of these suffer a change of spelling and a transposition of 
their letters, and all the pronouns undergo an etymological 
change in their incorporated state. 

The Compound or Prepositional Pronouns are formed and de- 
clined in the following order : — 

SINGULAR, AONAR. PLURAL. IOMADH. 

lPer. 2 3 3 1 Per. 2 3 

Mì,me. tu, thee. e,him, ì,her. Sìnn, us. sìbh,^ow. ìad, them. 
Aig, ag, at i as, agam, at me. 

Mas. Fem. Mas. & Fem. 

Agam-sa^^agad-sa.aige-sanjaice-se.Againn-nejagaibh-se^aca-san. 
At me at thee at him at her at us at you at them. 

Air, ar, on ; as, òrm, on me, §c. 
Orm ort àir oirre Oirnn òirbh orra 
Onme onthee onhim onher onus onyou onthem. 

Ann, ìnn, in ; as, annam, in me, fyc. 
Annam annad ànn ìnnte Annainn annaibh ànnta 

A, às, outof ; as, àsara, out ofme, 6$c. 
Asara àsad às àiste Asainn àsaibh àsda 

De, qf, off o? from; as, àìom,from me, £$c. 
Dìom dìot deth d'i Dìnn dìbh diù, diùbh 
Dhìom dhìot dheth dh'i Dhìnn dhìbh dhiù 



* These are rendered emphatic, like the possessive pronouns, hy annexing the 
syllahles -sa, -se, -ne, -san, to them. 



78 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 
Do, to ; as, domh, to me, 6$c. 

Singular. Plural. 1 

1 Per. 2 3 3 1 2 3 

Domh duit, dut dà dì Dùinn dùibh dòibh. 
Dhomh dhuit dhà dhì Dhùinn dhùibh dhòibh. 

Eadar, between ; as, eadarainn, between us, S^c. 
— — — — *Eadarainn, eadaraibh, eatorra 
Fo, under ; as, fodham, under me, S$e. 
Fodham fodhad fodha fòipe Fodhainn fodhaibh fòpa. 

Gu, ug, to, towards ; as, h-ugam, to, me, &;c. 
H-ugam h-ugad h-uige h-uice H-ugainn h-ugaibh h-uca 

Le, with ; as, leam, wìth me, 8$c. 
Leam leat leis leatha {^n lejhh leò^ 

Mu, um, about ; as, umam, about me, Sjc. 
Umam umad uime uimpe Umainn umaibh ùmpa 

O, bho, ua, from ; as, uam, from me, S$c 
Uam uat,uait uaithe uaipe Uainn uaibh 

{uatha 

Ri, to ; as, rium, to me, at me, S^c. 

t,. . , . . (Ruinn ruibh riù 

Rmm nut,rut ns r.the ( Rinn rinn ^ 

Roimh, romh, before ; as, romham, before me, S^c. 
Romham romhad roimhe roimpe Romhainn romhaibh rompa 
Thar, over, across ; as, tharam, over me, Sjc. 
t t,hai , *te 

Tharam tharad thairis air { . , . . . Tharainn tharaibh tharta 
( tnams oirre 

Troimh, through ; as, tromham, througli me, 8$c. 
Tromham tromhad troimhe troimpe Tromhainn tromhaibh trompa. 

Obs. 1. — Agam, agad, againn, agaibh, are vulgarly pronounced 
à-ùm, à-ud, à-inn, à-iv, in different parts of the North. 

2. The third persons singular masculine of òrm and annam, 
pass into the preposition alone without any trace of the pronoun ; 
as, air, ann. These should always be marked thus, àir, ànn, 
to distinguish them from the simple prepositions. 

3. Dìom and domh are indiscriminately used in their plain or 



* Eadar is only compounded with the first, second, and third person plural. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 79 



aspirated forms, in each person of both numbers ; as, dìom or 
dhiom, &c, domh, or dhomh, &c. Dòibh is sometimes written 
dàibh, but there can be no doubt that dòibh is the correct ortho- 
graphy : it is written dhòibh in the Irish ; as, " ar gcluinsin an 
rìgh dhòibh." — Mat. ii. 9. 

4. Instead of h-ugam, similar compounds with the preposition 
chun, thun, to, are often used ; as, chugam, chugad, chuige, 
chuice, pl., chugainn, &c. Thugam, thugad, thuige, thuice, pl., 
thugainn, &c. ; as, " 's ànn thugad thig gach aon." — Salm. 

5. Uam often begins with bh-, in each person of both numbers, 
chiefly in the spoken language ; as, bhuam, bhuat, bhuaithe, 
bhuaipe, pl., bhuainn, &c. This form comes from the preposi- 
tion bho. 

6. Tharam in the third person singular masculine assumes 
the form thairis àir. 

EXERCISE ON THE PRONOUNS. CLEACHDADH AIR RIOCHDARAIBH. 

1. What hind ofpronoun is, — Mì, mo, sìnn, so, gach, ì, sin, 
è, à, sìbh, à, nàch, eile, cd, uile, na, ciod, bhur, cuid, ar, am, 
mise, ìadsan, thu-fèin, ise, co aca, d', sinne, ud, ìad, è so, tèile, 
cia, leithid, do, à, ge b'e, ciod air bith, sìbhse, ì-fèin, feadhain ? 

2. What is the English, Number, and Person of the Pro- 
nouns, — Agam, aice, agaibh, ort, àir, orra, annad, ìnnte, ànnta, 
àsam, àsainn, diom, deth, d'i, dhiùbh, dhuit, dhòibh, eadarainn, 
fòipe, fodhainn, h-uige, h-ugaibh, leis, leò, umam, umainn, 
uaipe, uaibh, rithe, riutha, romhad, tharam, troimpe, dì ? 

3. Translate, — Mo chèann, do làmh, à toil fèin, à bhalg- 
san, gach craobh ; an là so ; an cnoc ud ; ar baile ; bhur mac- 
se ; ciod tha na fìr ag ràdh ? à tigh ; an saoghal uile ; tha ì tìnn ; 
bhris do mhèann à chas ; fear à thuit ; à sùil ghoirt ; sid gille 
nan car ; so caraid nàch trèig mì. Làmh nach tog mì. 

Tha ìad maraon glan. Thug è dhomh deoch. Tha mìr aige. 
Is bròg ghrìnn ì so, cuir do chas ìnnte. Tha fichead coinneal 
air a' bhòrd, thoir cdig dheth. Thoir h-ugam an ròp. Bha 
cònnsachadh eatorra. Cuir na caoraich romham. Thug Sìm 
uam mo sgìan. Là n' ch faic sì ì. 

4. Translate, — At us, on thee, on you, in me, in us, who, 
out of them, this, of him, of her, of them, every, between us, 
myself, under her, you, to us, with me, whoever, about me, 
some, from thee, ourselves, from her, my, to me, their, before 
you, over us, our, through them, his, her, some, to her. 



80 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



INFLECTION OF VERBS. 

A Verb* is declined by 
Voices, Moods, Tenses or 
Times, Numbers, Persons, 
Simple and Compound 
Forms. 

Verbs are divided into 
five classes, viz. Regular, 
Irregular, Auxiliary or 
Helping, Defective, and Im- 
personal. 

Verbs are of two kinds, 
Transitive and Intransi- 
tive. 

A Transitive Verb ex- 
presses action, passing from 
the agent or doer to some 
object ; as,, " Bhuail Tomas, 
am bòrd." Thomas struck the 

TABLE. 

An Intransitive Verb ex- 
presses being or action, which 
has no person or thing for its 
object; " Tha mì," I am. 
" Sheas a' chraobh/' the tree 

STOOD. 

Transitive Verbs have two 
Voices, the Active and the Pas- 
sive. 

The Active Voice is the form 
which the Verb takes when its 
subject or nominative is the 
agent or doer ; as, " Gheàrr 
Sèumas a' chraobh," James cut 
the tree. 

The Passive Voice is the 
form which the Verb takes 
when its subject or nominative 
is the object of the verbal 
action ; as, " Ghearradh a' 
chraobh," the tree was cut. 



TEARNADH GHNIOMHARAN. 

Teàrnar Gnìomhar le 
Guthàn, Modhàn, Timean, 
Aireamhàn, Pearsàn, Staid- 
ean Singilt agus Measgta. 

Tha Gnìomharàn ròinnte 
'nàn còig seòrsa, eadh. 
Riailteach, Neo-riailteach, 
Taiceil, Gaoideach, agus 
Neo-phearsantail. 

Tha Gnìomharàn de dhà 
ghnè, Asdach 'us Anasd- 
ach. 

Tha Gnìomhar Asdach a' 
nochdadh gnìomh' a' dol às 
a' chùìsear no'n deanadair 
gu cuspair eigin ; mar, 
" Gheàrr Iain a' chraobh." 
Jbhn cut the tree 

Tha Gnìomhar Anasdach, 
a' nochdadh bith no gnìomh' aig 
nach 'eil neach no nì mar 
chuspair dà ; mar, " Is mì," / 
am. (i Tha 'm fèur a' fàsy 
the grass grows. 

Tha dà Ghuth aig Gnìomh- 
aran Asdach, an Spreigeach, 
'us am Fulangach. 

Is è an Guth Spreigeach an 
staid a ghabhas an gnìomhar 
'nuair'is è 'chùisear no 'ain- 
meach deanadair a' ghnìomha ; 
mar, (C Bhuail Cailean an cù," 
Colin struck the dog. 

Is è an Guth Fulangach an 
staid a ghabhas an gnìomhar 
'nuair tha 'chùisear no 'ain- 
meach a' fulang fo ghnìomh a' 
ghnìomhair; mar, " BhuaiU 
eadh an cù"the dog was struck. 



* For a Definition of the 



Verb, see page 29, No. 5. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 81 



Modhan. — Is ìad na Modh- 
àn, staidean a ta 'feuchainn 
na dòigh' air am beil gnìomh 
a' ghnìomhair, deante. 

Tha cdig modhàn ànn; 
an t-Aìneach, an Taisbean- 
ach, an Comasach, an Lean- 
tach, agus am Feairteach. 

1. Tha 'n t-Aìneach ag òrd- 
uchadh 's an dàra pearsa, agus 
ag aithris miann no toil* 's a' 
cheud, 'us cead 's an treas pear- 
sa, anns an dà àireamh ; mar, 
1. Faiceamaid, let us see; 2. 
Vaisgibh, fold ye ; Oladh ìad, 
let them drinh. 

Is è dàra pearsa aonar, an 
Aìnìch, frèumh no stèidh a' 
ghnìomhair. 

2. Tha 'n Taisbeanach a' 
dearbhadh no' fòillseachadh nì ; 
mar, " bhuail mì," I struck. 

3. Tha 'n Comasach sl' nochd- 
adh saorsà, comais no èiginn ; 
mar, " Is urrainn mì pasgadh," 
/ can fold. 

4. Riochdaichidh am Modh 
Leantach gnìomh, fo chùmh- 
nant, fo thogradh no fo thoil, 
&c, agus tha gnìomhar eile 'gà 
leantuinn ; mar, " ma thilgeas 
tu fiadh gheibh tha crùn," if 
2/ou will shoot a deer you will 
get a crown. 

The Indicative, Potential, and Subjunctive Moods have Con- 
ditional, Interrogative and Negative forms. 



Moods. — Moods or Modes 
are forms showing the manner 
in which the verbal action is 
represented. 

There are five Moods ; the 
Imperative, the Indicative, 
the Potential, the Subjunc- 
tive, and the Infinitive. 

1. The Imperative expresses 
a command in the second per- 
son, and a wish or desire in the 
first, and permission in the 
third of both numbers; as, 1. 
Faiceam, let me see : 2. Paisg, 
fold thou: 3. Oladh è, let him 
drink. 

The second person singular 
of the Imperative is the root or 
theme of the Verb. 

2. The Indicative Mood sim- 
ply asserts or declares a thing ; 
as, " tha sìnn a' pasgadh," we 
are folding. 

3. The Potential implies 
liberty, ability, or necessity ; 
as, " Faodaidh mì pasgadh," I 
may fold. 

4. The Subjunctive Mood 
represents an action under a 
condition, motive, or wish, &c, 
and is attended by another 
Verb ; as, " Sgrìobhainn litir," 
na'n robh ùin agam, / would 
write a letter if lhad time. 



5. The Infinitive Mood ex- 
presses the verbal action or state 
in a general manner, without 
number or person ; as, pas- 
gadh, folding. 



5. Nochdaidh am Modh 
Feairteach, gnìomh no staid a' 
ghnìomhair, air dòigh chum- 
anta, gun àireamh no pearsa ; 
mar, bualadh, striking. 

p 



82 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Obs. — Both the Infinitive and Present or Imperfect Parti- 
ciple of every Verb terrainate alike, but the participle requires 
" a'" before it when it begins with a consonant, and "ag" 
when it begins with a vowel ; as, " a' pasgadh," folding, or at 
folding ; " ag ìocadh," paying, or atpaying. 



t. The Interrogative form 
simply asks a question ; as, 
Am beil thu an-sin ? Are you 
there ? 

2. The Negative is used to 
deny a thing ; as, Cha n-eil 
mì fuar," / am not cold. 

3. The Conditional is used 
to express conditional or con- 
tingent action or existence ; as, 
"raa mhàrbh è ròn gheibh è 
guna." 

The Participle is a part of a 
verb, itpartakesof theproperties 
of an adjective, and expresses 
òeing, action, or suffering. 

TENSES OR TIMES. 

Verbs have two simple 
Tenses,* the Past and the 
Future ; ancl three com- 
pound Tenses, the Present, 
the Perfect, and Pluperfect. 

The Present Tense signifies 
that the verbal action or state 
is going on just now, or in pre- 
sent time ; as, " Tha mì," / 
am. " Tha na fir a' bualadh," 
the men are striking. 

The Past Tense signifies 
that the verbal action or state 
is past and gone, or in past 
time ; as, " Bhuail mì," / 
struclc. 



1. Tha'n staid Chèisteach a- 
mhàin a' faighneachd cèiste ; 
mar, An èisd sìbh ? Will ye 
hear ? 

2. Gnàthaichear an Diùltach 
a dh'-àicheadh nì ; mar, " Cha 
robh è gHc," he was not wise. 

3. Gnàthaichear an Teagach 
a dh-aithris gnìomha, no bith 
fo theagamh, no fo thuiteamas ; 
mar, " mur fàg thu sin buailear 
thu." 

Is pàirt de ghnìomhar, am 
Pàirtear, tha rdinn de'nàdur a' 
bhuadhair ànn, agus tha è 'noch- 
dadh, bìth, gnìomha, no fulang. 

TIMEAN NO TRÀTHAN. 

Tha dà thìm singilt aig 
gnìomharàn, Seachad, agus 
Teacail. Agus trì tìmean 
measgte, an Làthair, an Làn 
agus an Roi-làn. 

Tha 'n tìm Làthair a' nochd- 
adh gu'm beil gnìomh, no 
staid a' ghnìomhair a' dol air an 
àm so, no 's an tìm à ta làthair ; 
mar, " Tha ìad ag òl," they are 
drinJcing. 

Tha 'n tim Seachad a' noch- 
dadh gu 'm beil gnìomh, no 
staid a' ghnìomhair, seachad, 
no 's an tìm à dh'-f halbh ; mar, 
" Thuit è," hefell. 



* There are only two verbs in Gaelic, viz. Br and is, to be, that have a simple 
present tense ; but this seeming defect is nicely supplied by the future, or the 
present tense of the verb bi combined with the present or past participle. The want 
of a simple present tense is not peculiar to the Gaelic language, the Hebrew and 
other Oriental languages want it also. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 83 



The Future Tense intimates 
that the verbal action or state 
is to take place in time to 
come ; as, " Chì mì sìbh am- 
màireach," I shall see you to- 
morrow. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Auxiliary Verbs are those 
by whose help the compound 
tenses of other Verbs are made 
up. The present and past 
tenses of the Auxiliary Verbs 
are exhibited thus, 

Present. Past. 
Tha, am, bha, was. 



Faodaidhl 
Fèudaidh/ m ^ 
Is urrainn, can, 
Is còir, ought, 



lhìn }migM. 



Tha 'n Teacail a' fdillseach- 
adh gu 'm beil, gnìomh, no 
staid a' ghniomhair gu tach- 
airt 'an tim ri teachd ; mar, 
" Togaìdh mì tigh," I shall 
buìld a house. 

GNIOMHARaN taiceil. 

Is ìad na gnìomharàn taiceil, 
ìad sin leis am beil Tìmean 
Measgte ghnìòmhar eile air an 
deanamh suas. Fòillsichear 
tìmean làthair 'us seachad nan 
taicearàn mar-so, 

Present. Past. 



Fèumaidh 
Fimiridh 
Is èiginn 
Is èudar 



ì »™,<./ dh'-fhèumainn \ would 
}must, dh ,. fhimiri 

b'èiginn ì , 



dh'-fhimirinn / need. 

} must > vflS } was oblig0d - 



dh'-fhèudainn 
b' urrainn, could. 
bu chòir, ought. 

PREPOSITIVE VERBAL PARTICLES. 

The following conjunctions or particles require special atten- 
tion, as they are constantly prefixed to verbs, in their different 
moods and tenses, to vary their meaning : — • 

Interrogative particles. — Am or an. 

Negative particles. — Cha, cha n-, ni'm or ni'n,* nach, not. 
Na, not, is prefixed to the Imperative only. 

Cha, always aspirates a verb beginning with b, f t m, p, and 
sometimes s. 

Conditional particles. — Ged, thouffh ; ged nach, though 
not; gu'm* or gu'n, gur, that; ma, na'm or na'n, if ; mur, if 
not; o'n or o, since, because. 

Obs. — Ged, ma, and o'n, are prefixed to all the tenses of the 
Indicative, except the Future active. Ged and o'n are prefixed 
to the Past and Future, mur to the Past and ma to the Future 
of the Subjunctive. 

tBi, be, or to be. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. 

1. Bitheam, -sa, let me be. 

2. Bì, bi thùsa, or bì-sa, 

3. Bitheadh è, let him l 



MODH AINEACH. 
Plural. 

1. Bitheamaid, -ne, let us be. 

2. Bithibh, -se, beye or you. 

3. Bitheadh ìad, let them be. 



* Gu'm, gu'n,- ni'm, ni'n ; na'm, na'n, are sometimes written gu-m, gu-n,- 
ni-m, ni-n ; na-m, na-n, and occasionally gum or gu ; nim, nin ,- nam, nan, òr na. 

+ Since the verb Bi enters so largely into the Co?npound Tenses of other verbs, 
it has been deemed proper to conjugate it fìrst, for an acquaintance with its varia- 
tions will make the inflection of any other verbs easy to the learner. 



84 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Negative form. — Nabitheam, let me not be. Na bi thusa, 
or na bì-sa, be thou not. Na bitheadh è, let him not be. Na 
bitheamaid. Na bithibh-se. Na bitheadh ìad. 

Contracted form. — Sing . 1. bì'm ; 2. bìsa, bìosa; 3. bìodh 
è. Plur. 1. bi'mid, biomaid ; 2. bi'bh; 3. biodh ìad. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. MODH TAISBEANACH. 

Principal Parts. Pàirtean Stèidheil. 

resent. Past. Future. Infinitive. 

Tha, or ta, bha, bithidh, bith, a bhith, or a bhi, 
am, wasy will be, being, to be. 

Present Tense. Tìm Làthair. 

(Conjunctions prefixed. — Ged, though ; ma, if ; o'n or o, since, because.) 
Singular. Plural 

1. Tha mì, or ta mì, I am. 1. Tha sìnn, or ta sìnn, weare. 

2. Tha thu, or ta thu, thou art. 2. Tha sìbh, or ta sìbh, ye are. 

3. Thaè, ì, or taè, ì, he, or she is. 3. Tha ìad, or ta ìad, they are. 
Ged tha mì, though I am, &c. ; ma tha mì, if I am, &c ; o'n 

tha mì, since I am, &c. ; mar tha mì, as I am, S$c. 

Past Tense. Tìm Seachad. 

(Conjunctions prefixed. — The same as in the Present Tense.) 
Singular. Plural. 

Bha mì, Iwas. Bha sìnn, we were. 

Bha thu, thou wast. Bha sìbh, ye were. 

Bha è or ì, he or she was. Bha ìad,* they were. 

Compound Tenses. 

Present Perfect Tense. Tìm Làthair Làn. 

Its helps, — tha iar, or tha air.f 
(Conjunctions prefixed. — The same as in the Present Tense.) 
Singular. Plural. 

Tha mi iar bhi,^ / have been. Tha sìnn iar bhi, we have been. 

Tha thu iar bhi, thou hast been. Tha sìbh iar bhi, ye have been. 

Tba è iar bhi, he has or hath Tha ìad iar bhi, they have 
been. been. 



* Another form of the Past is, do bha mi, do bha thu, do bha è or i ; Plur. do 
bha sìnn, do bha sibh, do bha ìad. But chiefiy employed in books. 

t The preposition " air," oti, at, is commonly used in forming the tenses of the 
Perfect and Pluperfect, instead of " iar," after, but there can be no doubt, as the 
following examples will show, that iar is theproper particle for these tenses ; thus, 
" Tha è air pòsadh," denotes that he is at or on a marriage, or present at the 
ceremony. " Tha è iar pòsadh," denotes that he has married, or is after perforra- 
ing the marriage ceremony. " Bha Sèumas air trusadh nan caorach," denotes 
that James was at the gathering of the sheep, or assistingat it. " Bha Sèumas iar 
trOsadh nan caorach , " James hadgathered the sheep.— See Stewart's Grammab. 

X Either bhith or bhi is used in all the tenses. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 85 



Past Perfect or Pluperfect Tense. Làn Seachad no Roi-làn. 

Its helps, — bha iar, or bha air. 
(Conjunctions prefixed.— The same as in the Present Tense.) 
Singular. Plural. 

Bha mì iar bhi, / had been. Bha sìnn iar bhi, we had been. 
Bha thu iar bhi, thou hadst been. Bha sìbh iar bhi, ye had been. 
Bha è iar bhi, he had been. Bha ìad iar bhi, they had been. 

Future Tense. Tìm Teacail. 

Its terminations are -idh in every person, and its secondary forms 
are made up of the second person singular of the Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

Bithidh mì, / shall or wiìl be. Bithidh sìnn, we shall or will be. 

Bithidh tu, thou shalt or wilt be. Bithidh sìbh, ye shall or will be. 

Bithidh è, he shall or will be. Bithidh ìad, they shall or will be. 



OTHER FORMS OF THE VEBB STAIDEAN EILE LEIS A 

"BI." GHNIOMHAR " BI." 

Present. Past. Future. 

Beil, bheil, 'eil, am. Robh, was. Bi, will be. 



INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Its particles are am before b,f 
m, p, and an before a vowel or 
any other consonant ; as, 



Present. 

Am beil mì ? or ì 

Am bheil mì? * >am I? &c. 

A bheil mì ? j 

Past. 

An robh mì ? was I? &c. 



Perfect. 

Am beil mì iar bhi ? have I 
beeni &c. 

Future. 

Am bi mi ? shall I be? &c. 



CONDITIONAL OR SUBJUNCTIVE 
FORM. 

Its conjunctions are gu'm, that, 
before b, f, m, p ; na'n, if (in the 
past tense only) ; and gu'n, that, 
before any other letter ; as, 
Present. 

Gu'm beil mì, or\ that I am, 
Gu'm bheil mì, J &c* 

Past. 

Gu'n robh mì, that I was, &c. 
Na'n robh mì, if I was, or if I 
had been, &c. 

Perfect. 

Gu'm beil mì iar bhi, that I 
have been, &c. 

Future. 

Gu'm bi mì, that 1 shall be,&c. 



* When the verb is alike in every person of both numbers, which is the caee in 
all these secondary forms, only the first person singular is printed ; the other per- 
sons of both numbers can be easily formed by the learner by annexing the pro- 
nouns,— thus, ambeUthu? ambeilè? &c. ; gu'm beil thu, gu'mbeil è, gu'm btil 
sìnn, gu'm beìl sìbh, gu'm beil ìad. 



86 ETYMOLOGY. 

NEGATIVE FOBMS. 

Its particles are, cha n-, cha, 
ni'm, or ni n, nach, not ; as, 

Present. 

Cha n-'eil, mì, Iam not, &c. 
Ni'm beil, or ni bheil mì, lam 

not, &c. 
Nach 'eil mì ? am I not ? &c. 

Past. 

Charobh*mì,ì r . . 
Ni'nrobh mZ\ Iw(U ™*>* a r 
Nach robh mì? was I not, 
&c.?t 

Future. 

Cha bhi mì, 1 / shall not be, 
Ni'm bi mì, J &c. 
Nach bi mì ? shall I not be ? 
&c. 



FOCLACHADH. 

CONDITIONAL FOBMS. 

Its conjunctions are, ged nach, 
though not ; mur, if not ; as, 

Present. 

Ged nach 'eil mì, though I am 

not, &c. 
Mur 'eil mì, \if I am not, 
Mur h-'eil mì, J &c. 

Past. 

Ged nach robh mì, though Iwas 
not, or had not been, &c. 

Mur robh mì, if I was not, or 
had not been, &c. t 
Future. 

Ged nach bi mì, though I shall 

not be, &c. 
Mur bi mì, iflshall not be, &c. 



Obs. 1. — Nach renders the verb both interrogative and negative 
in all the tenses. The particle ni'm, ni'n, or ni, is chiefly used 
in old books. Mur is often followed by h- before a vowel ; as, 
mur h-eil m\ ; mur h-toc mì, &c. 

Obs. 2. — After the relative pronouns a, am, &c, the forms 
beil, robh, and bi, of the verb " Bi," are affirmative ; as, " an 
leabhar air àm beil mì," the book on which I am. " Far an 
robh ìad," where they webe. They may be thus inflected with 
the relative, governed by a preposition : — 

Pbesent, air am beil mì, on which I am, &c. Past, air an 
robh mì, on which I was, or had been. Futube, air am bi mì, 
on which I shall be, &c. 

Obs. 3. — The forms 'eil, robh, bi, are always used after the 
neo;ative relative nach ; as, fear nàch 'eil, a man who is not ; 
fear nàch robh, fear nàch bi. 

Obs. 4. — " Am bheil," of the interrogative of bi, is oftener 
used than " am beil ;" but the latter seems to be the correct 
form, because the particle am does not aspirate b in any other 
part of this verb, or in any part whatever of any other verb 
beginning with b ; as, am bi, am bitheadh, am buail ¥ 



* Cha roih, mur rdbh, are, in some Northern districts, pronounced cha d'robh, 
mur d'robh, a contracted form of cha do robh, mur do rdbh. 

t The Perfect and Pluperfect Tenses are formed, as in pp. 84 , 85, by prefixing 
the particles ; as, cha, n-'eil mì iar bhi, &c. ; cha robh mì iar bhi, &c. ; mur 'eil 
mi iar bhi, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 87 



Obs. 5. — " Cha n-eil" is used for " cha bheil ;" bh is thrown 
out for euphony's sake, and n- is inserted between cha and 'eil, 
to prevent a Matus. In that case an apostrophe before the n, 
thus " cha 'n 'eil" is improper, because n is evidently here a 
euphonic letter, and should be written n-, thus, cha n-'eil. 

POTENTIAL IUOOD. MODH COMASACH. 

Compound Tenses. Tìmean Measgta. 

Present Tense. Tìm Làthair. 

Its helrjs, — Faodaidh, or feudaidh, may ; is urrainn,* can ; fèumaidh, 
fimiridh, is eiginn, or is èudar, must ; is còir, ought. 

Singular. 

Faodaidh no, is urrainn* mì bhith, Imay or can be. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn thu bhith, thou mayst or canst be. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn è bhìth, he may or can be. 

Plural. 

Faodaidh no, is urrainn sìnn a bhith, we may or can be. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn sìbh a bhith, ye may or can be. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn ìad a bhith, t'hey may or can be. 

Past Tense. Tim Seachad. 

Singular. 

Dh'-fhaodainn, no b'urrainn mì bhith, I might or could be. 
Dh'-f haodadh, no b'urrainn thu bhith, thou mightst or couldstbe. 
Dh'-f haodadh, no b'urrainn è bhith, he might or could be. 

Plural. 

Dh'-fhaodamaid, \ no b'urrainn sìnn a bhith, we might or 
Dh'-fhaodadh sìnn, j could be. 

Dh'-fhaodadh, no b'urrainn sìbh a bhith, ye might or could be. 
Dh'-f haodadh, no b'urrainn ìad a bhith, they might or could be. 

Present Perfect Tense.f Tim Làthair Làn. 

Faodaidh no, is urrainn mì bhi iar bhith, &c, Imayorcan 
have been, &c. 

Past Perfect Tense.f Tim Seachad Làn. 

Dh'-f haodainn, no b'urrainn mì bhi iar bhith, &c, / might or 
could have been, &c. 



* Urrainn is sometimes corrupted into urra or urradh, a word which signifies 
a child. We can see no reason for indulging in this contraction ; urrainn, we think, 
should always be used. 

t These tenses are never used ; the present tense is indiscriminately used to ex- 
press the tenses called the Present and Perfect Potential in English ; as, faodaidh 
mì bhith, I may be, or have beeti. And tlie Past tense is used to express the tenses 
called the Past and Pluperfect Potential ; as, dh'-fhaodadh è bhith, he might be, or 
have been, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Interrogative forms.— Present. 
Am faod* mì bhith ? may Ibe? &c. 
An urrainn mì bhith ? can I be ? &c. 
Am fèum mì bhith, am fimir mi bhith, 

or an èiginn domh a bhith ? must Ibe? 

&c. 



Past 

Am faodainn \ a bhith ? or? mipM I be? 
Am fèudainn a bhith ? j &c. 

Am faodadh tu bhith ? mightst thou be? 
&c. 

Am b'urrainn mìbhith? couldlbe? &c. 



fimirinn a bhith 



fi ?? was I t 



&c. 



Negative forms.— Present. 

Cha n-fhaod mì bhith, orl I may not 
Ni'm faod mì bhith, 
Cha n-urrainn mì bhith, or 
Cha n-urrainn domh a bhith 
Ni'n urrainn mì bhith, 



1 I mi 
i be, 

r \lca, 



cannot 
&c. 



Cha n-fhèum mì bhith, orl I m 
Ni'm fèum mì bhith 3 be, 



must not 
&c. 

Nach faod mì bhith ? may Inotbe? &c. 
Nach urrainn mì bhith ? can I not be ? 
&c. 

Nach fèum mì bhith ? &c. 



Past, 

Cha n-fhaodainn a bhith 
Ni'm faodainn a bhith 



th,7 I might no 
, S àe, &c. 

7 I could ì 
5 be, &c. 



Ni'm b'urrainn mì bhith 

Cha n-fhèumainn a bhithA I was not 
Ni'm fèumainn a bhith, f obliged to 
Cha n-fhimirinn a bhith, ì' be, or I 
Ni'm fimirinn a bhith, ) wouldnot 

need to be, &c. 
Nach faodainn a bhith ? might Inot be? 

&c. 

Nach b'urrainn mì bhith, &c. 
Nach fèumainn a bhith, &c. 



Conditional forms. — Present. 
Gu'm faod mì bhith, thatlmay be, &c. 
Gur urrainn mì bhith, 7 that I can be, 
Gu'n urrainn mì bhith, j &c. 
Gu'm fèum, gu'm fimir mi bhith, gur 
èiginndomhabhith,tfia< Imustbe, &c. 

Past. 

Gu'm faodainn a bhith, that I might be, 
&c 

Gu'm b'urrainn mì bhith, that I could 
be, &c. 

Gu'm fèumainn a bhith, that I was 
obliged to be, &c. 

Na'm faodainn a bhith, iflmight be, &c. 
Na'm b'urrainn mì bhith, if 1 could be, 
&c. 

Na'm fèumainn a bhith, if T was obliged 
to be, &c. 

Conditional forms.— Pmen£. 

Ged nach faod mì bhith, though I may 
not be, &c. 

Ged nach urrainn mì bhith, 7 though 
Ged nach urrainn domh a bhith , $ Ican- 

not be, &c. 
Ged nach fèum mì bhith, though I must 

not be, &c. 

Mur faod mì bhith, ifl may not be, &c. 
Mururrainn mì bhith, ifl cannotbe, &c. 
Mur fèum, or mur fimir mì bhith, if I 
must not be, &c. 

Past. 

Ged nach faodainn a bhith, though I 

might not be, &c. 
Ged nach b'urrainn mi bhith, though I 

could not be, &c. 
Ged nach fèumainn a bhith, though Iwas 

not obliged to be, &c. 

Mur faodainn a bhith, &c. 
Mur b'urrainn mì bhith, &c. 
Mur fèumainn a bhith, &c. 
Na'm faodainn a bhith, &c. 
Na'm b'urrainn mì bhith, &c. 
Na'm fèumainn a bhith, &c. 



* Faod, or fèud, andfaodainn, or fèudainn, &c. are used almost indiscrimi- 
nately in their respective tenses. 

t The verbsfaod, or fèud, andfcum, orfimir, have their first person singular 
past tense always ending in -inn. The pronoun mì, being incorporated in this per- 
son, is never expressed. The other persons terminate always in -adh, and have the 
pronouns expressed after them, except the first person plural, which commonly 
terminates in -amaid, and in that case rejects the pronoun sìnn.— -See Defective 
Verbs inflected. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 89 

The auxiliary verbs, is còir, is èiginn, is èudar, and the com- 
pound pronoun domh, form a compound present and past tense ; 
thus, 

Is còir a bhi, ought to be or should be. 

Present Tense. 

Sing. Is còir dhomh a bhi, / ought to be or should be. 
Is còir dhut a bhi, thou oughtst to be. 
Is còir dhà a bhi, he ought to be. 
Is còir dhì a bhi, she ought to be. 

Plur. Is còir dhùinn a bhi, we ought to be, or should be. 
Is còir dhùibh a bhi, you ought to be, or should be. 
Is còir dhòibh a bhi, they ought to be, or should be. 

Cond. Ged is còir dhomh a bhi, though I ought to be, &c. 

Gur còir dhomh, or gu'n còir dhomh a bhi, that^I 

ought to be, &c. 
Ma's còir dhomh a bhi, I ought to be, or shouldbe, &c. 

Inter. An còir dhomh a bhi ? ought Ito be? &c. 

Negat. Cha chòir dhomh a bhi, / ought not to be, &c. 
Nach còir dhomh a bhi, ought Inot to be? &c. 

Past Tense. 

Bu chòir dhomh a bhi, / ought to be, &c. 

Cond. Ged bu chòir dhomh a bhi, though lought to be, &c. 
Gu'm bu chòir dhomh a bhi, that I ought to be, &c. 
Na'm bu chòir dhomh a bhi, if I ought to be, &c. 

Inter. Am bu chòir dhomh a bhi ? ought Itobe? &c. 

Negat. Cha bu chòir dhomh a bhi, / ought not to be, &c. 

Nach bu chòir dhomh a bhi? ought Inot to be, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.* MODH LEANTACH. 

Past Tense. 

Sing. 1. Bhithinn, or bhi'inn,t Iwould or could be. 

2. Bhitheadh tu, or bhiodh tu, thou wouldst or couldst be. 

3. Bhitheadh è, or bhiodh è, he would or could be. 



~ * This mood has only the past and future tenses, and the future is used as an 
affirmative present in many cases ; the future indicative is also used as a present 
tense. 

f This is the contracted form of the past subjunctive, pronounced in every per- 
son like the complete form ; as, ve-inn, vi-ùgh. 



90 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Plur. 1. Bhitheamaid, ) 77 7 7 7 

Bhitheadh sìnn, / or Dniomaid > we would or could be. 

2. Bhitheadh sìbh, or bhiodh sìbh, ye would or could be. 

3. Bhitheadh ìad, or bhiodh ìad, they would or could be. 

Interrogative form. — Past Tense. 
Am bithinn ? would or could Ibe? 
Am bitheadh tu ? wouldst or couldst thou be ? &c. 

Conditional form. — Past or Pluperfect Tense. 
(Its conjunctions zxe,—ged, ged nach, gu'm, mur, na'm, o'w.) 
Ged bhithìnn, though Iwere, or though I had been, &c. 
Ged nach bithinn, though I were not, or had not been, &c. 
Mur bithinn, if I 'were not, or if I had not been, &c. 
Na'm bithinn, if I ivere, or if I had been, &c. 
Gu'm bithinn, that I would or could be, &c. 
O'n bhithinn, since I would or could be, &c. 

Negat. {Nrm b m\hir?n; } Iwould not or couU not he > &c * 
( Nach bithinn ? would or could I not be ? &c. 

Future Tense. Tìm Teacail. 

(Its conjunctions are, — ma, ged, o'n.) 
Sing. Ma bhitheas * mì, iflshall or will be, or iflbe. 

Ma bhitheas tu, ifthou shalt or wilt be, or thou be. 

Ma bhìtheas è, ifhe shall or will be, or ifhe be. 
Plur. Ma bhitheas sìnn, ifwe shall or will be, or ifwe be. 

Ma bhitheas sìbh, ifye shall or will be, or ifye be. 

Ma bhitheas ìad, ifthey shall or will be, or if 'they be. 

Ged bhitheas mì, though I shall or will be, &c. 

O'n bhitheas mì, since I shall or will be, &c. 

Ma dh'-fhaodas mì bhi, iflmay be. 

Ged dh'-f haodas mì bhi, though I may be. 

INFINITIVE. FEAIRTEACH. 

Bith, m. being, a being, existence.\ Do bhi, a bhi, gu bhi, to 
be. Chum a bhi, in order to be. Dol a bhi, going to be, &c. 



* Sometimes contracted bhios, and always pronounced vi-Us in both foi'ms. 

t " Do," the sign of the inftnitive, is, by metathesis, for the most part, softened 
into a ; as, " dol a bhi," for " dol do bhi," " dol a phasgadh," going to fold. 
The preposition do suffers this change, in many cases, before nouns ; as, " chàidh 
ìad a Dhunèdean," for " do Dunèdean."— See Syntax of the Prepositions. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 91 



Obs Bith loses the final th after the infinitive particles, and 

when the particle ends in a vowel it excludes the a ; as, gu bhi, 
not gu a bhi. 

PARTICIPLE. PAIRTEAR. 

Iar bhi, or air bhith, being, having been, after being. 



Plural. 

Iar dhùinn abhi, 200 having been. 
Iar dhùibh a bhi,j/<? having been. 
Iar dhòibh a bhi, they having 
been. 



Singular. 

Iar dhomh a bhi, Ihaving been. 
Iar dhut a bhi, thou having 
been. 

Iar dhà a bhi, he having been. 

IMPERSONAL FORMS. STAIDBAN NEO-PHEARSANTAIL. 

Bi, be, or to be. 

Indicative. 
Pres. Thàtar, thathar, or thathas, (it) is, are. 
Past. Bhàtar, bhàthar or bhathas, was. 
Fut. Bìtear, or bithear (ìt) shall or will be. 

Interrogative. 
Pres. Am beilear, am beileas ? is (it). 
Past. An robhar an robhas ? was (it) ? 
Fut. Am bìtear ? am bithear ? shall or will (it) 
be? 

Negative. 
"Cha n-'eilear, ni'm beilear, is not. 
_Nach'eilear ? is (it) not? 



Pres. 
Past. 



"Cha robhar, eha robhas 1 



(it) wasnot 



Fut. 



_Ni'n robhar, ni'n robhasj 
CCha bhìtear, cha bithear ? shall or 
(.Ni'm bìtear, ni'm bitheari will not be. 



CONDITIONAL. 

Ma thàtar, &c, ged thàtar, &c. 
Ma bhàtar, &c, ged bhàtar, &c. 
Mabhìtear, &c, gedbhìtear, &c. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Gu'm beilear, beileas, that (it) is. 
Gu'n robhar, robhas, that (it) was 
Gu'm bìtear, gu'm bithear, that 

(it) shall or will be. 

CONDITIONAL. 

Mur 'eilear, if (it) is not. 
Ged nach 'eilear though (it) is not. 
M ur robhar , robhas ,if( it ) was not. 
Ged nach robhar, though (it) was 
not. 

Mur bìtear, mur bithear. 
Ged nach bìtear,ged nach bithear. 

CONDITIONAL. — PttSt. 

Gedbhìteadh though (it) wouldbe. 
Ged nach biteadh, though (it) 

would not be. 
Mur bìteadh, if(it) would not be. 
Na'm bìteadh, if(it) would be. 

Application of impersonals. — Thàtar a' togail an tighe, 
the house is being built, or a-building. Thàtar ag ràdh gu'm 
beil plàigh 'an Eirionn, it is said that there is a pestilence in 
Ireland. Am beilear a' briseadh nan clach ? Are the stones 
a-breaking, being bro/cen, or are they breaking the stones? 
Cha n-'eilear 'g àm briseadh, they are not a-breaking or being 
broken. An robhas a' mìneachadh nan Sgriobturàn ? Were 
the Scriptures {being) explained ? Cha n-'eilear ag ràdh, it is 
not said. Thàtar a' cogadh, pugnatur, it is a-fighting or at 
fighting. Bhàtar or bhathas a' cogadh, pugnabatur, bithear a' 



Subjunctive.— PasU 
Bhìteadh (it) would be. 

Inter. Am biteadh ? would it be ? 

Negat. Cha bhìteadh, (it) would not be. 
Nach bìteadh ? would it tiot be ? 



cogadh, pugnabitur, &c. 

CONJUGATION OF VERBS. 

There are Two Conjuga- 



tions, 
cond. 



the First and the Se- 



SGEADACHADH GHNIOMHAR. 

Tha dà sgeadachadh ànn, 
a' Cheud agus an Dara. 



92 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Verbs beginning with a single consonant, or with a 
consonant followed by Z, w, or r * are of the First Conju- 
gation ; as, paisg, slànaich, snaidh, brosnaich. 

Verbs beginning with a vowel, or with / pure,-j- are of 
the Second Conjugation ; as, ìoc, pay, fàg, leave. 

FIRST CONJUGATION. A'CHEUD SGEADACHADH. 
Paisg, to fold, or wrap, complicare. 
Principal Parts. Pàirtean Stèidheil. 

Imperative. Past. Future. Infinitive. Past Part. 

Paisg, phaisg, paisgidh, pasgadh, paisgte. 
Fold. folded. shallfold. folding. folded. 

I§ir The learner must observe that in the following arrangement 
of the verb, the active and passive voices of each tense are put in juxta- 
position. He may either learn the active voice fìrst, or the active and 
passive voices of each tense together. 



IMPERATIVB MOOD. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 

Singular. 
-sa, let me fold. 
Paisg, or paisg thusa, fold thou, or do 

thoufold. 
Paisgeadh è, lel Mmfold. 

Plural. 

Paisgeamaid, -ne, let usfold. 
Paisgibh, -se, fold ye, or do youfold. 
Paisgeadh iad, let themfold. 

Negat. Na paisgeam, let me not fold, 
&c. 

Also, Diùltam, let me refuse, &c. 



FASSIVE VOICE. 

Singular. 
Paisgtear^ mi, let me befolded. 
Paisgtear thu, be thoufolded. 

Paisgtear è, let him befolded. 

Plural. 

Paisgtear sìnn, let us befolded. 
Paisgtear sìbh, be yefolded. 
Paisgtear ìad, let them befolded. 

Negat. Na paisgtear mi, let me not be 
folded, &c. 

Also, Diùltar mì, let me be refused, &c. 



* Verbs beginning with any other two consonants, such as sc-, sg-, sm-, sp-, st-, 
have no initial change whatever in any mood or tense. Their finai inflections are, 
in every case, like those of the first or second conjugation, for both conjugations 
are alike in their final inflections.-See Paradigm ofthe Verb. 

t That is,/immediately followed by a vowel ; as,fìll,fuirich. 

$ In conversation, the English idiom is commonlyfollowed in the first and third 
persons smgular and plural of the Imperative Active, and Passive, using the verb 
" leig, ' let, permit, and the compound pronoun dhomh beforethe Infinitive of the 
verb employed by thespeaker; thus, Active— 1. Leig dhomh pasgadh. 3. Leig 
dha pasgadh. 1. Leig dhùinn pasgadh. 3. Leig dhòibh pasgadh. Passive— 
Leig dhomh a bhi paisgte, leig dhà bhi paisgte, &c. This form is by no means so 
elegant as thesimple form, for it would sound exceedingly harsh, if a ministershould 
commence divine service by saying, leigibh dhùinn aoradh an Tiahearna a thòis- 
eacheadh, or leigibh dhìlinn toiseachadh ri aoradh an Tighearna. The simple 
form, which is the pure idiom, is uniformly followed in this expression ; as, 
" Tòisicheamaid aoradh (folaiseach) an Tighearna," let us begin the (vublic) wor- 
shipofGod. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 93 



INDICATIVE MOOD 



Present Tense. — Tìm Làthair. 
(The conjunctions of this mood are ged, ma, mar, 6 > n. See page 84.) 
Active Voice.— Guth spreigeach. | Passive Yoicz.—Guthfulangach. 

Singular. 

1. Tha mì* 'pasgadh, Ifold, &c. 

2. Tha thu 'pasgadh, thoufoldest, &c. 

3. Tha è 'pasgadh, hefolds, &c. 



Plural. 

1. Tha sìnn a' pasgadh, wefold. 

2. Tha sìbh a' pasgadh, yefold. 

3. Tha ìad a' pasgadh, theyfold. 

Tha mì diùltadh. &c. 



Past Tense.- 

Sìngular. 
Phaisg mì, or do phaisg mì, Ifolded. 
Phaisg thu, thou foldedst. 
Phaisg è, hefolded. 

Plural. 

Phaisg sìnn, or do phaìsg sìnn, wefolded. 
Phaisg stbh, yefolded. 
Phaisg iad, they folded. 

Dhiùlt mì, &c. 



Singular. 

1. Tha mi paisgtè, I amfolded. 

2. Tha thu paisgte, thou artfolded.\ 

3. Tha è paisgte, he is folded. 

Plural. 

1. Tha sìnn paisgte, we arefolded. 

2. Tha sìbh paisgte, ye arefolded. 

3. Tha iad paisgte, they arefolded. 

Tha mì diùlte, ordiùlta (notused). 

Tìm Seachad. 

Singular. 
Phaisgeadh mì, I wasfolded. 
Phaisgeadh thu, thou wastfolded. 
Phaisgeadh è, he wasfolded. 

Plural. 

Phaisgeadh sìnn , we werefolded. 
Phaisgeadh sibh, ye were folded. 
j Phaisgeadh ìad, they werefolded. 
Dhiùltadfc mì, &c. 



Present Perfect Tense. — Tìm Làthair Làn.f 



Singular. 
Tha mi iar pasgadh, / havefolded. 
Tha thu iar pasgadh, thou hastfolded. 
Tha è iar pasgadh, he has or hathfolded. 



Plural. 

Tha sìnn iar pasgadh, we havefolded. 
Tha sìbh iar pasgadh, ye havefolded. 
Tha ìad iar pasgadh, they havefolded. 



Singular. 

Tha mi iar mo phasgadh, I have been 
folded. [folded. 
Tha thu iar do phasgadh, thou hastbeen 
Tha è iar à phasgadh , he has beenfolded. 
Tha ì iar à pasgadh, she has been folded. 
Plural. 

Tha sìnn iar ar pasgadh, we have been 
folded. [folded. 
Tha sìbh iar bhurpasgadh, ye hàve been 
Tha ìad iar am pasgadh, they have been 
folded. 



Past Perfect or Pluperfcct Tense. — Tìm Làn Seachad, no Roi-làn. 



Bha mi iar pasgadh, / hadfolded, &c4 



Bha mì iar mo pasgadh, / had been 
folded, &c4 



* When the nominative to the verb ends in a vowel, the a' is excluded from this 
tense, and an apostrophe put in its place; as, tha mì 'pasgadh for a'pasgadh. But 
when the nominative ends in a consonant, it is retained ; as, tha sìnn a' pasgadh ; 
tha fear a' pasgadh. The particle a' heie is a contracted form of the preposition 
ag or aig, at,- so that the expression, tha sìnna' pasgadh, signifies literally, weare 
atfolding," like the English expression " we are at work," i. e. we are working. 

f Another form of the Perfect Passive is, — tha mì air bhi paisgtc, tha thu air 
bhi paisgte, &c. This tense is also used as a Present of verbs wliich do not admit of 
a past participle in -te ; as, " tha mi iar mo leantuinn," I am followed, or have 
been followed.—See Formation of 'the Verb. 

X This tense is, in every respect, like the Present Perfect, except that tha of tha 
Perfect is changed into bha. 



94 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Future Tense.—Tìm Teacail. 



Singular. 
Paisgidh mì,* I shall or willfold. 
Paisgidh tu, thou shalt or wiltfold/ 
Paisgidh è, he shall or willfold. 
Plural. 

Paisgidh sìnn, we shàll or willfold. 
Paisgidh sìbh, you shall or willfold. 
Paisgidh ìad, they shall or willfUd. 
hiùltaidh mì, &c. 

Active Voice. 

INTERROGATIVE FORMS. 

Present. 

Am beil mì 'pasgadh ? am Ifolding ? &c, 
Past. 

An do phaisg mì ? did Ifold ? &c. 
An robh mì 'pasgadh ? was Ifolding ? &c, 
Future. 

Ampaisgmì? shalllfold? &c. 

Am bi mi 'pasgadh ? shall I befolding ? &c, 

NEGATJVE FORMS. 

Present. 

Cha n-'eil mì 'pasgadh") I am not fold- 
Ni'm beil mì 'pasgadh J ing, &c. , 
Past. 

Cha do phaisg mì 1 j m mtfold &c> 
Ni'n do phaisgmij J ' 

Nach do phaisg mì ? did I notfold ? &c 

Future. 

CONDITIONAL FORMS. 

Pres. Ged tha mì 'pasgadh, &c. 

Ged nach 'eil mì 'pasgadh, &c. 

Gu'm beil mì 'pasgadh, &c. 

Mur 'eilmì 'pasgadh, &c. 

Ma tha mì 'pasgadh, &c. 
Past. Ged do, ged nach do phaisg mì 
&c. 

Gu'n do phaisg mì, &c. 
Mur do phaisg mi, &c. 
Ma phaisg mì, &c. 
Fut. Ged nach paisg mì, &c. 
Gu'm paisg mì, &c. 
Mur paisg mì, &c. 



Singular. 

Paisgear mì,f I shall or will befolded. 
Paisgear thu, thou shalt orwiltbefolded. 
Paisgear è, he shall or will befolded* 
Plural. 

Paisgear sìnn, we shall or will befolded. 
Paisgear sìbh, ye shall or will befolded. 
Paisgear iad, they shall or will befolded. 
Diultar mì, &c 

Passive Voice. 

INTERROGATIVE FORMS. 

Present. 

Am beil mì paisgte ? am Ifolded? &c. 
Past. 

An do phaisgeadh mì ? was Ifolded? &c 
An robh mì paisgte? was Ifolded? &c. 
Future. 

Am paisgear mì ? shall I befolded ? &c. 
Am bi mì paisgte ? shall I befolded ? &c. 

NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Present. 

Cha n-'eil mì paisgte") I am not folded, 
Ni'm beil mì paisgte $ &c> 
Past. 

Cha do phaisgeadh mì "> Iwas notfolded, 
Ni'n do phaisgeadh mìj &c. 
Nach do pbaisgeadh mì ? was I not 
folded, &c. 

Future. 

Cha phaisgear mìl / shall not be folded, 
Ni'm paisgear mìj &c. 

CONDITIONA h FORMS. 

Pres. Ged tha mì paisgte, &c. 

Ged nach 'eil mì paisgte, &c. 

Gu'm beil mì paisgte, &c. 

Mur 'eil mì paisgte, &c. 

Ma tha mì paisgte, &c. 
Past. Ged do, ged nach do phaisgeadh 
mi, &c. 

Gu'n phaisgeadh mì, &c. 

Mur do phaisgeadh mì, &c. 

Ma phaisgeadh mi, &c. 
Fut. Ged phaisgear mi, &c. 

Gu'm paisgear mi, &c. 

Mur paisgear nii, &c. 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Its helps. — Faodaidhor feudaidh, is urrainn, fe'umaidh, fimiridh, is 
e'iginn, is èudar, is còir. 

* There is no conjunction or particle prefixed to this tense, in this form, to vary 
its meaning.— See Future Tense, page 85. 

t Another form of the Future Passive,— bithidh mi paisgte, bithidh tu paisgte, 
&c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Active Voice. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn mì pas- 
gadh, Imaj/or canfold. 

Faodaidh ?io, is urrainn thu 
pasgadh, &c* 



FOCLACHADH. 



95 



Passive Voice. 
Faodaidh no, is urrainn mì bhi 
phaisgte, I mai/ or can be 
folded. 

Faodaidh no, is urrainn thu 
bhi paisgte, &c. 



Past Tense. 



Singular. 
Dh'-fhaodainn pasgadh. 
Dh'-fhadadh tu pasgadh. 
Dh'-fhaodadh è 



Plural. 

Dh'-f haodamaid pasgadh. 
Dh'-fhaodadh sìbh pasgadh. 
Dh'-fhaodadh ìad pasgadh. 



Singular. 

Dh'-f haodairm a bhi paisgte. 
Dh'-fhaodadh tu bhi paisgte. 
Dh'-f haodadh è bhi paisgte. 

Plural. 

Dh'-f haodamaid a bhi paisgte. 
Dh'-f haodadhsìbh abhi paisgte. 
Dh'-f haodadh ìad a bhi paisgte. 



Note. — There is another Potential Passive formed by using the 
passive forms of the auxiliaries, faodaidh, is urrainn, and fèumaidh, 
<${c., before the infinitive active ; and the possessive pronouns ; as, 

Pres., — Faodar mo phasgadh, / may be folded, §c. ; is urrainnear 
mo phasgadh, / can befolded, Qc. ; fèumar or fìmirear mo phasgadh, / 
must be folded, fyc. Past, — Dh'-fhaodteadh mo phasgadh, / might be 
folded, \c. ; b' urrainnear mo phasgadh, / could be folded, fyc. ; dh'- 
f hèumteadh, or dh'-fhimirteadh mo phasgadh, Iwas obliged, or needed 
to befolded, ^c. 

Obs. — The particle a is never used in the active tenses of this 
mood between the auxiliary and the infinitive ; as, faodaidh 
sinn pasgadh. In the passive voice, the particle a is always in- 
serted before bhi, when the nominative is incorporated or ending 
in a consonant ; as, dh'-fhaodainn a bhi paisgte, b'urrainn sìbh 
a bhi paisgte. 



Is còir pasgadh, ought to fold, 

or shouldfold. 
1. Is còir dhomhf pasgadh, / 

ought to fold, &c.J 
1. Bu chòir dhomh pasgadh, 

&c. 



Is còir a bhi paisgte, ought to be 
folded. 

1. Is còir dhomh a bhi paisgte, 
1 ought to be folded, &c. 

1 . Bu chòir dhomh a bhi paisg- 
te, &c. 



* The interrogative, negative, and conditional forras of this mood are formed 
as in the potential mood of the verb ' ' Bi," by annexing the infinitive pasgadh, or 
that of any other verb.— See page 88. 

t The auxiliaries is còir, is èiginn, is èudar, always require the compound pro- 
noun domh, inallitspersons, before the infinitive ; as, is èiginn domh pasgadh, &c. 
The auxiliary is urrainn, is used with both the simple and compound pronoun ; 
as, is urrainn mì sgrìobhadh, or is urrainn domh sgrìobhadh, / can write. 

t For the other persons of these tenses, see page 89. 



96 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 

Past Tense. — 

Singular. 

Phaisginn,* / would or could 
fold. 

Phaisgeadh tu, thou wouldst 

or couldst fold. 
Phaisgeadh è, he would or could 

fold. 

Plural. 

Phaisgeamaid, or ì we would or 
Phaisgeadh sìnn, J couldfold. 
Phaisgeadh sìbh, ye would or 

couldfold. 
Phaisgeadh ìad, they would or 

could fold. 
So, dhiùlta«Vm, &c. 

INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Am paisginn ? would I fold ? 
&c. 

NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Cha phaisginn ì / would not 
Ni'm paisginn J fold, &c. 
Nach paisginn ? &c. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 

T\m Seachad. 

Singular. 

Phaisgteadht mì, / would or 

could befolded. 
Phaisgteadh tu, thou wouldst or 

couldst befolded. 
Phaisgteadh è, he would or 

could befolded. 

Piural. 

Phaisgteadh sìnn, we would or 

could be folded. 
Phaisgteadh sìbh, ye would or 

could be folded. 
Phaisgteadh ìad, they would or 

could be folded. 
So, à\\i\x\\.eadh mì, &c. 

INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Am paisgteadh mì ? wouldlbe 
folded ? &c. 

NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Chaphaisgteadh mì\ 1 £ m Jf l( g$ 
Ni'm paisteadh mì J & c . ° 6 ' 
Nach paisgteadh mì? &c. 



CONDITIONAL FORMS. CONDITIONAL FORMS. 

Past or Pluperfect Tense 
Ged phaisginn, though Ishould Ged phaisgteadh mì, though I 
fold, or though I had folded, should be folded, or though I 
&c. had beenfolded, &c. 

Ged nach paisginn, though I Ged nach do phaisgteadh mì, 



should not fold, or had not 
folded, &c. 
Mur paisginn, if I should not 
fold, or had notfolded, &c. 



though Ihad not been folded, 
or should not be folded, &c. 
Mur paisgteadh mì, if I were 
not,orif!should not befolded, 
or had not been folded, &c. 



* The first person singular and plural active are rendered emphatic by adding 
the pronominal emphatic syllables -sa, -nej as, phaisginn-sa, phaisgeamaid-ne. The 
plural form is seldom used. 

t The termination -adh of this tense is often suppressed; as, " phaisgte" for 
phaisgteatfft. We can see no reason whatever for this apocope, except the weak 
and distorted pronunciation of some persons who corrupt the language, by not tak- 
ing the trouble of pronouncing final syllables in full. The termination -adìi ought 
to be preserved in this tense, were it of no other use than to keep it from being con- 
founded with the participle in -te. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Na'm paisginn, iflshouldfold, 

or had folded, &c. 
Gu'm paisginn, that I would 

or should fold, &c. 



FOCLACHADH. 



97 



Na'm paisgteadh mì, iflwere 
folded, or if I shouldbefolded 
or had been folded, &c. 

Gu'm paisgteadh mì, that I 
wouldox should be folded, &c. 



Future Tense. 

[Used as a present affirmative tense after a relative pronoun without 
the particles ged and ma. See Future Subjunctive, p. 111.] 



Ma phaisgeas mì, if I shall or 

willfold, &c. 
Ged phaisgeas mì, thoughl 'shall 

or willfold, &c. 



Ma phaisgear mì, if I shdll or 

will be folded, &c. 
Ged phaisgear mì, though I 

shall or will be folded, &c. 



INFINITIVE. 



Pasgadh, folding, wrapping, covering; complicatio. Do 
phasgadh, a phasgadh, tofold, to wrap. 

Pasgadh, mas. afolding, complicandum, is declined thus : — 



Singular. 

N pasgadh.* 
G. pasgaidh. 
D. pasgadh. 
A. pasgadh. 
V. a phasgaidh. 

PARTICIPLE ACTIVE. 



Pres. A' pasi^ 
folding, a-folding. 



Plural. 

N. pasgaidhean or pasgannan. 
G. phasgadh or phasgannan 
D. pasgaibh or pasgannaibh. 
A. pasgaidhean or pasgannan. 
V. a phasgaidhean or a phasganna. 

PARTICIPLE PASSIVE. 

, at I Past. Paisgte, 



SECOND CONJUGATION.t 
Ioc, (ìuxq), pay, to paj/, 
Principal Parts. 

Imp. Past. Fut. 

Ioc, dh'-ìoc ìocaidh, 
Aidich, dh'-aidich, aidichidh, 



AN DARA SGEADACHADH. 
Aidich, confess, to confess. 
Pàirtean Stèidheil. 
Infin. Past Part. 

ìocadh, ìocta or ìocte. 

aideachadh, aidichte. 



* The infinitive in ~adh, is a noun of the first decìension, expressive of the 
verbal energy or effect. It is seldom used in the plural. — See page 38. 

f The tenses of the fìrst and second conjugation are all alike in their terminations. 
Their difference consists only in the use of the particle "do" aspirated and con- 
tracted dh' or dh'-, and in some cases d', before the secondary forms, beginning with 
a vowel or / pure. D' is also used in tenses of the Irregular verbs, beginning with 
t or r pure. 

G 



98 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
Singular. 

Iocam, -sa ; let me pay. 
Ioc thùsa, pay thou. 
Iocadh è, let him pay. 

Plural. 

Iocamaid, -ne, let us pay. 
locaibh, -se, pay ye. 
Iocadh ìad, let them pay. 

So, aidicheam, &c. 

I3SDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. — Tìm Làihair. 

Singular. 

Tha thu 'g ìocadh. 
Tha è 'g ìocadh. 

Plural. 

Tha sìnn ag ìocadh. 
Tha sìbh ag ìocadh. 
Tha ìad ag ìocadh. 

Past Tense. — Tìm Seachad. 
Dh'-ìoc mì,f Ipaid. | Dh'- ìocadh mì, Iwaspaid. 

Dh'- ìoc thu, &c. I Dh'- ìocadh thu, &c. 

Present Perfect Tense. — Tìm Làn Làthair. 



Singular. 

Tha mì 'g ìocadh. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
Singular. 

Ioctar mì, let me be paid. 
Ioctar thu, be you paid. 
Ioctar è, let him bepaid. 

Plural. 

Ipctar sìnn, let us be paid. 
Ioctar sìbh, be you paid. 
Ioctar ìad, let them be paid. 
So, aidichtear, &c. 



Tha mì ìocta/ or ìocte. 
Tha thu ìocta, or ìocte. 
Tha è ìocta, or ìocte. 

Plural. 

Tha sìnn ìocta, or ìocte. 
Tha sìbh ìocta, or ìocte. 
Tha ìad ìocta. or ìocte. 



Tha mì air ìocadh, / have 

paid, &c. 
Tha thu air ìocadh. 

Tha è air ìocadh. 

Tha sìnn air ìocadh. 
Tha sìbh air ìocadh. 
Tha ìad air ìocadh. 



Tha mì air m' ìocadh, / Jiave 

been paid, &c. 
Tha thu air d' ìocadh. 
/ Tha è air 'ìocadh. 
\ Tha ì air à h-ìocadh. 
Tha sìnn air ar n-ìocadh. 
Tha sìbh air bhur n-ìocadh 
Tha ìad air an ìocadh. 

Past Perfect or Pluperfect Tense.—Tìm Làn Seachad, 
no Boi-Làn. 

Bha mì airìocadh, Ihadpaid, I Bha mì air m' ìocadh, / had 
&c J been paid, &c. 

* The more common form is, thamì air m' ìocadh, &c. 

f Dh'-, here is the aspirated form of " do," of which the is elided, causd eu~ 
phonice, before the succeeding vowel, and its place is always supplied with an apos- 
trophe. It is not customary to insert a hyphen between dh' and the part of the 
verb to which it is prefixed, but I have ventured to introduce it, in order to show 
more clearly, that dh' forms a part of the tense. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 99 



Future Tense. — Tìm Teacail. 
Iocaidh mì, I shall or willpay, I Iocar mì, I shall or will be 
&c. I paid, &c. 



INTERROG ATIVE FORMS. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 
Prssent. 

Am beil mì 'g ìocadh ? &c. 

Past. 

An d'-ìoc mì ? &c. 

An robh mì 'g ìocadh ? &c. 

Perfect. 

Am beil mì air ìocadh ? &c. 

Pluperfect. 

An robh mì air ìocadh ? &c. 

Future. 

An ìoc mì? &c. 

Am bi mì 'g ìocadh? &c. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
Present. 

Am beil mì ìocte ? &c. 

Past. 

An d'-ìocadh mì ? &c. 
An robh mì ìocte ? &c. 

Perfect. 

Am beil mì air m' ìocadh ? &c 

Pluperfect. 
An robh mì air m' ìocadh? &c. 

Future. 

An ìocar mì ? &c. 
Am bi mì ìocte? &c. 



NEGATIVE FORMS. 



Present. 

Cha n-'eil mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Ni'm beil mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Past. 

Cha d'-ìoc mì, &c. 
Ni'n d'-ìoc mì, &c. 
Cha robh mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Nach d'-ìoc mì ? &c. 

Future. 

Cha n-ìoc mì, &c. 

Ni'n ìoc mì, &c. 

Nach bi mì 'g ìocadh ? &c. 

CONDITIONAL FORMS. 
Present. 

Ged tha mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Ged nach 'eil mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Gu'm beil mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Mur 'eil mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 
Ma tha mì 'g ìocadh, &c. 

Future. 
Ged nach ìoc mì, &c. 
Gu'n ìoc mì, &c. 
Mur ìoc mì, &c. 



Present. 
Cha n-'eil mì ìocte, &c. 
Ni'm beil mì ìocte, &c. 

Past. 

Cha d'-ìocadh mì, &c. 
Ni'n d'-ìocadh mì, &c. 
Cha robh mì ìocte, &c. 
Nach d'-ìocadh mì, &c. 

Future. 
Cha n-ìocar mì, &c. 
Ni'n ìocar mì, &c. 
Nach ìocar mì, &c. 

CONDITIONAL FORMS. 



Ged tha mì ìocte, &c. 
Ged nach 'eil mì ìocte, &c. 
Gu'm beil mì ìocte, &c. 
Mur 'eil mì ìocte, &c. 
Ma tha mì ìocte, &c. 

Future. 
Ged nach ìocar mì, &c. 
Gu'n ìocar mì, &c. 
Mur ìocar mì, &c. 



100 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 
ACTIVE VOICE. PASSIVE VOICE. 

Present Tense. — Tìm Làthair. 



Faodaidh mì ìocadh, &c. 
Is urrainn mì ìocadh, &c. 
Is urrainn domh ìocadh, &c. 
Fèumaidh mì ìocadh, &c, or 
Fimìridh mì ìocadh, &c* 



Faodaidh mì bhi ìocte, &c, or 
Faodar m' ìocadh, &c 
Is urrainn mì bhi ìocte, &c, or 
Is urrainnear m' ìocadh, &c. 
Fèumaidh mì bhi ìocte, &c, or 
Fèumar m' ìocadh, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 
ACTIVE VOICE. PASSIVE VOICE. 



Past Tense. Tim Seachad. 



dh'- 



Sing. dh'-ìocainn. 

dh'-ìocadh tu. 

dh'-ìocadh è. 
Plur. dh'-ìocamaid, o 
ìocadh sìnn. 

dh'-ìocadh sìbh. 

dh'-ìocadh ìad. 



INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Past. An ìocainn, would or 
shouldlpay? &c. 

NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Cha n-ìocainn,\ / would not 
Ni'n ìocainn J pay, &c. 
Nach ìocainn ? &c. 



Sing. dh'-ìocteadh mì. 
dh'-ìocteadh tu. 
dh'-ìocteadh è. 
Plur. dh'-ìocteadh sìnn. 

dh'-ìocteadh sìbh. 
dh'-ìocteadh ìad. 

INTERROGATIVE FORM. 

Past. An ìocteadh mì, would 
or should lòepaid? &c. 

NEGATIVE FORMS. 

Chan-ìocteadhmì,l Iwouldnot 
Ni'n ìocteadh mì, j bepaid,&.c. 
Nach ìocteadh mì ? &c 



CONDITIONAL FORMS. CONDITIONAL FORMS. 

Past or Pluperfect Tense. 

Geddh'-ìocainn, thougli Ishould Ged dh'-ìocteadh mì, though 
pay, or had paid, &c. 



Ged nach ìocainn, though I 
should not, or had not paid, 
&c. 



be paid, or had been 
paid, &c 
Ged nach ìocteadh mì, though 
I should not be paid, or had 
not been paid, &c 



* The other tenses and forms of the Potential are formed as in the verb " Bi," 
pp. »7, 88, 89, or in the vcrb Paisg, page 95. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

Mur ìocainn, if I should not 

or had not paid, &c. 
Na'n ìocainn, ifl shouldpay, 

or hadpaid, &c. 
Gu'n ìocainn, that I would or 
pay, &c. 



FOCLACHADH. 



101 



Mur ìocteadh mì, if I should 

not be paid, or had not been 

paid, &c. 
Na'n ìocteadh mì, if I should 

bepaid, or hadbeenpaid, &c. 
Gu'n ìocteadh mì. that I would 

or should be paid, &c. 



Future Tense. 



Ma dh'-ìocas mì, if I shall or 

willpay, &c. 
Ged dh'-ìocas mì, though I 

shall or will pay, &c. 



Ma dh'-ìocar mì, if I shall or 

will be paid, &c, 
Ged dh'-ìocar mì, though Ishall 

or will be paid, &c. 



INFINITIVE. 

locadh, m. paying. Do dh-xocadh, a dh-ìocadh, to pay. 



PARTICIPLES 

Pres. Ag ìocadh, paying, at I Past. Iocta, or ìocte, paid. 
paying, a-paying. 

Example of a Verb begin 
ning with /pure. 



Sàmplair de Ghnìomhar 
a' tòiseaehadh le / glan. 



Fàisg, wring or squeeze. 

Imp. Past. Fut. Infin. Past Part. 

Fàisg, dh'-fhàisg,* fàisgidh, fàsgadh, fàisgte. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Active Voice. Passive Voice. 

Fàisgeam, let me wring, &c. | Fàisgtearmì, let mebewrung, &c. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Pres. Tha mì 'fàsgadh, &c. 
Past. Dh'-f hàisg mì, &c. 
Perf. Tha mì air fàsgadh, &c. 

Plup. Bha mì air fàsgadh, &c. 

Fut. Fàisgidh mì_, &c. 



Pres. Tha mì fàisgte, &c. 
Past. Dh'-fhàisgeadh mì, &c. 
Perf. Tha mì air m' fhàsgadh, 
&c. 

Plup. Bha mì air m' fhàsgadh, 
&c. 

Fut. Fàisgear mì, &c. 



* Fh is always quiescent, and the vowel fo.llpwing/ft begins the sound with 
dh'- ; as, yàisg. See page 10.— Note %. c ^ 1 Cfo 



102 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



POTENTIAL MOOD. 



ACTIVJE VOICE. 
Present Tense. 
Faodaidh mì fàsgadh, / 

wring, &c. 
Is urrainn mì, or is urrainn 
domh fàsgadh, Ican wring, 
&c. 

Fèumaidh mì, is eiginn domh, 
or is èudar dhomh fàsgadh, 
I must wring, &c. 



PASSIVE VOICE. 
Present Tense. 
Faodaidh mì bhi fàisgte, or 

faodar m' fhàsgadh, &c. 
Is urrainn mì bhi fàisgte, or 
is urrainnear m' fhàsgadh, 
&c. 

Fèumaidh mì bhi fàisgte, is 
èiginn domh a bhì fàisgte, or 
fèumar m' fhàsgadh, &c. 



ACTIVE VOICE. 

Past. Dh'- fhàisginn, &c. 
Fut. Ma dh'-fhàisgeas mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

Past. Dh'- f hàisgteadh mì, &c. 
Fut. Ma dh'-fhàisgear mì, &c 



INFINITIVE. 

Fàsgadh, m. wringing, squeezing. Do dh'- fhàsgadh, a dh- 

fhàsgadh, to wring, to squeeze. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Pres. A' fàsgadh, wringing. j Past. Fàisgte, tvrung. 

Like Paisg, loc, and Fàisg, decline the following verbs : — • 



Imper. 

Buail, strike 


Past. 
bhuail 


Infin. 

bualadh 


Past Part. 

buailte 


Deàrbh, prove 


dheàrbh 


deàrbhadh 


deàrbhte, or -, 


Loisg, burn 


'loisg 


losgadh 


loisgte 


Neartaich, strenqthen 'neartaich 


neartachadh neartaichte 


Sgoilt, split 


'sgoilt 


sgoltadh 


sgoilte 


Q\, driìik 


dh'-òl 


òl 


òilte, iar òl 


Orduich, order 


dh'-òrduich 


òrduchadh 


òrduichte 


Uraich, refresh 


dh'-ùraich 


ùrachadh 


ùraichte 


¥ì\\,fold 


dh'-fhìll 


fìlleadh 


fìllte 


Fuin, bake 


dh'-fhuin 


fuineadh 


fuinte 


Fan, n., stay 


dh'-fhan 


fantuinn 


iar fantuinn 



REFLECTED ACTION, 

Indicating that the action of 
a traiìsitive verb reciprocates 



GNIOMH FEINEIL, 

A' foillseachadh gu'm beil 
gnìomh gnìomhair asdaich ag 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 103 



or falls back on the agent or 
subject. It is formed by annex- 
ing the pronoun fèin and mi- 
fèin to the verb ; thus, 



ath-bhualadh no 'pilleadh air- 
ais a dh-ìonnsuidh an dean- 
adair fèin. Nìtear è le cur an 
riochdair mi-fèin ris'a'ghnìomh- 
ar ; mar-so, 



Buail thu-fèin, str'xke yourself, tvttov, &c. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Buaileam mì-fèin, 

myself. 
Buail thu-fèin. 
Buaileadh è e-fèin. 



let me strike 



Buaileamaid sinn-fèin, 

strike ourselves. 
Buailibh sìbh-fèin. 
Buaileadh iad iad-fèin. 



let us 



INDICATIVE. 



Tha mì 'g am* bhualadh fèin, 
Tha thu 'g ad bhualadh fèin, 
Tha è 'g à bhualadh fèin, 
Tha ì 'g à bualadh fèin, 
Tha sìnn 'g ar bualadh fèin, 
Tha sìbh 'ga bhur bualadh fèin 
Tha ìad 'g am bualadh fèin, 

Interrogative. 

Am beil mì 'g am bhualadh fèin ? am I striking myself, &c. 

Negative. 

Cha n-'eil mì 'g am bhualadh fèin, / am not striking myself, &c. 



Present. 

/ am striking myself, rvfroftxt, 
thou art striking thyself. 
he is striking himself. 
she is striking herself. 
we are striking ourselves. 
you are striking yourselves. 
they are striking themselves. 



&c. 



Past. 

/ struck or have struck myself. 
you struck or have struck yourself. 
he struck or has struck himself. 
she struck or has struck herself. 
we struck or have struck ourselves. 
you struck or have struckyourselves. 
they struck or have struck themselves. 
Future. 

/ shall or will strike myself. 
shall I strike myself, &c. 

And so forth through all the other active moods, tenses, and forms, 
like " Paisg." 

Infinitive. 

Do mo bhualadh, do m' bhualadh fèin,gu mo bhualadh fèin, chum mo 
bhualadh fèin, to strike myself. 



Bhuail or do bhuail mì mi-fèin, 
Bhuail thu thu-fèin, 
Bhuail è e-fèin, 
Bhuail ì i-fèin, 
Bhuail sìnn sinn-fein, 
Bhuail sìbh sibh-fèin, 
Bhuail ìad iad-fèin, 

Buailidh mì mi-fèin, 
Am buail mì mi-fèin ? 



* Here the Possessives mo, do, are transposed into am, ad; and ag is con- 
tracted 'g. The form, tha mi 'g am bhualadh fèin, is substituted for tha mì ag mo 
bhualadh/èìn, $c. The 'g is oì'ten united to the Possessives ; thus, 'gam, 'gad, 'ga, 
'gar> 'gur, 'gam. 



104 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Present Participle. 
'G am bhualadh fèin, 'ga mo bhualadh fèin, striking myself. 

Perfect Partieiple. 

Iar mo bhualadh fèin, iar mi-fèin a bhualadh, or iar dhomh mi-fèin a 
bhualadh, / having struck myself. 



IMPERSONAL ACTION, 

Indicating that an object is 
undergoing some operation 
without naraing the agent or 
doer ; thus, 



GNIOMH NEO-PHEARSANTAIL, 

A' fdillseachadh gu'm beil 
cuspair a' fulang fo ghnìomh, 
gun an deanadair aìnmeach- 
adh ; mar-so, 

Thàtar 'g am bhualadh, / am being struck, ruvrropeit, pulsor. 



INDICATIVE. 

Present Tense. — Passice and Progressive. 
Thàtar 'g am bhualadh, / am being* struck, or I am a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g ad bhualadh, thou art being strtick or a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g à bhualadh, he is being struck or a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g a bualadh, she is being struck or a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g ar bualadh, we are being struck or a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g 'ur bualadh, you are being struck or a-striking. 
Thàtar 'g am bualadh, they are being struck or a-striking. 

Thàtar a' togail an tighe, the house is being built or a-building. 
Thàtar a' togail nan tighean, the houses are being built, &c. 

Thàtar a' briseadh na h-uinneige, the window is being broken, &c. 
Thàtar a' briseadh nan uinneagan, the windows are being broken, &c. 

Past Tense.— Passive and Progressive. 
Bhàtar 'g am bhualadh, / was being struck, &c. 
Bhàtar a' togail an tighe, the house was being built, &c. 

Future Tense. — Passive and Progressive. 
Bìtear or bithear 'g am bhualadh, / shall be being struck, &c. 
Bìtear or bithear a' togail an tighe, the house wiìl be being built, &c. 

This form of the verb may be declined through all the other moods, 
tenses, and forms, by using the prepositive particles and varying thà- 
tar, thathar, thathas, as in page 91. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MOODS. 

If by the term " Mood " we are to understand the different termina- 
tions which the theme or root of the verb receives in the process of 
inflection, it is manifest that the Gaelic Verb has only four moods. 



* Or they are striking me, §c.— As this form of the verb is used only when the 
nominative or agent is not precisely known, or when the speaker does not choose 
to mention it, he uses a pronoun when the expression is turned into the active voice ; 
as, they (that is, some persons or things,) are striking me, or 1 am being struck hy 
some persons, &c— See Obscrvations on the Prcsent Tense, p. 109. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 105 



namely, the Imperative, Indicative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive, but if 
the prefixing of one of the particles am, cha, nach, na'n, ma, mur, gur, 
ged, gu'n, fyc, to any of these four moods, constitute a good reason 
for imposing a corresponding mood upon the language, we should 
have a mood for each of these interrogative, negative, and contingent 
particles, without a diversity of terminations different from the four 
moods proper to the language. But every one that is capable of 
understanding the subject, will easily perceive that such a cluster of 
moods would be a great encumbrance and no advantage whatever. 

Seeing the particles am, cha, ma,gu'm, $c, exercise no influence what- 
ever upon the termination of a tense, their collocation with the tenses of 
the verb, is in this work classified under the name of Secondary forms, 
called Interrogative, Negative, and Conditional. These are evidently 
not moods, because their particles produce no variety of termination, 
when construed with a verb. They are ouly forms which the existing 
moods assume, when a proposition is put interrogatively, negatively, 
conditionally, or contingently. It is true, however, that there is one 
verb in the language, namely the verb Bi, of which the forms beil, 'eil, 
robh, might, on account of their diversity of spelling and termination, 
be classified under different moods ; but this verb belongs to the irregu- 
lar class, and seeing none of its peculiar terminations has more moods 
than a regular verb, in other languages, I cannot see any reason why 
it should have more moods than all the other verbs of the Gaelic. 

There is another feature in the inflection of the verb, which may 
lead some to suppose that it possesses more moods than this reasoning 
admits, that is, the change by aspiration which the initial consonant 
of a verb receives when one of the verbal particles is prefixed to it. 
But this is no argument for another mood, because such a change is 
neither applicable, in every tense, to all the existing moods, nor to all 
the consonants ; and, moreover, the Preterite tenses are aspirated with 
and without the addition of the particle ; as, ma pAaisg mì, if Ifolded. 
PAaisg mì, I folded. PAaisginn, / would fold. Ged jo^aisginn. And 
some of the particles remove the aspiration altogether ; as, mur 
paisginn ; na'm paisginn.—See pp. 93, 94, 96. 

The arrangement pursued in this work is the one generally followed, 
and it is clearly the most perspicuous, convenient, and economical that 
can be adopted. It is also supported by analogy, for in English the 
particles if, though, unless, Qc, are construed with the Indicative ;* 
in the Latin, an, non, ne, si, ut, fyc ; and in Greek, ù, ol, ph, 'ìva, &c, 
are construed with the Indicative and Subjunctive Moods, for pre- 



* The Subjunctive Mood in English isnow almost universally rejected, for, with 
the exception of two tenses of the verb To Be, no part of the English verb can pro- 
perly be denominated a Subjunctive Mood. English grammarians of the Subjunc- 
tive School, after declining two tenses of the verb, which they call the Present and 
Past Subjunctive, declare that " the remaining tenses are in every respect like their 
corresponding tenses of the Indicative." According to this declaration, the three 
remaining tenses must have, at one and the same time, a Subjunctive and an 
Indicative Mood of like terminations, which is impossible. The same learned 
authors define the cases in English by saying, " the Nominative and Objective are 
alike." Now every one who has any knowledge of English Grammar may, in a 
moment, detect the fallacy of this definition, for the Pronoun is the only part of 
speech in English that, strictly speaking, has cases ; as, Nom. I, Obj. me, Nom. 
we, Obj. us. But these are not alike !— See Note, p. 38. For further informa- 
tion on the Subjunctive Mood, $c., See Dr M'Cuxloch's English Grammar, 



106 ETYMOLOGT. FOCLACHADH. 

cisely the same purpose that an, clia, ma, gu'm, 8[c, are construed 
with the Indicative and Subjunctive in Gael'ic, and'yet no part of the 
verb combined with any of these particles is denominated a separate 
mood in these languages. Wherefore, I shall conclude these remarks 
by quoting the learned Dr Crombie's opinion on this subject. " If," 
says he, " the question be examined grammatically, or as a subject of 
pure grammar, I am inclined to think that where there is no var'iety of 
termination, there cannot be established a diversity of moods." * 

Imperative. — In the first person, the Imperative mood expresses a 
wish ; in the second it commands,exhorts, entreats, or forbids ; andin 
the third, it permits ; as, " òriseamaid o chèile àn cùibhreach agus 
tilgeamaid dhìnn àn cùing, let us break their bands asunder and cast 
their cords from us — Bible. " Gabhaibh fòghlum," receive ye in- 
struction. " Na bean ris a' bhòrd," do not touch the table. " Eis- 
deadh è, or ìad," let him, or them hear. 

It is also employed to express imprecations ; as, " Na faiceam-sa 
an là màireach,'' May I not see to-morrow. " Na leigeadh Dia," God 
forbid. The na is often written nar, and of old noir, before this mood. 

The first person singular is sometimes used as the first person sin- 
gular present of the Indicative ; as, " Guidheamf òirbh a bhràithre," 
àìtXipeì, ìtofzcn òftav, brethren, I beseech you. — Gal. iv. 12. 

Potential. — Iir compliance with general usage, I have retained the 
term " Potential Mood," a name given to the auxiliaries faodaidh, is- 
nrrainn, &c, when combined with the Infìnitive of another verb ; as, 
" faodaidh mì sgrìobhadh," / may write. But it is perfectly clear that 
such a mood does not exist either in Gaelic or English. For the verbs 
faodaidh, is-urrainn, fèumaidh, and their correspondents, may, can, 
must, are evidently indicative, — thus, may indicates liberty, can in- 
dicates power or ability, p and must obligation or necessity ; as, " I may 
write," faodaidh mì sgrìobhadh, indicating that I am at liberty to 
write.^ " I can write," is-urrainn mi sgrìobhadh, indicating^ that I 
have it in my power to write. " We must die," fèumaidh sinn bàs- 
achadh. The past tenses of these verbs convey the same meaning ; 
as, I might write yesterday, dh'-fhaodainn sgriobhadh an-dè, indicat- 
ing that I had liberty to write yesterday. 

The verb following these auxiliaries, and whose energy or effect they 
express, is in the Infinitive Mood in both languages. In English the 
Infinitive goes on the same principle after may, can, must, as it does 
after the verbs shall, will, bid,dare, let, &c, all which suppress " To" 
the sign of the Infinitive, as it is called ; as, " I bade him go," for I 
bade him to go. 

It may also be observed, that the verbs may, can, must, are always 
future in their effect ; as, " Peter may go to 'London," indicating not 
that Peter is just now on his way to London, but that he is at liberty 
to go there at a future period. In some instances these verbs denote 
future events only, as when we speak of a man lying sick of a fever 
or any other distemper, and apparently dying, we say, " he may re- 
cover," faodaidh èfàs slàn, or tighinn uaithe, intimating not that he 



* See Dr Crombie's Etymology and Syntax of the English Language. 

t This is in imitation of the lrish Gaelic, which has a simple present tense of 
the verb, running thus, — Dùnaim, I shut, dùnaidh tu, dùnaidh se, dùnamaoid, 
dùnthaoi sibh, dùnaoidh siad, from " dùn," to shut — See Grammar of the 
Irish Language, Dublin, 1841. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 107 



is at liberty to recover, but that he will probably recover. " James 
cannot tell a lie," intimating not that James has it not in his power 
to tell a lie, but that he will not do it. The force of this observation 
will appear more striking when it is observed, that the two Gaelic 
auxiliaries answering to may and must assume their future termina- 
tion ; as, fàodaidh, feuvaaidh. — See Defective Verbs, p. 122. The 
imposition of a Subjunctive and a Potential Mood on the English 
language is borrowed from the Greek and Latin; but since;these lan- 
guages represent relations and actions by difFerent terminations on 
their nouns, adjectives, and verbs, and seeing the English effects the 
same process by prefixing separate words, a Subjunctive and a Poten- 
tial Mood are as unnecessary in the English as a Dative and Ablative. 

Subjunctive. — The Subjunctive has only a Past and a Future tense. 
In the past it is employed with and without its conjunctions ; as, 
thogainn, / would lift ; na'n clùinnteadh ìad, if they could be heard, or 
if they had been heard. 

Preceded by the conjunctions gum or gun, the Past Subjunctive is 
used optatively, or to express a wish ; as, " Gu'm beannaicheadh Dia 
sibh," May God bless you. " Gu'n tigeadh do rìoghachd," May thy 
kingdom come. 

Such optative phrases as, may he live long, may it please, &c. are 
formed by gu ma, or gu'm ma' ; as, " Gu'ma* fada beò an rìgh," 
God save the king (May the king live long) ; vivat rex, vive le roi. 
1 Sam. x. 24. Gu'm ma toil le do mhòrach'd, May it please your Ma- 
jesty. Similar phrases are made up by the Past Conditional of the 
verb Bi; as, " Gu'n robh math agaibh," thank you, (i.e.) may you 
have good. Pailteas gu'n robh agaibh, or gu'n robh pailteas agaibh, 
may you have plenty : prosperity to you. — See p. 85. 

Infinitive,— The Infinitive Mood is a noun expressive of the verbal 
action, state, or effect ; as, bualadh, mas. a striking, beating. Bris- 
eadh, m. a breaking, breach,fracture. Sgrìobhadh, m. a wriiing, pen- 
manship ; a document. Togail,/^m. a lifting, raising, building, edìfice, 
structure. Teagasg, m. teaching, tuition, doctrine. It proceeds on 
the same principle asthe Latin Gerund ; as, promptus ad pulsandum, 
ullamh gu bualadh, ready to strike. Est omnibus moriendum, is 
èudar dhùinn uile bàsachadh, we must all die. Tempus scribendi, 
àm sgrìobhaìdh, time of writing, &c, or like the supine in -um ; as, 
venerunt rogatum, thainig ìad a dh-ìarraidh, &c. The Infinitive is 
made to supply the place òf the Present participle of other languages, 
by prefixing a', ag, to it, (See Obs. p. 82) ; as, a' bualadh^ striking, 
pulsans, rvTrrajv, frappant ; a' sgrìobhadh, writing, scribens, y^oicpuv, 
ecrivant ; a' teagasg, teachìng, docens ; ag ainmeachadh, naming, 
nominans ; ag ìocadh, paying, solvens ; ag òl, drinking, bibens. 

The Infinitive with or without a\ or ag, cannot be employed as an 
adjective with a noun, like turba sonans, turbae sonantes, or turbis 
sonantibus ; vir scribens, or viro scribente. We cannot say gràisg 
bhualadh or gràisg bhuaireadh, fear sgrìobhadh. In cases like these, 



* This seems to be an elliptical phrase for gu'm math fad'a bhitheas an rìgh beò. 
Gu'm ma, or gu ma, in such expressions as these, appears to be a corruption of 
" gu' math," well ; as, Gu-math a bhitheas sìbh, well may ye be ; and of gu'm 
b'è, that it was or were,- as, gu'm b'è toil do mhòràchd, Oia'titwere tJiewillofyour 
majesty, i. e. may it please your majesty.— See the Defective Verb " Is," p. 124. 



108 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



a compound noun, denoting an agent or doer, is formed by putting the 
infinitive in the genitive singular, whose termination it retains through 
all the inflections of the noun preceding it ; thus, gràisg-bhuairidh, 
fem* a crowd ofraging, i. e. a raging crowd. Fear-sgrìobhaidh, rnas. a 
man of writing, i. e. a writer* By changing fear into -air, -dair, or -ear, 
the common affixes denoting an agent or doer, we transform the infini- 
tives bualadh, buaireadh, sgrìobhadh, or their roots, into the correspond- 
ing simple words bualadair or buailtear, a striker, pulsator ; buairead- 
air, a disturber, tempter; sgriobhair, or sgrìobhadair, a writer,scriptor. 
p This illustration leads us at once to perceive that the infinitive is 
simply a noun naming the substantive action or state of a verb, for, 
divested of the particle a' or ag, it ceases to supply the place of the 
present participle, and it no longer contains any idea of time, which is 
inseparable from the nature of the participle ; thus, " a' pasgadh," 
signifies folding, atfolding, in the act of folding, or engaged infolding, 
complicans. Remove the particle a' (used for ag) and " pasgadh " 
immediately loses the signification of a participle, and must now be 
rendered by complicatio or complicandum, or folding used as a noun. 

Past Participle. — This part of the verb is formed by annexing -te, 
or -ta, short, to its root ; as, buailfe, briste, teagaiste, \octa or \octe, 
sgrìobhfa, or -e ; or by prefixing iar, after,f or air, on, to the infinitive ; 
as, iar bualadh, struck, i. e. after striking ; iar tuiteam,/a/tew. Several 
verbs do not admit of a past participle in -te, and those which do ad- 
mit of it, often make it in both ways ; as, togte or iar togail, lifted. — 
See Participle in iar, p. 114. 

ON THE TENSES OF THE VERB. 

Present — The Present tenses of the verbs Bi and Is, to be, express 
present existence ; as, " Tha 'n là so fuar," this day is cold. Tha 
reothadh ànn, there is frost, or it is freezitig. " Is sìbhse mo chàir- 
dean," ye are myfriends. 

The Present tensej active of other verbs is composed of the Present 



* For the inflection of such nouns as these, see Fear-ciMl, muc-mhara, p. 62. 

t The particles iar and air are both pronounced Br, one syllable, with a smart 
and strong impulse of the voice on the r. 

X The Gaelic may be said to be somewhat metaphysical in respect to the division 
of time, for in this ancient language no verb has a simple Present tense, except 
those which express being or existence, namely, the verbs Bi and Is. If we examine 
philosophically the division of duration, called Present Time, a rationale will be 
found for the want of a Present Tense in the Gaelic verb. Time being, like space, 
continuous and uninterrupted, it is divisible in idea only. Present time does not 
exist any more than a mathematical point can be composed of parts. What we call 
Present Time, is merely an intermediate limit which the mind fixes between the 
Past and the Future. In respect to our existence, time is only past and future. 
Every portion of time which we can mention, as a year, a month, a week, a day, 
an hour, or a minute, is composed of past and future time. When we say this hour, 
the whole hour is not present at once, it is obvious that a part of it is past and a 
part of it future. The same division is likewise applicable to any other denomina-- 
tion of time. If, again, we connect action with this division of time, it is obvi- 
ous that actions can only be past and future ; as, I write a lelter ; the whole act of 
writing the letter is not present at once ; it is composed of the part written and of 
the part to be written, that is, of past and future action. Now, if the ancients re- 
garded time and action in this light, the analysis given here will perhaps account 
for the want of a specijìc Present Tense in the Gaelic and Hebrew verb. But in 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 109 

of Bi and the infinitive of any other verb, and it is generally employed 
to denote progressive action or state ; as, " Tha mì 'sgrìobhadh," / am 
writing, or / write. Tha 'n ldng a' seòladh, the ship is sailing. Tha 
'ghrìaii ag eiridh, the sun is rising. Tha na fe'idh a' bùireadh, the deer 
are roaring, or rutting. 

A present tense of this kind is sometimes formed by combining Tha 
and a\ag, or ri, with a noun ; as, Tha mì 'g obair, Iam working. Tha 
ìad ag ùrnuìgh, or ri ùrnuigh, they are praying, at praying, at prayers, 
or engaged in praying. Tha ìad ag òran, singing. 

The Present tense passive is formed by combining Tha with the 
past participle of a transitive verb ; as, Tha mi paisgte or iar mo 
phasgadh,* / am folded. Tha a' chlach briste, or iar à briseadh, the 
stone is broken. Cha n-'eil an tigh togte, or air à thogail, the house is 
not built. 

A Progressive Passive of all the tenses is formed by the Impersonal 
forms of the verb Bi, and the particle a' or ag followed by an infini- 
tive ; as, Thàtar a' cur an t-sìl, the seed is being 'sown, the seed is a- 
sowing. Thàtar ag òradh a' bhùird, the table is being gilt, a-gilding 
(i. e. the table is under the process of gilding). Thàtar a' togail an 
tighe, the house is being built, a-building, or under the progress of 
building. 

The same idea is expressed by the personal tenses of the verb Bi 
and the possessive pronoun corresponding to the nominative, placed 
after the preposition ag ; as, Tha am bòrd 'g a òradh, the table is at its 
gilding, or a-gilding. Tha an uinneag 'g à briseadh, the window is at 
its breaking, or a-breaking ; i. e. suffering breakage. Tha na caoraich 
'g àn rùsgadh. 

The important distinction between a passive action completed and a 
passive actìon in progress may be further illustrated ; thus, Tha an 
uinneag briste or iar à briseadh, the window is broken. Tha an tigh 
togte or iar à thogail, the house is built ; signifying that the breaking 
of the window and the building of the house were both finished and 
past at the very time the sentence was pronounced. Again, Thàtar 
a' briseaclh na h-uinneige, the window is being broken, or a-breaking. 
Thàtar a' togail an tighe, the house is being built, or a-building, signi- 
fying that the breaking of the window and the building of tlìe house 
are not completed when the sentence is pronounced, but still going on. 
Now, there is, in point of time and action, as much difference between 
tha an tigh togte, and thàtar a' togail an tighe, as there is between 
domus cedificata est, and domus cedificatur.^ 



practice, and for human convenience we represent time to our senses by extending 
it over the present and the past and giving it magnitude, we thus assume our various 
denominations of Present Time See Dr Crombie on the Presbnt Tense. 

* Tha mi iar mo phasgadh, literally I am after my folding, i. e. I am or liavc 
been folded, signifying that the act is"done to the subject or nominative, con- 
sequently the passive object is in possession of it, or after receiving it. The 
possessive pronoun corresponding to the nominative is always placed between iar 
or air and the infinitive in forming the Passive voice, by the form " iar pasg- 
adh " of the past participle ; "as, Tha na clachan iar am briseadh, the stones 
are broken. The Possessive pronoun is never used with the participle in -te or 
-ta,- as, Tha na clachan brisfe, the stones are broken. 

t It is to be regretted that the editors of the Gaelic Scriptures have never em- 
ployed this elegant, expressive, and popular form of the verb, as it would express 
several passages of the Sacred Volume with greater precision, and convey the spirit 



110 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

This mode of expression enables the speaker to state at once what 
is done to the passive object, without referring to the agents or instru- 
ments which effect the work in progress. 

As the English verb has no precise or simple form to express this 
species of action, it employs a circumlocution, using the present parti- 
ciple of the verb Be ; as, the house is being built, thathas a' togail an 
tighe. 

Past. — The simple Past tense of the Indicative expresses the verbal 
action or state indefinitely, as past and finished ; as, " Thuit a' 
chraobh," the tree fell, or has fallen. " Pheacaich sìnn," we sinned, 
or have sinned. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect* tenses of the Indicative in English are 
generally rendered by the simple Past tense of the Indicative in 
Gaelic ; as, " we have dreamed a dream," Chunnaic sìnn aisling. 
" And when they had eaten up the corn which they had brought out 
of Egypt," agus an uair a dh'-ith ìad suas an sìol 'a thug ìad ds an 
Eiphit. — Bible. 

The Past Subjunctive is generally rendered by the English Auxili- 
aries would, could, might, should, but never by should denoting duty or 
obligation ; as, Am bitheadh tu deònach dol leam ? Would you be 
willing to go with me ? 'Sgrìobhadh è litir cho math rium-sa, he could 



and meaning of the original to the reader far better than the form which they have 
adopted. The following verse in Rom. viii. 36, should have been rendered by this 

form of the verb : Ka^j y'iy^a,9rra.i "Ori ìvixiv ffov 6a.varov^iSa, oàjjv rhv 

n^'ipav iXoyifffaftiv ù$ <xpo$ara ffQayns, and in the Vulgate, ** Sicut scriptum 
est: Q,uia propter te mortificamur tota die : ccstimati sumus sicut oves occisionis;" 
rendered in Gaelic thus, ' ' A rèir mar a ta e sgrìobhta, Air do shon-sa mharbhadh 
sìnn rè an là ; mheasadh sìnn mar chaoraich chum marbhaidh." The proper Eng- 
lish of this Gaelic rendering is, " According as it is written, For thy sake we were 
killed all the day, we were counted as sheep for the slaughter." The two verbs 
" mharbhadh" and " mheasadh" are here in the Past tense passive, and signify 
that the action was completed at the time the words are spoken. To follow the con- 
struction of the original, and to express the sense of this passage fully, the Gaelic 
version of it should be, " A rèir mar a ta è sgrìobhta; Air do shon-sa thàtar 'g ar 
marbhadh rè an là, tha sftm air ar meas, or thàtar 'g ar meas mar chaoraich chum 
marbhaidh.— Vide Psalm xliv. 22 ; 1 Cor. xv. 29. ? f 

In the Irish version of the Scriptures, the verb iXoyifffaptv is better rendered ; 
as, " Mar ata sgrìobhtha, is air do shonsa mharbhthar sinn ar feadh an laoi ; 
atamaoid air ar meas mar chaorcha rè huchd a marbhtha."— Irish Bible, 1830. 

I have often heard intelligent Highland people remarking upon this passage as 
difficult to be understood ; but there can be no doubt that the main difficulty arises 
fiom the construction of the language. Were this popular idiom adopted, I am con- 
vinced the passage would be quite intelligible to every Christian. The following ex- 
position justifies my stricture on this verse. " We are Ulled." We, Christians, 
are subjectto or exposed to death ; we endure sufferings equivalent to dying. " All 
the day long." Constantly, continually, there is no intermission to our danger and 
to our exposure to death. " We are accounted," we are reckoned, we are regarded 
or dealt with ; that is, our enemies judge that we ought to die, and deem us the ap- 
propriate subjects of slaughter, with as little concern or remorse as the lives of sheep 
are taken." — Barnes. .„ 

* The Perfect and Pluperfect in English express only Present and Past action 
under certain limitations. The common distinction is, that the Pluperfect is em- 
ployed to express one action as having occurred immediately before another action ; 
as, " I had ivritten the letter before Paul entered the room." 

The Perfect is employed to express action as having occurred within the compass 
of a limited period of time not yet elapsed, as a day, a week, a month, a year, &c ; 
as, * ' I have seen Paul to-day." 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 111 

write a letter as well as I. Chlùinnteadh fuaim nan ràmh air an loch, 
the din of the oars might be heard on the Idke. Cha ghabh mì do 
nighean ged bheireadh tu dhomh pùnnd òir, I will not take your 
daughter though you should give me a pound of gold. This tense in- 
timates future action also, and in that case it is commonly rendered 
by should ; as, gu'n clamaid botul, ged chosdadh è crùn, (that) we would 
drink a bottle though it should cost a crown. Preceded by ged, mur, 
na ì n, or by a conditional clause, it is often rendered by the English 
Pluperfect Indicative, &c. ; as, Mur cuirinn ceist ort, ifl should not 
put or had not put a question to you. Na'm bu bheò è thigeadh è, if 
he were living he would have come. "Na'm biodh tusa an-so cha 
n-fhaigheadh mo bhràthair bàs." 

Future. — The Future Indicative * expresses future action or state 
indefìnitely ; as, bithidh sìnn subhach, we shall be glad. Togaidh mì 
tigh, / shall build a house. Cha bhris Tomas a' chlach, Thomas will 
not break the stone. Am beil è 'g ràdh gw'm buail è mì % does he say 
that he will strike me ì Dìtear na h- aingidh, the wicked shall be con- 
demned. 

The future tense is also frequently used to express present action or 
existence, when we speak of actions or events which recur habitually 
and uniformly, or according to ordinary practice and the course of 
nature ; as, pillidh freagradh mìn corruich, ach dùisgidh briathra 
gàrg feàrg," a soft answer turneth (will turn) away wrath, but grievous 
words stir up (will stir up) anger. " Traodhaidh agus Honaidh an 
cuan," the ocean ebbs (will ebb) and flows (will flow). 

The Future Subjunctive expresses future action or state, and it is 
always preceded by ma, ò'n, mar, a, and sometimes by ged, when a 
condition or a contingence is implied ; as, ma bhuaileas tu mì, if you 
will strike me. Sin mar bhitheas, thus (it) will be. " 'Nuair a chuireas 
an corp truaillidh so neo-thruaillidheachd uime," when this corrupt- 
I ible (body) shall have put 011 incorruption. Cho luath 's a chead- 
aicheas an aimsir, as soon as the weather will permit. 
Preceded by the relative a, this future expresses present action like 
| the future indicative, and, in that case, it is frequently followed by the 
j future indicative ; as, " an tì d ghlaodhas anns an fhàsach," he that 
| crieth (will cry ) in the wilderness. " Esan à ghluaiseas gu-glic saorar 
, è," he that walketh (will walk) wisely, he shall be delivered. 



A Paradigm of the Verb, exhibiting the initial forms and 
terminations of all the Moods and simple Tenses, at one view. 



* It is improper to prefix the particle " ged" to any form of the future indica- 
tive. The expressions " ged bhi deich mìle," &c. ; •" ged mharbh è mì ;" " gedthuit 
è,"belongrathertothe past subjunctive, andshould be rendered ged bhitheadh deich 
mìle, &c. ; ged mharbhadh è mi; ged thuiteadh è.'—Vide 1 Cor. iv. 15. Job xiii. 
15 ; Psalm xxxvii. 24. 



112 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 
VdXsg,fold. Lòt,* wound. Stiùir,* gmde. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Singular. Plural. 

1 2 3è,ì, 1 2 3iad. 

fPaisg-mm paisg -eadh, -eamaid-ibh -eadh. 

Act. < hot-am lot -adh, -araaid -aibh -adh. 

[_Stìùir-eam stiùir -eadh, -eamaid -ibh -eadh. 

mì. thu. è, ì. sìnn. sibh. ìad. 

(Vaisg-tear -tear -tear, -tear -tear -tear. 

Pas. < hot-ar -ar -ar, -ar -ar -ar. 

(_$tiùir-tear — — — — — 

INDIOATIVE MOOD. 

p ( Phaisg phaisg phaisg, phaisg phaisg phaisg. 

■^J 2 c Lot* 'lot 'lot, 'lot 'lot 'lot. 

( Stiùir* 'stiùir 'stiùir, 'stiùir 'stiùir 'stiùir. 

Past { ^aisg-eadh -eadh -eadh, -eadh -eadh -eadh. 

Pas ì 'Lot-acZ/i -adh -adh, -adh -adh -adh. 

{JStiùir-eadh — — — — — 

jp ut ( Vaàsg-idh -idh -idh, -idh -idh -idh. 

J^ ' 3 hot-aidh -aidh -aidh, -aidh -aidh -aidh. 

( Stiùir-idh — — — — — 

• p u i ( Paisg-mr -ear -ear, -ear -ear -ear. 

r, ' < Lot-ar -ar -ar, -ar -ar -ar. 

^ as - ( Stiùir-^r — — — — , — 

SUJBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Past ( ^ lSL ^ s S-^ nn -eadh -eadh, -amaid -eadh -eadh. 
j^ ct ■< 'hot-ainn -adh -adh, -amaid -adh -adh. 

(j§tiùir-inn — — — — — 
Past ( Phaisg-£mc?A -teadh -teadh, -teadh -teadh -teadh. 
Pas ì ^°*- ea dh -eadh -eadh, -eadh -eadh -eadh. 
(^'Stmir-teadh -teadh -teadh, -teadh -teadh -teadh. 
Infinitive. — ~P&sg-adh, \ot-adh, stiùir-m<7A, or stiùradh. 
Pres. Part. — A' p&sg-adh, a' lot-adh, a' stiùir-eadh. 
! Past Part. — Paisg-te, \ot-a, lote or \oi-te,f stiùir-te. 

* The verb " lot " serves as an example of a verb beginning with l, n, or r, and 
" stiùir " as an example of a verb begìnning with tvvo consonants of which none 
is aspirated ; as, sc-, sg-, sm-, sp-, sm-, st-.— See pp. 10, 11. 

f It is quite unnecessary to insert the i before -te in this part of the verb, because 
the e being in contact with the t, qualifies its sound without the correspondent 
small. The soft sound of -te is far preferable to the thick, coarse, broad sound of 
-ta. It is only a prejudice against any deviation from the rule " broad to broad 
and small to small," that must have led some writers to insert i before -te, and to 
annex -a instead of -e in verbs whose last vowel is a broad. But the language 
generally dispenses with this rule in the Past Tense Passive of the Subjunctive, 
and there is no reason for adhering to it in the Passive Participle. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 113 



SECOND CONJUGATION. 
Ioc, pay. Fàisg, squeeze, wring. 

ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

Imver /*>c-a», &c ìoc-tar, &c. 

v ' \fàìsg-eam, &c. faisg-tear, &c. 

t> t j- f dh'-ìoc, &c. dh'-ioc-adh, &.c. 

rast indic. lah'-fhàisg, &c. dh'-fhàisg-m^, &c 

t? + t j' fìoc-aidh, &c. ìoc-ar, &c. 

*ui. inaic. | fàiS g_^ Aj &c , fàisg-mr, &.c. 

T>net c j dh'-ìoc-ainn, &c dh'-ìoc-teac^, &c. 

OUOJ ' (dh'-fhàisg-mw, &c. dh'-fhàisg-teac^ &c. 

l? * e /dh'-ìoc-as, &c. dh'-ìoc-ar. 

*ut. ùuoj. j dh . fhàisg _ m5j &c< dh'-fhàisg-ean 

/ra/m. ìoc-ae^, fàsg-a^. — Pm. ParZ. ag ìoc-adh, a' fàsg-acZ/i. 

FORMATION OF THE VERB. 

From the preceding picture of the Verb, it will be seen at 
once, that all the tenses are formed from the second person 
singular of the Imperative active, by adding to it the termina- 
tions following the hyphens. 

The pronoun is incorporated in the terminations -am, -amaid, 
-ibh, of the Imperative active, and also in the terminations, ~inn, 
-amaid, of the Subjunctive active. 

In every person of the Verb, except those ending in -am, 
-amaid, ~ibh, -inn, the pronoun or noun forming the subject 
must be expressed, otherwise the tenses wanting these pronom- 
inal terminations affirm nothing. 

Imperative. — The Imperative active adds the terminations 
-am, -adh, -amaid, -ibh, to the root. The Imperative passive 
adds -tear or -tar to the root, for all the persons. 

Indicative. — The Past Indicative active aspirates the root only. 
The Past Indicative passive aspirates the root and adds -adh. 

The Future Indicative active adds -idh. The Future Indic- 
ative passive adds -ar to the root. 

Subjunctive. — The Past Subjunctive active aspirates the root, 
adds -inn for the first person singular, -amaid for the first 
person plural, and -adh for the other persons of both numbers. 
The Past Subjunctive passive aspirates the root, and adds 
-teadh for all the persons. 

The Future Subjunctive active aspirates the root and adds 
-as. The Future Subjunctive passive aspirates the root and 
adds -ar. 

Infinitive and Participle. — The Infinitive adds -adh to the 
root. The Present Participle adds -adh to the root, and pre- 

H 



114 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



fixes a' when the verb begins with a consonant, and ag when 
the verb begins with a vowel. The Past or Perfect Participle 
adds -te or -ta to the root. 

Verbs ending in t. — A verb ending in t adds only -ear or 
~ar for the Imperative passive ; -eadh for the Past Subjunctive 
passive ; and -e or -a for the Past Participle ; as, lot-ar, 'lot- 
eadh, loit-e, for \oUtar, \ot-teadh, loit-^. 

Past Participle in iar or air. — Several verbs, chiefly those 
which do not make their infìnitives in -adh, form their past 
participle by prefìxing the particle " iar " after, or " air," on to 
the infinitive ; as, iar tuiteam, fallen, i. e. after falling, from 
tuit, tofall; iar teicheadh 5> /?e<#, after fleeing, from teich, to flee ; 
iar leantuinn, folloived, from lean, to follow. Most of the High- 
land population are very partial to this form of the past parti- 
ciple, even in their use of verbs which make it in -te. To say 
tuite, teichte, leante, and the participle in -te of many other 
verbs, would sound intolerably harsh and barbarous to a Gaelic 
ear. t 

GNÌOMHARAN NEO-EIAILT- 
EACH. 

Theirear neo-riailtich riù 
so, do-bhrìgh gu'm beil a' 
mhbr chuid de 'n tìmean eu- 
cosmhail ri' n steidhean ; 
mar, 



IRREGULAR VERBS. 



These are called irregu- 



lar 
forms 
roots, 



because they 
different from 
in most of 



have 
their 
their 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



Imper. 
Beir, bear, 

Clùinn, hear, 
Dean, do, 
Rach, l nn 
Theirig, S 9 1 
Thoir, ì . 
Tabhair, ( w 
Ruig, reach, 
Thig, come, 

Abair, say, 
Faic, see, 
Faigh, get, 



Past. 

f rug 

bha 

robh 

chuala 

'rinn 

chàidh 



Infin. 
breith, &c. 



Future. 
beiridh 
bithidh 
bidh 

cluinnidh clùinntinn 
*nì 



} bith 



Past Part. 
beirte, &c. 

iar bhithf 

iar cluinntinn 



thèid 



deachaidh ) 
thug bheir 



deanamh, &c. deante 
dol iar dol 



f toirt 
1 tabhairt 



iar toirt 
iar tabhairt 
ruigsinn, &c, iarruigsinn,&c. 
tighinn,teachdiar tighinn, &c. 



'ràinig ruigidh 
thàinig thig 

SECOND CONJUGATION. 
thubhairt their ràdh, &c. iar ràdh, &c. 
chunnaic chì faicinn, &c. iar faicinn, &c. 
fhuair gheibh faighinn, &c. iarfaighinn,&c. 

* Of this class there are only eleven in the language ; but verbs forming the ter- 
minations of their infinitives irregularly, thatis, infinitives not ending in -adh, are 
numerous. — See Irregular It\finitives. 

\ For the inflections of the verb Bi, see pp. 84 , 85 , 86, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



115 



INFLECTION OF IRREGULAR 
VERBS. 



TEARNADH GHNIOMHAR NEO- 
RIAILTEACH. 



Beir, bear* bringforth ; catch. 
IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Active. Passive 

Beiream, let me bear, &c. 
Na beir, bear not, &c. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present. 

Tha mì 'breith, / am bearing, &c. 



Beirtear mì, or beirthear mì, let 
me be born, &c. 



Present. 

Tha mì air mo bhreith, Iam borti, 



&c. 



Past. 

'Rug mì, I bore or bare, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d' 
Rug mì. Ged, ma Rug mì, &c. 

Future. 

Beiridh mì, / shall bear, &c. 
Am Beir ? cha Bheir nach, mur, 
gu'm Beir mì, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Past. 

Bheirinn, / wonld bear, &c. 
Am Beirinn? cha Bheirinn, &c, 

Nach, na'm, mur, gu'm Beirinn, 

&c. 

Future. 

Ma bheireas mì, iflshatt bear, & c. 



Past. 

'Rugadh mì, / was born, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, na 'n, mur, gu'n d' 
Rugadh mì. Ged, ma Rug mì, &c. 

Future. 

Beirear mì, / sliall be born, &c. 
AmBeirear mì, cha Bheirear, nach , 
mur, gu'm Beirear mì, &c. 



Past. 

Bheirteadh mì, Iwouldbe born, &c. 
Am Beirteadh mì ? cha Bheir- 
teadh. Nach, mur, na'm, gu'm 
Beirteadh mì, &c. 

Future. 

Ma bheirear mì, if I shallbe born, 
&c. 



Infinitive. — Breith, beirsinn, bearing. A bhreith, a bheirsinn, to 
bear. 

Pres. Part. — A' breith, a' beirsinn, bearing, at bearing. 
Past Part.—Beivte, air breith, air beirsinn, born. 

Clùinn, hear, listen ; audire. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 
Active. j Passive. 

Cluinneam, let me hear, &c. | Cluinntear mì, let me be heard, &c. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 



Present. 

Tha mì 'clùinntinn, / hear, or / 
am hearing, &c. 



Present. 

Tha mì air mo chlùinntinn, / am 
heard, &c. 



* Beir signifies also to catch, to seize upon, to overtalie, and in this sense, it is 
always followed by the preposition "air," either simple or compounded ; as, 
" beir air an eun," catcìi the bird. "'Rug mi àir," / caught it. " Beiridh mi 
òìrbh," / shall catch or overtake you. In some districts, beir is used in the Pa?t 
tense for 'rug, but in conversation only ; as, " Bheir è air an each," he caught the 
horse. 



116 



ETYMOLOGY. 



Past. 

Chuala mì, 1 heard, &c 

An cuala? &c. Cha chuala, &c, 
nach,na'n, mur, gu'n Cuala, &c, 
Ged, ma Chuala, &c 

Future. 

Cluinnidh mì, / shall hear, &c. 
An clùinn mì ? Cha chlùinn mì, 

&c 



FOCLACHADH. 
Past. 

Chualas m\,or chualadh mì, Iwas 

heard, &c 
An cualas ? &c. Cha chualas, &c, 
nach, na'n, mur, gu'n Cualas, &c 
Ged, ma Chualas, &c 

Future. 

Cluinnear m\, Ishall be heard, &c. 
An cluinnear mì? Cha chluinn- 
ear mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 



Past Active. 
Chluinninn, / would hear, &c 



Past Passive. 
Chlùinnteadh m\,Iwould beheard, 
&c. 

An ? nach, na'n, mur, gu'n Clùinn- 
teadh mì, &c 

Future. 

Ged, ma Chluinnear mì, &c. 



An? nach, na'n, mur, gu'n Cluinn 
inn, &c. 

Future. 

Ged, ma Chluinneas mì, &c 

Infinitive,— Clùinntinn, hearing. A chlùinntinn, to hear, 
Pres. Part. — A' cluinntinn, hearing. 
Past Part. — Iar clùinntinn, or air clùinntinn, heard. 
Dean, do, mdke ; facere. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Active. 
Deanam, let me do, &c 



Present. 

Tha mi 'deanamh, lam doing, &c. 
Past. 

'Rinn mì, / did, &c 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d' 

Rinn mì, &c. 
Ma, ged 'Rinn mì, &c 

Future. 
! Ni mì, / shall do, &c 
An? cha, nach, mur, gu'n Dean 

mì, &c 



Passive. 

I Deanar, or deantar mì, &c 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. 

Tha mì deante, / am made, &c 
Past. 

'Rinneadh mì, / was made, &c 
An? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

d' Rinneadh mì, &c. 
Ma, ged 'Rinneadh mì, &c. 
Future. 

'Nithear, or 'nìtear mì, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n Deanar 
mì, &c 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past. 

Dheanainn, / would do, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur Dean- 

ainn, &c. 
Ged dheanainn, &c 
Future. 

Ged, ma e Nì mì, &c. 



Dheanteadh mì, / would be made, 
&c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur Dean- 

teadh mì, &c 
Ged dheanteadh mì, &c 
Future. 

Ged, ma Nithear/Nìtear mì, &c 



(No future in -as.) 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 117 



Infinitive.— Deanamh, deanadh, doing. A dheanamh, to do. 
Present Part. — A' deanamh, a' deanadh, doing, at doing. 
Past Part.— Deante, deanta, done, made. 

Rach, theirig (intransitive), go ; ire. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Intransitive. 
Racham, theirigeam, &c. 
Na rach, teirig, tèid, &c. 



INDICATIVE 

Present Intransitive. 
Tha mì 'dòl, / am going, &c. 
Past. 

Chàidh mì, I went, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Deachaidh,* &c. 
Ged, ma Chaidh, &c. 

Future. 
Thèid mì, I shall go, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, inur, gu'n Tèidf 

mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Thèid mì, &c. 



Irapersonal. 
Rachtar, theirigtear (leam, &c. ) 



Present Impersonal. 
Thàtar a' dol (leam, &c.) 

Past. 

Chaidheas. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Deachas, &c. 
Ged, ma Chaidheas, &c. 

Future. 

Thèidear (leam, &c.) 
An? cha,nach, mur,gu'n Tèidear. 

Ged, ma Thèidear. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past. 

'Rachainn, / would go, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, ged 
Rachainn. 

Future. 
Thèid mì, I shallgo, &c. 
Ged, ma Thèid mì, &c. 



Past. 

'Rachtadh, or rachteadh. 
An ? cha, nach na'n, mur, ged 
Rachtadh, &c. 

Future. 
Thèidear, &c. 
Ged, ma Thèidear. 
Infinitive. — Dol, X going. A dhol, to go. 
Pres. Part. — A' dol, going, at going, iens. 
Past Part.—Air dol, gone, having gone. 

Tabhair,§ thoir, beir,]1 give, cause ; dàre. 
IMPERATIVE. 
Active. I Passive. 



Tàbhaiream, thoiream, thugam. 
Tabhair, thoir. 

Tabhaireadh,thoireadh,thugadh è. 



Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar mì. 
Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar thu. 
Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar è. 



* Deachaidk is frequently contracted deach. 

t The t in tèid and tèidear is pronounced like d, and hence arise the corrupted 
forms dèid, dèidear, d' thèid, d' thèidear. The form " d' thèid" is improper, be- 
cause the particle " do " is never prefixed to the future negative. 

$ Dòl is very frequently pronounced dSl in many places, but the correct pronun- 
ciation is dol. 

§ Tabhair is seldom used in conversation, it is chiefly found in books. 
II Beir in the Imperative is chiefly confined to the second person singular, and in 
that mood it signifies to take away ; as, « ' beir uainn è," take him away from us. 



118 ETYMOLOGY. 

Plural. 

Tabhaireamaid, thoireamaid, thu- 

gamaid. 
Tabhairibh, thoiribh, thugaibh. 
Tabhaireadh, thoireadh, thugadh 

ìad. 



FOCLACHADH. 

Plural. 

Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar sinn. 

Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar sìbh. 
Tabhairear, thoirear, thugar ìad. 



INDICATIVE 

Present.— Active. 
Tha mì 'toirt, / am giving, &c. 
Past. 

Thug mi, / gave, &c. 
An % cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d' 

Thug mì, &c 
Ged, ma Thug mì, &c 

Future. 
Bheir mi, / shall give, &c. 
An ! cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Tabhair, Toir mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Bheir mì, &c. 



Present .— Passive. 
Tha mi air mo thoirt, &c. 
Past. 

Thugadh mì, / was given, &c. 
An 1 cha, nach, gu'n d' Thugadh 

mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Thugadh mì, &c. 
Future. 

Bheirear mì, I shall be given, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Tabhairear, Toirear, &c. 
Ged, ma Bheirear mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past. 

Bheirinn, / would give, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Toirinn,* Tugainn, &c. 
Ged bheirinn, &c. 



given, 



Past. 

Bheirteadh mi, / would 
&c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Toirteadh, Tugteadh mì, &c. 
Ged bheirteadh m\, &c. 



(No future in -as.) 

Infinitive.— Tabhairt, toirt, giving ; a thabhairt, a thoirt. 
Pres. Part. — A' tabhairt, a' toirt, a' breith,f giving, at giving. 
Past Part. — Air tabhairt, air toirt, given, having given. 

Ruig,J reach, arrive ; extendere, pervenire. 

IMPERATIVE. 
Active. Passive. 
Ruigeam, let rne reach, &c. Ruigtear mi, let me be reached, &c. 

Na ruigeam, &c. Na ruigtear mì, &c. 



* The t in toìr and tvffainn assumes the sound of d, and hence the corrupted 
forms doir, dnga'mn, d'thoir, d'thugainn. — See note on tèid, page 117. 

f A' breith is almost obsolete, it is used only in a few phrases; as, a' breith air 
làimh òrm, corrupted in some northern districts, into " a' breac air làimh òrm," 
seizing me by the hand. A' breith air èiginn, taking by violence. " A' breith buidh- 
eachais, giving thanks." — B;ble. Breith signifies judgment or the sentence given 
by a judge. Breitheamh, a judge. Breitheanas (i. e. breith-a-nuas), a sentence 
from above, judgment ; as, " Là a' bhreitheanais, " the day ofjudgment. In this 
sense, breith is found in some Latin and Greek words ; as, Vergobretus, i. e.fear-gu- 
breith, a man for judging, a judge.— Caes. Gal. Bel. L. i. 16. IJ^scrSos, an old man ; 
a chief. 

X K;/(<7combined with the word " leas, " prqfit, signifìes to need, to require,- as, 
" cha rùig thu leas gluasad," you need not movc. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 
INDICATIVE. 



119 



Present. 

Tha mì 'ruigsinn, / am reachinq, 
&c. 

Past. 

'Ràinig, mì, ruig mi, &c. 
An ? nach, mur, gu'n d' Ràinig 
mì, &c. 

Future. 

Ruigidh, mì, / shall reach, &c. 
An ? nach, mur Ruig mì, &c. 



Pres. Pas. & Impers. 
Tha mì air mo ruigsinn, &c. 

Past. 

Ràineas, ràineadh. 
An ? nach, mur, gu'n d' Ràineas. 
&c. 

Future. 
Ruigear mì, &c. 

An ? nach, mur Ruigear mi, &c. 



Past. 

'Ruiginn, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 
ged 'Ruiginn, &c. 

Future. 
Ged, ma Ruigeas mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVB. 

v Past. 

Ruigteadh mì, &e. 
An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n,, 
ged Ruigteadh, &c. 

Future. 
Ged, ma Ruigear mì, &c. 



Infinitive. — Ruigsinn, ruigheachd ; a ruigsinn, a 'ruigheachd. 
Pres. Part. — A' ruigsinn, a' ruigheachd, reaching. 



Intransitive. 
Thigeam, let me come, &c. 
Na tig,* do not come, &c. 



Thig (intransitive), come ; become ; veriire. 
IMPERATIVE. 

Impersonal. 
Thigtear, let (it) come. 



Na tigtear, let (it) not come. 
INDICATIVE. 



Present. 

Tha mi, 'tighinn, / am coming, &c. 
Past. 

Thàinig ml, I came, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n d' 



Thàinig mì, &c. 

, Thàini, 

Future. 



Ged, ma 



g mì, &c. 



Thig mì, / shall come, &e. 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n Tig mì, 
&c. 

Ged, ma Thig mì, &c. 



Present. 

Thàtar a' tighinn, (it) is coming. 
Past. 

Thàineas, (it) was come. 

An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n Tàineas< 

Ged, ma Thàineas. 

Future. 
Thigear (leam, &c) 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n Tigear, 
&c. 

Ged, ma Thigear, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past. 

Thiginn, / would come, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Tiginn, &c. 
Ged Thiginn, &c. 



Past. 

Thigteadh, (it) would come. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n 

Tigteadh, &c. 
Ged thigteadh, &c. 



(No future in -as.) 



* In every part of this verb, except tighinn and teachd, t plain is sounded like d 
small. 



320 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Infinitive Tighinn, teachd (for tigheachd), A thighinn, a theachd. 

Pres. Part. — A' tighinn, a' teachd, coming. 

Abair, say, repeat ; recitare, dicere. 



Active. 

Abaiream, abram, let me say, &c. 
Na h- abram, &c. 



IMPBRATIYE. 

Passive and ImpersonaL 
Abrar mì, &c. 
Na h- abrar, &c. 



INDICATIVE. 

Present. 

Tha mi ag ràdh,* / am saying, &c. 
Past. 

Thubhairt mì,f / said, &c. 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n, na'n 

Dubhairt f mì, &c. 

Future. 
Their mì, / shall say, &c. 
An ? cha n-, nach, mur, gu'n Abair 

mì, &c. 



Present. 
Tha mì air mo ràdh, &c. 

Past. 

Thubhairteadh,J (it) was said. 
An ? cha, nach, mur, gu'n, na'n 
Dubhairteadh, % &c. 

Future. 
Theirear (it) will be said. 
An? cha n-, nach, mur, gu'n Abrar. 



Past Active. 
Theirinn, / would say, &c 
An ? cha n-, nach, mur, gu'n, na'n 

Abrainn, &c. 
Ged theirinn, &c. 

Future. 
Ged, ma Their mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE, 

Past Impersonal. 
Theirteadh, (it) would be said. 
An, cha n-, nach, mur, gu'n, na'n 

Abairteadh. 
Ged theirteadh, &c. 

Future. 
Ged, ma Theirear, &c. 
(No future in -as.} 



Infinitive.— Ràdh, ràdhainn, ràite. A radh, &c. 
Pres. Part.—kg ràdh, ag ràdhainn, ag ràite, saying. 



Faic, see, behold, observe ; videre. 
IMPERATIVE. 



Active. 
Faiceam, let me see, &c. 



ACTIVE. 

Tha mì 'faicinn, &c 



Passive. 
Faictear, faicthear mì, &c. 



INDICATIVE. 



PASSIVE. 

Tha mì air m' fhaicinn, &c 



* This verb has a simple present tense borrowed from the Irish ; as, deirim or 
deiream, / say deir thu, thou sayest; deir è, he says ; deirimid or deireamaid. 
we say ,■ deir s'ìbh, you say deir ìad, they say. But this tense is novv become ob- 
solete. 

t Thubhairt and dubhairt are commonly contracted into thuirt and duirt. 

i Also dùbhradh, duirteadh, thùbhradh, thuirteadh, principally found in books. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



121 



Past. v 

Chunnaic, chunna mì, &c. 
Am faca * mì ? ^ 
Cha n- fliaca mì, &c. 
Nach,mur,naìn, gu'm Facamì, &c. 
Ged, ma Chunnaic mì, &c. 
Future. 

Chì mì,-f- 1 see, or shall see, &c. 
Am ? nach, mur Faic mì, &c. 
Cha n- f haic mì. 
Ged, ma Chì mì, &c. 



Past. 

Chunnacas, chunnacadh mì, &c. 
Am facas mì ? &c. 
Cha n- f hacas mi, &c. 
Nach,mur,na'm,gu'mFacasmì,&c. 
Ged, ma Chunnacas mì, &c. 

Future. 
Chìtear, chithear mì, &c. 
Am ? nach, mur Faicear mì, &c. 
Cha n- fhaicear mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Chitear mì, &c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past. 

Chithinn, / would see, &c. 

Am faicinn ? &c. 

Cha n- fhaicinn, &c. 

Nach f haicinn, &c. 

Mur, gum, na'm Faicinn, &c. 

Ged chithinn, &c. 



Past. 
Chìteadh mì, &c. 
Am faicteadh mì, &c. 
Cha n- fhaicteadh mì, &c. 
Nach fhaicteadh mì, &c. 
Mur, gu'm, na'm Faicteadh nrì,&c. 
Ged chiteadh mì, &c. 



(No future in -as.) 
Infinitive.— Faicinn, faicsinn, seeing. A dh- f haicinn, to see. 
Pres. Part. — A' faicinn, a' faicsinn, seeing, at seeing. 

Faigh,^, obtain,find ; acquirere. 

IMPERATrVE. 

I Passive. 
I Faightear mì, let nie be got, &c. 

INDICATIVE. 

Present. 



Active. 

Faigheam, let me get, &c. 



Present. 
Tha mì 'faighinn, &c. 

Past. 

Fhuair mì, I got, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d 

Fhuair mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Fhuair ml, &c. 

n Future. 
Gheibh mì, &c. 
Am faigh mì? &c. 
Cha n- fhaigh mì, &c. 
Nach fhaigh or faigh mì, &c. 
Mur, gu'm Faigh mi, &c. 
Ged, ma Gheibh mì, &c. 



Tha mi air m' f haighinn, &c. 1 
Past. 

Fhuaradh, fhuaras mì, &c. 

An ? cha, nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d' 

Fhuaradh mì, &c. 
Ged, ma Fhuaradh mì, &c. 

Future. 
Gheibhear mì, &c. 

Am faighear mì, &c. 

Cha n- fhaighear mì, &c. 

Nach f haighear orfaighear mi,&c. 

Mur, gu'm Faighear mi, &c. 

Ged, ma Gheibhear mì, &c. 



* The secondary forms of faic have also fac in the active voice and facadh in the 
passive voice of the past tense ; as, amfac ? &c. 
t The future of this verb is used as a present tense ; as, " chì mì sin," Isee that. 



122 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

Past. 

Gheibhteadh mì, &c. 
Am faighteadh mì ? &c. 1 
Cha n- f haighteadh mì, &c. 
Na'm, mur, gu'm Faighteadh mì, 
&c. 

Ged gheibhteadh mi, &c. 
(No future in -as.) 
{ Faighinn, faotuinn, faghail, finding. 
\ A dh- fhaighinn, a dh- f haotuinn, a dh- fhaghail. 
Past Part — A' faighinn, a' faotuinn, a' faghail. 



Past. 
Gheibhinn, &c. 
Am faìghinn ? &c. 
Cha n-, nach Fhaighinn, &c. 
Na'm, mur, gu'm Faighinn, &c. 

Ged gheibhinn, &c. 



Infinitite.- 



PEFECTIVE VERBS. 

These are such as want some of 



GNIOMHARAN QAOIDEACH. 



Is ìad sin gnìomharàn à ta dh- 
their parts ; as, easbhuidhcuidde'mpàirtibh;mar, 
Faod, fèud, may. Fèum, fimir, must. Is urrainn, can. Is, 
am, is, are. Arsa, ars', orsa, o?a, ol, said, quoth. Theab, had 
almost, was well-nigh — See Auxiliary Verbs, p. 83. 

Faod, or fèud, May. 
INDICATIVE. 



ACTIVE. 
Past. 

Dh'-fhaod mì, &c. 
An d'f haod mì ? &c. 
Cha d'f haod mì, &c. 
Nach, mur d'fhaod, &c. 
Ged, ma dh'-fhaod, &c. 



IMPERSONAL. 
Past. 

Dh'-fhaodadh, dh-f haodhas. 
An d'fhaodadh ? &c. 
Cha d'f haodadh, d'f hadas, &c. 
Nach, mur d'f haodadh, &c. 
Ged,ma dh'-fhaodadh,*dh'-fhaodas 



Future or Present. 
Faodaidh mi, / may, &c. 
Am faod ? &c. Cha n-fhaod, &c. 
Nach, mur, gu'm Faod, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE 

Past. 

Dh'-f haodainn, / rnight, &c. 

Am faodainn, &c, 

Cha n-f haodainn, &c. 

Nach, na'm, mur Faodainn. 

Ged dh'-f haodainn, &c. 

Future. 

Ma dh'-fhaodas mì,?fl?nay,8zc. 



Future or Present. 
Faodar, &c. 

Am faodar ? Cha n-f haodar, &c. 
Nach, mur, gu'm Faodar, &c. 



Past. 

Dh'-f haodteadh, &c. 

Am faodteadh ?f 

Cha n-f haodteadh. 

Nach, na'ni, mur Faodteadh, &c. 

Ged dh'-fhaodteadh. 

Future. 

Ma dh'-f haodar, if(h) ma2/,&c. 



* Ma dh'-f haodadh, if it might be, (adverbially) perh'ips, is also written ma 
dhaoite; and sometimes math dhaoite and maith dhaoite the Iatter spelling is, 
however, very incorrect, because math and maith signify good, and never if. 

t Faodteadh is also spelt faodadh and faoìtcadh, but the above is the proper 
orthography. 



ETYMOLOG Y. t vvm***** a mT 123 

Fèum, fimir, Must. 
INDICATIVE. 

Past Passive. 
Dh'-fhèumadh, dh'-f himireadh. 
An d'fhèumadh? An d'fhimireadh? 
Chad'fhèumadh,cha d'fhimireadh. 
Nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d'Fhèum- 

adh, d'Fhimireadh, &c. 
Ged, ma dh'-Fhèumadh, &c. 

Fut. Impersonal, or Pres.Pas. 
Fèumar, fimirear, &c. 
Am fèumar ? Am fimirear ? &c. 
Cha n-f hèumar, cha n-fhimirear. 
Nach, mur, ga'm Fèumar, Fimir- 
ear, &c. 



Past Active. 
Dh'-fhèum, dh'-fhimir, &c. 
An d'fhèum ? An d'f himir ? 
Cha d'f hèum, cha d'f himir. 
Nach, na'n, mur, gu'n d' Fhèum, 

d' Fhimir, &c. 
Ged, ma dh'-Fhèum, &c. 

Future or Present. 
Fèumaidh, fimiridh mì, &c. 
Am fèum 1 Am fimir mì ? &c. 
Cha n-f hèum, cha n- f himir, &c. 
Nach, mur, gu'm Fèum, Fimir, 
&c. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



Past Active. 
Dh'-fhèumainn, dh'-fhimirinn, 
&c. 

Cha n-fhèumainn, cha n-f himir- 
inn, &c. 

Am ? nach, na'm, mur, gu'm 
Fèumainn, Fimirinn, &c. 

Future Active. 
Ma,ged dh'-f hèumas, dh'-f himir- 
eas, &c. 



Past Impersonal. 
Dh'-fhèumteadh, dh'-fhimirteadh, 
&c. 

Cha n-f hèumteadh, cha n-f himir- 

teadh, &c. 
Am ? nach, na'm, mur, gu'm 

Fèumteadh, Fimirteadh, &c. 

Future Passive. 
Ma, ged dh'-f hèumas, dh'-f himir- 
eas, & c. 



Is urrainn, Can ; possum. B'urrainn, Could. 



Present Active. 
Is urrainn mi. An ? cha n-, nach, 

mur, gur Urrainn mì, &c. 
Ma 's urrainn, &c. 

Past. 

B' urrainn mì. Am ? cha, nach, 
na'm, mur, gu'm B'urrainn, &c. 



Present Passive. 
Is urrainnear. An ? cha n-, nach, 
mur, gur Urrainnear, (mo), &c. 
Ma 's urrainnear, &c. 

Past. 

B' urrainnear. Am ? cha, nach, 
na'm,mur, gu'm B' urrainnear,&c. 



Is, Am ; sum. Bu, b', Was ; eram,fui. 
INDICATIVE. 
Present. 

Sing. 1. Is mì,* or is mise, It is I, or I am. 

2. Is tu, or is tusa, ^ It is thou, or thou art. 

3. Is è, or is esan ; is ì, or is ise, It is he, or she ; he is. or she is. 



* Contractcd 's mì, 's tu, 'sèov 'se, 's i or 'si, 's iad or 'siad, &c. These con- 
tractions proceed on the same principle as the English aphajrese3 'tis I, 'tis he, &c. 



124 FT VAT/XE^OfTTi 

Plur. 1. Is sìnn, or is sinne, 

2. Is sìbh, or is sibhse, 

3. Is ìad, or is iadsan, 



FOCLACHADH. 

It is we, or we are. 
It is ye, or ye are. 
It is they, or they are. 

Past. 



Sing. 1. Bu mhì, or bu mhise, was I, or / was. 

2. Bu tu, or bu tusa, It was thou, or thou wast. 

3. B'è,orb ì,b'esan,orb'ise, was he or sAe; or she was. 
Plur. 1. Bu sìnn, or bu sinne, It was we, or were. 

2. Bu sìbh, or bu sibhse, li was ye, or ye were. 

3. B' ìad, or b' ìadsan, was they, or were. 



INTERROGATIVE FORM. 
Present. 

Singular. ^ Plural. 

Am mì ? Isit I? or am 1 ? An sìnn 1 Zs i£ w<? ? or are we t 

An tu"? Is it thou ? or art thou ? An sìbh ? Zs i£ #om ? or are yow i 
An è ? Is itheì or is he ? An ìad ? Zs ? or are they 

An ì ? Zs sAe ? or is sAe ? 

Past. 

Singular. Plural. 
Am bu mhì ? was it I? Am bu sinn ? was it we ? 

Am bu tu ? was it thou ? Am bu sibh ? was it you ? 

Am b' è ? Am b' ì ? was it he, she ? Am b' iad ? was it they ? 



NEGATIVE FORM. 
Present. 

Singular. ^ Plural. 

Cha mhì, It is not I. Cha sìnn, it is not we. 

Cha tu, it is not thou. Cha sìbh, it is not you. 

Cha n-è ; cha n-ì, it is not he, she. Cha n-ìad, it is not they. 
Nach mì ? Is it not I ? &c. Nach sinn ? Is it not we ? &c. 



Singular. 
Cha bu mhì, it was not I. 
Cha bu tu, it was not thou. 
Cha b' è ; cha b' ì. 
Nach bu mhì ? &c. 



Past. 

Plural. 

Cha bu sìnn, it was not we. 
Cha bu sìbh, it is not you. 
Cha b' ìad. 
Nach bu sìnn ? &c. 



'twas I, 'twill, don't, &c, for it is I, &c. Such abbreviations are now very seldora 
employed by any accomplished writer of English. No reason can be assigned, if we 
except the rapidity and deviations of vulgar speech, for using 's instead of is in 
Gaelic prose. The aphaeresis is only allowable in poetry, when the measure of the 
verse unavoidably requires it. 

It may be remarked here, that the little old verb " is," is the most peculiar, 
general, and subtle word in the language. It combines with nouns, adjectives, 
and other verbs to form expressions whicli are generally rendered in English by 
one verb.— See Composite Verbs. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 125 

SUBJUNCTIVE OR CONDITIONAL FORMS. 
Present. 

Singular. Plural. 
Ma's* mì, ifit be I. Ma's sìnn, ifit be we. 

Ma's tu ; ma's è ; ma's ì. Ma's sìbh, ma's ìad. 

Past. 

Na'm bu mhì, ifit was I. Na'm bu smn, ifit was we. 

Na'm bu tu, na'm b' è. Na'm bu sìbh, na'm b' ìad. 

Present. 

Ged is mì, though it is I. Ged is sìnn, though it is we. 

Ged is tu ; ged is è, ì. Ged is sìbh ; ged is ìad. 

Gednachmi, thoughitisnot I, &c. Gedna,chsìnn i ihoughitisnotwe,kc. 
Past. 

Ged bu mhì, though it was I. Ged bu sìnn, though it was not we. 
Ged bu tu ; gedaf b' è, or b' ì. Ged bu sìbh ? geda b' ìad. 
Ged nach bu mhì, &c. Ged nach sìnn, &c. 

Present. 

Gur mì, that it is I. Gur sìnn, that it is we. 

Gur tu ; gur è, ì, or gur h-è, h-ì. Gur sìbh ; gur ìad, or gur h-ìad. 
Past. 

Gu'm bu mì, that it was I. Gu'm bu sìnn, that it was we. 

Gu'm bu tu ; gu'm b' è, ì. Gu'm bu sìbh ; gu'm b' ìad. 

Present. 

Mur mi, if it is not I, &c. Mur sìnn, ifit be not we. 

Mur tu ; mur è, ì, or mur h-è, h-ì. Mur sìbh ; mur ìad. 

Past. 

Mur bu mhì, if it was not I, if it Mur bu sìnn, ifit was not we^ if it 
were not I, if it had not been I, were not we, if it had not been 
or iflhad not been. we, or ifwe had not been. 

Mur bu tu ; mur b' è, ì, &c. Mur bu sìbh ; mur b' ìad, &c. 

Present Participle. 

Singular. Plural. 

AgusJ mì, or 's mì, I being. Agus sìnn, or 's sinn, we being. 

Agus tu, or 's tu, thou being. Agus sìbh, or 's sìbh, ye being. 

Agus è, ì, or 's è, 's ì, he, she being. Agus ìad, or 's ìad, they being. 

The various forms of the verb Is, combined with the relatives a, 
nach, and all the tenses of the verb Bi, are used to express existence 
emphatically. Thus, — 

* Is after a vowel elides the ì ; as, ma's mi for ma is mì; and bu elides the u be- 
fore a vowel ; as, b' è, b' ìad for bu è, bu ìad. 

t Ged becomes geda in the third person singular and plural of the past ; the a is 
added causà euphoniae. 

X The word agus or 's is also the copulative conjunction and ; its use as a parti- 
ciple denoting being or existence, is very compatible with its import as a conjunc- 
tion, for when we speak of two or more objects, we connect them together by the parti- 
cle and in English, and by agus in the Gaelic, simply to denote their co-existence 
in place or time, — a circumstance which leads us to regard this conjunction as ex- 
pressive of being or existence in every language ; as, " a' ghrìan agus a' ghealach 
anns an athar," the sun and moon in thefirmamcnt, i. e. the sun existing, the moon 
existing, or both luminaries co-existing in the firmament. Sol et Lùna in firma- 
mento, i.e. sole existente lùna existente, or ambobus luminaribus co-existentibus 
in fìrmamento. This illustration will account for the use of the particle " agus" 
both as a conjunction and as a word denoting being. 



126 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



INDICATIVE. 

Present. 

Is mì a tha, / am indeed,* &c. 
Is mì nach 'cil, / am not, &c. 
Am mì a tha ? am I? &c. 
Nach mì a tha ? am I not ? &c. 
Cha mhì a tha, / am not, &c. 
Gur mì a tha, that I am, &c. 
Ged is mì a tha, thoagh I am, &c. 
Mur mì a tha, if I am not, &c. 

Future. 

Is mi a bhitheas, I shallbe, &c. 
Am mì a bhitheas ? shall I be, &c. 
Nach mi a bhitheas ? &c. 
Cha mì, gur mì, ged is mì, &c. 
Mur mi a bhitheas, &c. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Past. 

Is mì a bhitheadh, / would be, &c. Am mì a bhitheadh ? Would I 
be ? &c. Cha mhì a bhitheadh, &c. Nach mi a bhitheadh ? Is mì 
nach bitheadh, &c. Am mì ? gur mì nach bitheadh, &c. 

Obs. 1. — In the Interrogative and Negative, or after the pre- 
positive particles am, clia, nacli, gur, mur, and the Interroga- 
tives co, ciod, the verb Is never appears in the present tense, 
these particles followed by the personal pronouns are, by this 
idiom of the language, employed to convey the idea as distinctly 
as if the verb was expressed ; as, 

Am mise ? An è mise %% (is) it I ? Cha tus' an duine, thou (art) nol 
the man. Nach è so an t-each bàn ? (Is) not ' this the white horse ? Gur 
ì mo rùn, that she (is) my darling. Mur è Tòmas, if it (is) not Thomas. 
Co thu ? Who (art) thou ? Ciod è sin ? What (is) that ? 



* Such words as indeecl, truly, certainly, &c. are implied in all these combina- 
tions, and to be expressed, in most cases, in the English rendering. 

t The following examples will illustrate at once this usage of the verb Is ; as, " Is 
mì at ha," it is 1 who am. ' • Is è a bha," it is he who was, ille est quifuit. ' ' Is è 
Sèumas a thug dhomh am peànn so," it is James that gave me thispen, est Jacobus 
qui dedit mihi hanc pennam. " B'e mo mhac a 'rinn sin," it ivas my son who did 
that, erat mcusfilius id Qmfecit. " Is mì nach innis è," it is I who will not tell it, 
or / shall not tell it. 

X This idiom is not peculiar to the Gaelic only. We find it also frequently in 
the Hebrew ; as, S D3K s nK ^IDUTT (read heshemer dchi ànechi), " Am miso fear- 
gleidhidhmo bhràthar? " (" Am) Imy brother's keeper?" — Gen. iv. 9. There is no 
verb in the orginal, keeper of my brother 1? The verb " am" is supplied in the 
English Bible to suit the English idiom. 



Is mì a+ bha, / was indeed, &c. 
Is mì nach robh, / was not, &c. 
Am mì a bha ? was it I? &c. 
Nach mì a bha ? was I not ? &c. 
Cha mhì a bha, 1 was not, &c. 
Gur mì a bha, that I was, &c. 
, Ged is mi a bha, thoughl was, &c. 
Mur mì a bha, if I was not, &c. 

Future. 

Is mì nach bì, / shall not be, &c. 
An è nach bi mì ? ? shall I not be, 
Am mì nach bì ? S &c « 

Gur mì nach bi, that I shall not be. 
Ged is mì nach bi, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



127 



Obs. 2. — The verb Is, combined with the personal and rela- 
tive pronouns, is used indefinitely before other verbs to express 
a proposition with greater emphasis; thus, " Is mì a tha sgìth," 
I am (very) tired ; literally, it is I who am tired. " Is è a tha 
fuar," it is (very) cold. " Is mì nach tèid/' I shall not go 
at all. " Is tus' a bhris a' ghloine/' it is thou that broke the 
glass. It also begins a sentence with the Past participle ; as, 
" Is beannaichte na daoine tròcaireach," blessed are the 
merciful (men). — Bible. 

Obs. 3. — The participle agus, or 's (being), prefixed to a per- 
sonal pronoun, or a noun, without a verb following it, corre- 
sponds, in meaning, to the participle being in English ; as, 

** 'S mì leam fèin," / being àlone, or by rnyself. " 'S an sprèidh air 
an lòn," (for agus an sprèidh, &c), the cattle being on the meadow, 
pecore existente in prato.*— Ross. 

Agus or 's, with itspronoun or noun, prefixed to the Infinitive, 
and Present or Past participle of another verb, is translated into 
English by the corresponding Present or Past participle of that 
verb ; as, 

" Cha-n àm gu lìonadh nan còrn, 

'Smì 'glacadh 'n am dhòrn an t-sleagh." — Oss. croma, 174, 5. 

It is no time forfilling the cups (drinking-horns). 
I seizing the spear in my fist. 

" Dà àllt 'thig o 'n aonach le fuaim, 
dhà charraig ghruamach nan càrn, 

S ìad a' measgadh àn geal chobhair shìos." — Oss. temora, v. 152-4. 

Two streams pourfrom ihe mountains with noise, 
From two dark-browed rocks of the hills, 
Mixing their white foam below. 

" ' S è sintefofhudiim gharbh shruth," he (being) stretched 
under the sound of boisterous streams. — Temora, iv. 274. 



* It will be observed, that this expression corresponds to the Latin construction 
called the Ablative Absolute. 

f Orsa and osa are also in common use : these alvvays elide the final a before a 
vowel ; as, osa Tomas, said Thomas, os' Iain, said John. 01 is seldom used now 
either in speaking or writing. In old books òl and ar arefound; ag, " Ciod is 
gile na sneachd òl Fion ? Fìrinn ar inghean," Wliat is whiter than snow, said 
Fingal? Truth, said the lady or maid.—Stewart's C'o-chruinneachadh Taghta,— 
Edinburgh, 1804. 



Arsa, orsa, osa,t ol, said, quoth. 
Past. 



Singular. 



Plural. 



Arsa mì, said I, or / said. 
Arsa tu, saidst thou. 
Ars' è, said he. 



Arsa sìnn, said we, or we said. 
Arsa sìbh, said you. 
Ars' ìad, said they. 



128 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Emphatic. — Arsa mise, arsa tusa. Ars' esan, arsa sinne. Arsa 
sìbhse, ars' ìadsan, said they, or they said. 

Theab, had almost, was well-nigh ; as, 
Past. — Theab mì tuiteam, / had almost fallen. Theab thu ; theab 
e ; theab sinn ; theab sìbh ; theab- ìad. An do theab ì &c, cha do 
theab, &c, nach do theab ? &c. 

Impersonal. — Theabadh, theabas ; as, theabas mo bhàthadh, / had 
almost been drowned, — literally, my drowning had almost happened. 
Theabas do bhàthadh. Theabas à bhathadh, à bàthadh. Theabas ar 
bàthadh, &c. Cha do theabadh, theabas, &c. 

The following defective verbs are used only in the second 
person singular and plural of the Imperative ; thus, 

Feuch, behold. Fèuchaibh, behold ye. Tiugainn, come thou 
away. Tiugainnibh, come (ye) away. Siuthad, say away. 
Siuthadaibh, say ye away. Trothad (trou-àd), come (thou) 
here ; Trothadaibh, come ye here. 



IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

1. A Transitive or an In- 
transitive verb is said to be 
impersonal when it is used 
in its third person singular 
Passive, without a nomina- 
tive expressed ; as, 



GNIOMHARAN NEOPHEARSAN- 
TAIL. 

1. Theirear gu'm beil Gnì- 
omhar Asdach no Anasdach, 
neo-phearsantail, 'nuair a 
ghnàthaichear è 'n à threas 
pearsa aonar Fulangach gun 
ainmeach leis ; mar, 



Cluinnear, (one) hears, or may hear. Chlùinnteadh, (one) 
might or could hear. Chithear, (one) sees. Chìteadh, (one) 
might see. Am faicear ? shall or can (one) see ? Nach bithear ? 
Cha robhas. — See page 91. 

2. Verbs used impersonally are declined in both num- 
bers with the Compound Pronoun leam, either expressed 
or understood ; thus, 

Buailear* leam, It shall be strucJc byme, or Istrilce. Buailear 
leat, It shall be struck by thee, or thou strihest. Buailear leis, 
It shall be struclc by him, or he striles. Buailear leinn, &c. 
It shall be struch by us, or we striTce. 



* Founded on the same principle as the Latin Impersonals ; as, Pugnatur a me, 
a te, ab illo, SfC. ; it is fought by me, thee, him, &c. ; or, I fight, thou fightest, he 
fights, &c. Cogar leam, leat, leis, Sfc. Flebatura me, ghuileadh leam, flebatur a 
nobis, ghuileadh le'mn,flebitur a me, guilear leam, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 129 



But it is reckoned more elegant to use the verb in this form 
without the pronoun. 

3. To the class of Impersonals is to be referred a cer- 
tain part of the verb, which, in form, is like the Future 
of the Indicative Passive, and has an active present and 
affirmative signification ; * as, " buailear suas ris an t- 
slìabh, agus faicear fìadhair an fhireach," (I, we, or they) 
steike up the hill and see a deer on the height. 

Obs. — In the course of a narration, when the speaker wishes 
to enliven his style by representing the occurrences narrated as 
present, and passing actually in view, — instead of using the past 
tense, he adopts the part of the verb now described, employing 
it impersonaìly. The following examples from Dr Stewart's 
Grammar wiil exhibit the use and efFect of this anomalous 
tense : — 

" Shuidh an òg-bhean air 
sgeir is à sùil air an lear ; 
chunnaic ì lòng a' teachd air 
barraibh nan tdnn ; dh'-aith- 
nichì aogas à leannain 'us chlisg 
à cridhe 'n à còm. Gun mho- 
ille gun tàmh buailear dh'- 
ionnsuidh na tràighe, agus 
faighear an laoch 's à dhaoine 
m' à thimchioll." 

" O'n bha sìnn 'n ar coigrich 
anns an tìr, gabhar suas gu 
mullach an t-slèibh, direar an 
tulach gu-grad, agasseallar mu 
'n cuairt air gach taobh. Faic- 
ear fa 'r comhair sruth càs a' 
ruith le gleànn cumhann." 



" The young Woman sat on 
a rock, and her eye on the sea ; 
she spied a ship coming on the 
tops of the waves ; she perceiv- 
ed the likeness of her lover, 
and her heart bounded in her 
breast. Without delay or stop, 
she hastens to the shore and 
finds the hero with his men 
around him." 

"As we were strangers in 
the land, we striìce up to the 
top of the moor, — ascend the 
hill with speed, and loolc around 
us on every side. We see over 
against us a rapid stream rush- 
ing down a narrow valley." 



* Past transactions are often recorded in Latin by the present tense ; as, 
Ilium, et omnis humofumat Neptunia Troja; 
Diversa exsilia et desertas quaerere terras 
Auguriis agimur Divùm, classemque sub ipsà 
Antandro, et Phrygiae molìmur montibus Idae.— -^En. iii. 3-6. 

Nis loisgear Ilium 'us Tròidh Neptune fèin ; 
Falbhar air fuadan, le òrdugh nan dèe, 
Fo bheànntaibh Idà Phrigia, lìonar gach lòng, 
'S o mhùraibh Antandrois a bhualadh nan tònn. 

Now Ilium and the whole of Neptune's Troy smoke in ruin, we are driven, in 
exile, by the decrees of the gods, to go in search of unpeopled lands, we equip our 
fleet under the walls of Antandros and the mountains of Phrygian Ida. 

I 



130 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



IDIOMS. SEÒLLAIRTEAN. 
Various idioms or peculiar expressions are formed 
by the verbs dean, make > rach, go ; ta, is, am, is, are. 

1. The tenses of dean prefixed to the Infìnitive of another 
verb, correspond to the English verb do, or make, or to the 
corresponding tense of the verb to which it is prefixed ; as, 

Imperative. 

Deanam seasamh, i. e. seasam, let me maJce a standing, i. e. let 
me stand. 

Dean seasamh, i. e. seas, make a standing, i. e. stand thou, &;c. 

Indicative. 

'Rinn mì seasamh, i. e. sheas mi, Imade a standing, Istood, &;c. 
Nì mì seasamh, i. e. seasaidh mì, I shall maJce a standing, S$c. 

Subjunctive. 

Dheanainn seasamh, i. e. sheasainn, I wouldmaJce a standing. 

2. Dean prefixed to a noun, is equivalent to a verb 
active or neuter formed from that noun ; as, dean cabhag, 
make haste, i. e. hasten. Na dean goid, do not steal. 'Rinn 
è suidhe, he made a sitting, i. e. he sat. 'Ni mì aithreach- 
as, i" sJiall maJce repentance, i. e. / shall repent. Dheanainn 
buain (bhuaininn), I would make reaping, I would reap. 

3. The verbs Dean or Bach combined with the Infini- 
tive of a transitive verb, requires a possessive pronoun or 
a noun between it and the infìnitive, to distinguish the 
person or object signifìed ; thus, 

Dean mo bhualadh (buail mì), maJce my striJcing, i. e. striJce me. 
'Rinn mis' à bhualadh (bhuail mì è), Imade Jiis striJcing, i. e. / 
struch Jiim. 

'Nì sinn bhur bualadh (buailidh sìnn sìbh), ioe sJiall strikeyou. 
Rachadh mo phàidheadh, let my paying go, i. e. let me òepaid. 
Chaidh an t-òigear a phàidheadh, theyoung man was paid. 
Thèid bhur pàidheadh, your paying will go, i. e, ye will be paid. 

4. The Passive simple tenses of Dean and the Active 
tenses of Rach, combined with the Infinitive of a transi- 
tive verb, answer to the corresponding Passive tense of 
that verb ; as, 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 131 

Deantar rao bhualadh (i. e. buailtear mì), let my striMng be 

made, i. e. let me be struck. 
'Rinneadh am bòrd a bhualadh, the tahle was strucJc. 
'Nithear mo 'làmh a chiùrradh (ciùrrar), my hand will be hurt. 

Rachadh an dorus a dhùnadh (dùntar), let the door be shut. 
Chaidh na h-eòin a mharbhadh, the birds were killed. 
The'id àm milleadh, (millear ìad), they will be destroyed. 

5. The verb Bi, m all its tenses combined with the 
compound pronoun agam, or the preposition aig, is used 
to denote possession ; this combination is equivalent to 
the English verbs have, possess ; as, 



INDICATIVE. 
Present. Past 
Tha bò agam,* I have a cow. 
Tha bò agad, thou hast a cow. 
Tha bò aige, he has a cow. 
Tha bò aice, she has a cow. 
Tha bò againn, we have a cow 
Tha bò agaibh, ye have a cow. 
Tha bò aca, they have a cow. 



Am beil bò agam ? &c. 
Cha n-'eil bò agam, &c. 
Nach 'eil bò agam ? &c. 
Ged nach 'eil bò agam, &c. 
Mur 'eil bò agam, &c. 

Tha pìob aig Iain, John has apipe. 



Bha bò agam, / had a cow, &c. 
An robh bò agam? hadla cowì &c. 
Cha robh bò agam, &c. 
Na'n robh bò agam, &c. 

Future. 

Bithidh bò agam, Ishall have a cow. 
Am bi bò agam, &c. 
Cha bhi bò agam, &c. 
Nach bi bò agam, &c. 
Gu'm bi bò agam, &c. 
Tha cìr aig Anna, Ann has a coml. 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 
Past. I Future. 

Bhitheadh bò agam, Iwouldhave Ma bhitheas bò agam, if I shah 
a cow, Qc. I have a cow, fyc. 

And so forth in all the other Moods and Forms, using the third 
person of the imperative and of the past subjunctive ; as, bitheadh 
bò agam, let me have a cow, <%c. Bhitheadh bà agam, &c. 

COMPOSITE VERBS. GNIOMHARAN EALTACH. 

A composite verb is composed of a noun or an adjec- 
tive combined with ta or is, and followed by a compound 
pronoun or a preposition ; it is expressed in English by 
one verb simple or compound ; as, 



* This construction goes on the same principle as sum taken for habeo in the 
Latin ; as, est mihi vacca, I have a cow. Est mihi liber, / have a book ; tha 
leabhar agam. 



132 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Present. 

Is toigh leam, I love. 
Is toigh leat, thou lovest. 
Is toigh leis, he loves. 
Is toigh leatha, she loves. 
Is toigh leinn, we love. 
Is toigh leibh, ye love. 
Is toigh leò, they love 

An toigh leam ? &c. 

Cha, nach, mur, gur toigh leam,&c. 



Past. 

Bu toigh leam, / loved. 
Bu toigh leat, thou lovedst. 
Bu toigh leis, he loved. 
Bu toigh leatha, she loved. 
Bu toigh leinn, we loved. 
Bu toigh leibh, ye loved. 
Bu toigh leò, they loved. 

Am bu toigh leam ? &c. 

Cha, nach, mur, gu'm bu toigh 

leam, &c. 
Ged, na'm bu toigh leam, &c. 

are declined like 



Ged is, ma's toigh leam, &c. 

Composites formed by the verb ta, to 
t( Tha bò agam ;" as, 

Tha fios* agam, hiowledge is to me, i. e. I Jcnow. Tha cadal 
òrm, sleep is on me, i. e. lam sleepy. Tha dùil agam, I hope, 
or a hope is to me. Tha eagal òrm, I fear. Tha feàrg òrm, 
lam angry. Tha fuachd òrm, / am cold. Tha cùimhn' agam, 
I remember. Tha uamhas òrm, I am terrified, &c. 

The following Composites formed by the verb Is, are to be 
declined like " Is toigh leam ;" as, 

INDICATIVE. 
Present. Past. 

Is àbhaist dhomh,t I am wont, B' àbhaist dhomh, / 
luse, &c. lused, &c. 



Is ag leam, / doubt. 
Is aithne dhomh, Ihnow. 
Is àill leam, I will. 
Is cùimhne leam, I remember. 



Is buidhe, learn, i" m 
fain. 

Is coma leam, I care not. 
Is deòin leam, I am willing. 
Is dàcha leam, Irather think. 



Is dòcha leam, Iprefer. 
Is eòl domh, / am 
Is fìach leam, I valut 
Is fuath leam, Ihate. 



wont, 



B' ag leam, I did doubt. 
B' aithne dhomh, I Jcnew. 
B' àill leam, Iwould. 
Bu chùimhne leam, / remem- 
hered. 

Bu bhuidhe leam, / was . 

I would fain. 
Bu choma leam, I cared not. 
Bu deòin leam , / was willing. 
Bu dàcha leam, / rather 

thought. 
Bu dòcha leam, I preferred. 
B' eòl domh, 1 'was acquainted. 
B' fhiach leam, Ivalued. 
B' fhuath leam, Ihated. 



* The/inthis phrase is commonly aspirated ; as, " tha fliios agam." No 
reason whatever can he assigned for aspirating/in this word, more than for aspir- 
ating the word bo in the expression, " tha bò agam." 

f For the personal inflections of dhomh, leam, òrm. Vide Compound Pronouns, 
pp. 77, 78. See also Inflections of the verb Is , pp. 124, 125. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 133 



Present. 
Is lèir dhomh, I see. 
Is àrd leam, / think (it) high. 
Is beag òrm, I dislike. 
Is lugh' òrm, / dislike more. 
Is beò dhomh, I am alive. 
Is bìnn leam, (it) is melodious 

to me. 
Is binne leam, &c. 
Is caomh leam, 1 like, love. 
Is math leam, I am 
Is feàrr leam, I prefer, 
Is mòr leam, / think (it) great. 

Is mò leam, Ithink (it) greater, 
&c. 

Is neònach leam, I < 



Past. 

Bu 'lèir dhomh, I saw. 
B' àrd leam, Ithought (it) high. 
Bu bheag òrm, / disliked. 
Bu lugh' òrm, / disliked more. 
Bu bheò dhomhj Iwas 
Bu bhìnn leam, (it) was 

dious to me. 
Bu bhinne leam, &c. 
Bu chaomh leam, 1 liked, loved. 
Bu mhath leam, I was glad. 
B' fheàrr leam, I preferred. 
Bu mhòr leam, / thought (it) 
great. 

Bu mhò leam, / thought (it) 

greater, &c. 
Bu neònach leam, I wondered. 
Nouns and Adjectives to form Composites with the verb is ; 



With domh. — Ion, flt, òecoming ; taitneach, pleasant ; fios, 
notice ; math, good, weU ; leòir, enough ; còir, right. 

With leam. — Ait, glad ; daor, dear ; duilich, sorry ; gàbh- 
aidh, strange ; gasda, excellent ; fada, long ; òg,?/oung ; trdm, 
heavy ; suarach, insignificant ; tric, frequent ; lag, weak. 

With òrm. — Beag, little; gèur, sharp ; mòr, great, difficult ; 
cruaidh, hard, oppressive; tròm, heavj/ ; dlù, near. 

Obs. — The object of Composites formed by Is, is placed after 
the Compound Pronoun ; as, " Is toigh leam fòghlum," I love 
learning. " Is beag òrm a' mhisg," I hate drunkenness. 

FORMATION OF THE INFINITIVE. 

1. Regular infinitives add -adh to the root of the verb, as, 
Deàrbh, prove, Infin. deàrbhadh. Pill, return, Infin. ^ìììeadh. 

2. Verbs in -aich, -ich, -ail, -aisg, -uisg, drop the letter i 
before adding -adh ; as, deasaich, prepare, deasach<M?A. Tòis- 
ich, begin, tòiseachac?/*. Buail, strike, bxidìadh. Caisg, stop, 
csisgadh. Dùisg, awake, dùsgadh. 

IRREGULAR INFINITIVES. 

3. Some verbs change the termination -air into radh ; as, 
dìobair, forsake, dìobradh. A few verbs add -amh instead of 
-adh ; as, seas, stand ; sea.samh. 

Obs. — When a verb suffers a contraction or a transposition of 
its last syllable, in the infinitive, the same contraction generally 
runs through all the moods and tenses formed by terminations. 
— See Contraction of Verbs, p. 137. 



134 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



4. Some verbs of two syllables in -air, add t to the root, as, 
freagair, answer. Infin. Freagairt. 

5. Several verbs have two, three, or four forms of the Infini- 
tive ; as, togair, incline. Infin. Togairt, or togradh. Gin, beget. 
Infin. Gintinn, giontuinn, gineamhuinn. Lean, follow. Infin. 
Leantuinn, leanailt, leantail, leanmhuinn. 

6. Some verbs make their infinitive the same as their roots ; 
as, gairm, call. Infin. Gairm. At, swell. Infin. At. 

7. Several verbs form their infinitive by dropping the letter i 
from their roots; as, cuir, put, place. Infin. Cur. 

In conjugating a verb or giving the principal parts of it, the 
second person singular of the Imperative, the Past tense, and the 
two participles, or the Infinitive and past Participle, should 
always be repeated ; thus, 

EXAMPLES. 
Past. Pres. Part. 

ghlac, a'glacadh, 
caught, catching, 
dh'-èignich, ag èigneachadh, 



Imper. 
Glac, 
Catch, 
Eignich, 
Compel, 
Fan, wait, 
Goir, crow, 
liea.n,follow, 
Ròist, roast, 
Streap, climb, 
Snàmh, swim 



compelled, 
dh'-fhan, 
ghoir, 
c lean, 
'ròist, 
'streap, 
shnàmh, 



compelling, 
' fantuinn, 
goirsinn, 
leantuinn, 
ròstadh, 



streap, 
snàmh, 



Past Part. 
glacte. 
caught. 
èignichte. 
compelled. 
iarfantuinn. 
iar goirsinn. 
iarleantuinn 
ròiste. 
streapte. 
iar snàmh. 



In the following list of Irregular Infinitives, irr. marks out an ir- 
regular verb, and the figures the page on which it is inflected. The 
letter r indicates that the verb has also a regular infinitive. The dash 
(-) before a termination shows that the initial syllable is to be added. 



Imperative. Infinitive. 
Abair, irr. say, 120,ràdh, &c. 
Acain, complain, acain. 
Agair, claim, agairt. 
Aisead, deliver ofa 

child, aisead r. 

Aithris, \ . „ j aithris. 
Airis, j ™ Vì ( ains. 
Aireamh, number, àireamh. 
Aisig, restore;ferry 

over, aiseag. 
Amhairc, looh, amharc. 
Ama.is,find out, amas. 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Anacail, save, anacladh. 

At, swell, at r. 

Ardaich, exalt, àrdachadh. 

Bagair, threaten, bagairt. 

Bean, touch, beantuinn. 1 

Beannaich, bless, -nachadh. 
Beir, irr. bear, 115,breith. 

Bèuc, roar, bèucail 2 r. 



Bi, irr. be, 84, 
Blais, taste, 



bith. 
fbìdil. 
tbìgil. 

blasad. 



1 Beanailt, beantail.— 2 Bèucaich. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 135 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Bleith, grind, bleith. 

Bìeoghain, milk, bleoghan. 

Bruich, boil, bruich r. 

Brùchd, helch, brùchdail. 

Buin, deal with, buntuinn. 

Buail, striTce, bualadh. 

Buain, reap, buain. 

Buannaich, gain, -achd r. 
Buachaillich, A<?rc?, -ailleachd. 

Bùir, bellow, bùirich r. 

Bùirich, dig, bùrach. 

Càill, lose, càll. 

Cagainn, chew, cagnadh. 

cokm 1 ;} 5 ^' } cadai - 

Caith, ivear, caitheamh. 

Caisd, listen, -deachd. 

Can, say, sing, cantainn. 

Caochail, change, caochladh. 

Casgair, vanquish, casgairt. 

Caraich, move, -rachadh. 

Càraich, mend, càramh. 

Caoidh, lament, caoidh. 

Caomhain, spare, caomhnadh. 

Ceangail, tie, ceangal. 

Ceil, conceal, ceiltinn. 1 

Cìnn, grow, cìnntinn. 

Clàist, hearhen, clàistinn. 2 

Cleasaich, sport, cleasachd. 

Còbhair, help, -air, -radh. 

Coimhid, see, coimhead. 

Coisich, walk, coiseachd. 



Coisinn, earn, 



cosnadh. 



Cràgair, paw, cràgairt. 
Creach, rob, creach r. 

Creid, believe, creidsinn. 
Cum, keep, cumail. 
Clùinn,^>r.^mr,ii5.clùinntinn. 
Cuir, put, place, cur. 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Dean, irr. do, 116,deanamh. 
Deoghail, such, deoghal. 
Dìobair, desert, dìobradh. 
Diogail, tichle, diogladh. 
Dìol, pay, dìol r. 

Diobhair, vomit, diobhairt. 
Dìon, protect, dìon r. 
Dòirt, spiìl, dòrtadh. 
Dùin, sìiut, dùnadh. 
Dùisg, awake, dùsgadh. 
Dùraig, desire, -rachdainn. 
Earb, trust, earbsadh. 
Eignich, compel, -neachadh. 
Eirich, rise, èirigh. 
Eirmis,find out,hit, eirmea.s. 
Eisd, hear, èisdeachd. 
Eug, die, èug. 
Fàg, leave, fàgail. 
Faic, irr. see, 121,faicinn, & c. 
Fa.ìgh,irr.find, 121_,faotuinn,& c. 
Fk\bh,go, fàlbh. 
Fairich, feel, r. -eachdainn r. 
Falaich, hide, falach. 
Fàn, wait, fantuinn. 3 
Fàs, grow, fàs. 
Feith, wait, feitheamh. 
Feuch, looh, feuchainn. 
Figh, knit, fìghe r. 

Fògair, banish, fògradh. 
Faod, irr. may,\22,no infinitive. 
Foghainn, suffice, fòghnadh. 4 
Fòir, assist, fòirinn. 
Folich, hide, folach. 
Freagair, answer, fregaìrt r. 
Fosgail, open, fosgladh. 
Fuagair, proclaim, fuagradh. 
Fuasgail, untie, fuasgladh. 
Fuaigh, sew, fuaghal. 6 

I Fuirich, stay, fuireach. 



1 Cleith, ceilteadh. 2 Clàisteachd. 3 Fantail, fanailt, fanachd, fanach- 

dain. 4 Foghnachdainn 5 Fuaigheal. 



136 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Gabh, tahe, gabhail. 

Gàir, laugh, -reachdaich. 

Gairm, call, gairm r. 

Geàll, promise, gealltuinn r. 
Gearain, complain, gearan. 

Gèillj yield, geilltinn r. 

Gèum, low, gèumraich. 1 

Gion, } { gionmhuinn. 

Glaodh, exclaim, glaodhaich. 
Gluais, move, gluasad. 
Goir, crow, goirsinn. 
Gog, cachle, gogail. 
Greas, hasten, greasad. 
Guidh, beseech, guidhe r. 
Guil, weep, guil, gal. 

larr, ash, ìarraidh. 
Imich, walh, go, ìmeachd. 
Imlich, UcJc, imlich. 
Iobair, sacrifice, ìobradh. 
lomraidh, mention,-\aàh. 
Iomain, drive, ioman. 
Iomair, row, iomradh. 
Iomair, wield, iomairt. 
lonnail, wash, iònnlad. 
Inndrig, enter, -driginn. 2 
Innis, tell, ìnnseadh. 
Ionndrainn, miss, ìonndran. 3 
Is, irr. am, 123, !24>,no infinitive. 
Labhair, speak, labhairt. 
Làidh,ì 7> , {làidhe. 
LuidhJ^ ^Hluidhe. 
Leighis, care, leigheas. 
Leag, fell, leagail. 
L,ea.n, follow, leantuinn. 4 
Leig, permit, leigeil. 
Lèum, leap, lèum. 5 
Liubhair, deliver, liubhairt 
Lomair, clip, shear,\omaÌYt. 
Mair, last, live, mairsinn. 6 
Marcaich, ride, marcachd. 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Meal, enjoy, mealtuinn. 

Mosgail, awaJce, mosgladh. 
Mùin, piss, minge, mùn. 
Naisg, bind, join, nasgadh. 

Nigh, wash, nighe. 

Ol, drinh, òl. 

Pìll, return, pìiltinn r. 

Plosg, pant, -gartaich. 

Ràn, roar, rànail. 

Roinn, divide, rdinn. 
Ruig, irr. reach, -gsinn,-ghinn. 

Ruith, run, ruith. 

Saoil, thinh, saoilsinn. 

Saltair, trample, saltairt. 

Seachainn, shun, seachnadh. 

Seall, see, looh, seàlltuinn. 

Seas, stand, seasamh. 

Sèinn,, sing, sèinn. 

Sgal, scream, -lartaich. 

Sgar, separate-) -rachdainn r* 

Sgath, lop, sgath r. 

Sgoilt^ split, sgoltadh. 

Sgrios, destroy, sgrios. 

Sguir, desist, sgur. 

Sìan, shrieh, cry, sìan. 

Sìolaiàh,filter, sìoladh. 

SiubhaiL, travel, siubhal. 

Smùch, sneese, smùchaii. 

Smut,. sniff, smut r. 

Snàmh, swim, snàmh. 

Snìomh, spin, snìomh. 

Srànn, snore, srànnail. 

Streap, climb, streap^ -ail r. 

Suidh, sit, suidhe. 

Ta, see bi, bith. 
Tabhair, \irr.give, /tabhairt. 

Thoir, J 118. (toirt. 

Tachrais, wind, tachras. 

Tachair, meet, tachairt. 

Tagair, plead, tagairt. 

Taghail, visit, taghal. 



1 Gèumnaich. — 

* Leanmhuinn, 

maireachdainn. 



■ 2 Inndrinn, inndreachdainn, 3 Ionndrain, ionndraichinn. 

leanailt. 5 Lèumraich, lèumartaich. 6 Marsainn, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 137 



Imperative. 
Taisg, lay up, 
Tàlaidh, tame, 
Tairg, qfer, 



Infinitive. 
tasgaidh r. 
tàladh. 
tairgseadh. 



Tàr, ì go,get l tàrsainn . 
Tair, J time,* ) 



Tarruing, draw, 
Teasd, 
Teasairg, save, 



tarruing. 
teasd. 
-sairginn. 
-nndadh. 
nndadh. 



Teirig, wear out,< 



Imperative. Infinitive. 

Tig, thig, irr.ì ti hi 119 . 

come,T J fo ' 

Tilg, throw, tilgeil r. 
Tionnsgail, ìfe- f-sgladh. 
Tionnsgain, J^m,{-sgnadh. 
Tog, Uft, build, togail. 
Togair, incline, -airt, -radh. 
r £om\\a\s,measure, tomhas. 
Trìall, ^o, proceed, trìall. 
Trod, scold, trod. 
Trèig, forsaìce, trèigsinn. 
Tuig, understand, -gsinn, -geil. 
Tùirling, descend, tùirling. 
Tùir, lament, tùrsadh r. 
Tuìt 3 fall, tuiteam. 

GIORRACHADH GHNÌOMHAR. 

Verb in -ail, -ain, -ainn, -air, change these terminations into 
-la, -an, -ra, in their moods and tenses; thus, Fosgail, open. Imp. 
Fosglam, fosgladh, fosglamaid. Fut. Ind. Affirm. Fosglaidh. 
Past Subj. Dh'-f hosglainn, dh'-fho-gladh, dh'-f hosglamaid. 
Fut. Subj. Dh'-f hosglas. Infin. Fosgladh. 

Imperative. Fut. Ind. Past Subj. Fut. Subj. 

FuasgailjJ fuasglam, fuasglaidh, dh'-fhuasglainn, fhuasglas. 
Caomhain, caomhnam, caomhnaidh, chaomhnainn, chaomhnas. 
Dìobair, dìobram, dìobraidh, dhìobrainn, dhìobras. 
Labhair, labhram, labhraidh, 'labhrainn, 'labhras. 

The following verbs in -ich are contracted ; thus, 
Eirich, rise, èiream, èiridh, dh'-èirinn, dh'-èireas. 
Ceannaich, buy, — ceànnaidh r. cheànnainn r. cheànnas r. 



Tionndaidh 

TeanaiLÌ j7 fteanal. 
Tio^nailJ^^'ttionaì. 
Teàruinn, save, teàrnadh. 
Tèirinn, descend, teàrnadh. 

| -reachdainn. 
'^teirgsinn. 



CONTRACTION OF VERBS. 



* As, " Thig cho luath 's a thàras tu," come as soon as you can, or as soon as 
you can get time or opportunity. Tàr signifies also to run away, to escape ; as, 
" Thàr ìad as," tìiey ran away. With the compound pronoun leam, &c. it signitìes 
to think, in the past tense, and pronounced short ; as, " thar leam," / thought, me- 
thought. " Thar leò gu'm fac ìad fiadh air an fhireach," they think they have seen 
a deer on the hill. Those who write the language from the ear only, confound the 
verb thoir, and the preposition air with thar in this sense ; as, thoir leam, air 
leam, for thar leam. 

t Thig, tig, signifies also to become, to agrce ivith, to suit ; as, Thig dhuit falbh, 
it becomes you to depart. Is math a thig sin dà, that becomes him well. Cha tig an 
t-òl ris, drinking does not agree with him. Cha tig an còta glas cho math do gach 
uile fear, the gray coat does not suit every man so well ; every man is not alike. 

$ Any persòn acquainted with the numerous contractions of the Greek verb 
will not be surprised to meet similar abbreviations in the Gaelic verb ; thus, rtpxu, 
Ihonour, contracted riftM ; rtftxu; into ripxs ; riftxzi into ri^S., &c. 



138 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



INDECLINABLE PARTS OF 
SPEECH. 



PAIRTEAN CAINNTE NEO- 
THEARNACH. 



The indeclìnable parts of speech are the Adverb, the 
Preposition, the Conjunction, and the Interjection. 



the adverb. (See page 30.- 

Adjectives are used ad- 
verbially or changed into 
Adverbs, by prefixing the 



Preposition gu* 
thus, 



to them : 



-No. 6.) AN CO-GHNÌOMHAR. 

Gnàthaichear Buadharàn 
mar Cho-ghnìomharàn no 
nìtear Co-ghnìomharàn diù 
le roi-ìceadh an roimhir gu 
riutha : mar-so, 



Tròm, 



Glan, clean ; gu-glan, cleanly. 

Olc, bad ; Gu h-olc, badly. Mòr, grcat ; gu mòr, 
Màll, slow ; gu màll, slowly. Grìim, fine ; gugrìnn, 
gu cìnnteach, certainly. Cruadal- 
gu cruadalach, 



finely. 
ach, 



Adverbs are either Simple 
or Compound. 

Simple Adverbs denoting 
time ; as, 

Ainmic, 1 ainmig, seldom. 
Chaoidh, choidh,/or ever,for 
aye. 

Cheana, aìready. 

Cìan, long ago, before, of old. 

Cuin, c'uin (co ùine, what 

time) when ì 
Daondan, 2 daonnan, always, 

continually. 
Fathast, fòs, yet, still, more- 

over, too. 
Feasd, feasda, for ever, for 

evermore. 



gu trdm, 



Tha Co-ghnìomharàn an 
dara cuid Sìngiltno Measgte. 

Co-ghniomharàn Singilt a' 
cìallachadh uine ; mar, 

Fbs, yet, moreover, also. 
Idir, at all. 

Minic, minig, oft, often. 
Mu'n, ma'n, mun, man, be- 

fore, ere. 
Nis, nise, now, at this time. 
'Nuair (an uair), when. 
Biabh, ever [of 'past time). 
Rìs, rithist, rìst, again. 
Roimhe, before, formerly. 
Seachd, past, away, along. 
Seadh, 's è, yea, yes, even. 
Tric, often, frequently. 



* The particle " gu," placed before the adjective, corresponds to the affix ly in 
English, and it should be hyphened or incorporated with the adjective in Gaelic as ly 
is in English ; thus, gu-glan, gu-trom, or guglan, gutrom. I have in most cases 
adopted the hyphened formin the text.— See Note \, page 74. 

1 That is, ana minic, not often. 2 Do aon tàn, to one or the same time. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 139 



A few Nouns and Adjectives are used as Adverbs de- 
noting time ; as, Greis, n. grathunn, n. a while. Là, n. a 
day, on a day, once. Seal, sealan, n. a time, a while, for 
a short time. Tamull, n. a space of time. Tamull beag, 
a short time, a little while. Uair, n. hour, time, once. Iom- 
adh uair, many a time, often. Uine, n. a time, for a 
time. Goirid, adj. shortly. Fada, adj. a long time. 



OF PLACE. 

Bhos,* on this side, here, 
hither. 

Càit, c'àite (co àit), where, 

what place. 
Cì&n,far, afar off. 
Ear (er), oir, soir, east, east- 

ward. 

Fagus, faisg, near, nigh to. 
Far (before am, an), where. 
Iar (ìar), sìar, west. 
Ioras, iolar, below, down. 
Leis, away with it. 
Nall, over, to this side. 
Nios, upjfrom below, inferne. 
Nùll, nùnn, over, to the other. 



MU ÀIT. 

Nuas, down, from above. 
e Kis, against, to, [ppposed or 

exposed to thewind.) 
Shìos, down below, under- 

neath. 
Siar, see iar. 

Sin, sud, yonder, inyonplace* 
Sìos, down, downwards. 
So (seo), here, in this place. 
Soir, see ear. [within. 
Steach, stigh, in, inward, 
Suas, up, upwards. 
Thairis, òver, across; past 

and gone. 
Urad, above ; at the top. 



Simple Adverbs denoting 

MANNER ; aS, 

Anabarrach, exceedingly, 

greatly. 
Araon, faraon, maraon, as 

one, both together. 
Baileach, buileach, very, al- 

together, totally. 
Carson, c'arson (co airson), 

cuime, c'uime (co-uime), 

whyì wherefore, for what. 



Co-ghnìomgharàn Singilt a' 
cìallachadh gnatha ; mar, 
Cath, constantly, incessantly ; 
as, cath-losgadh, con- 
stantly burning. 
Cha, not, (see p. 83.) 
Ciamar, cionnas, cia, how f 
Cheana, indeed, truly, cer- 
tainly. 

Còmhla (comh làmh, hands 
together), together ; joinily. 



* From bho ios. 'Nìos, sìos, appear to be derived from the old adverb ios, 
dowìi, and nuas from suas, up. 



140 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Crasgach, crosswise, trans- 

verseìy. 
Cuideachd (company), toge- 

ther, too, also. 
DìiesLch(erect),exactly,justso. 
Eadhon, to wit, namely, viz. 
Gle, ro, fìor, very^ truly. 
Meadhonach, middling, toler- 

ably, so so. 



Na, nar, nior, noi. 

Nach, not, not that, that, 
loould that, (see the use 
oinach with verbs, p. 86). 

Nàile, indeed, truly, verily. 

Ni, ni'm, ni'n, not. 

Ni h-eadh, nay, noL 

Seadh, yea, yes, ay ; even. 

Theagamh, perhaps. 



COMPOUND ADVERBS. 
ADVERBIAL PHRASES. SEOLLAIRTEAN C0-GHN10MHARAIL. 

Adverbial Phrases are formed by combining Nouns, 
Adjectives, and Simple Adverbs, with the Article or with 
a Preposition ; thus, 

Compound Adverbs denoting Time. 



A* cheana, already. 

A chìanamh, a Uttle ago, a 

while ago. 
A chlisge, quickly, instantly. 
A chaoidh, a choidh, for ever. 
A dh-òiche, by night, during 



A h-uile uaii^ every time, al- 
ways. 

A là, by day, on a day, daily. 
A-nis, a-nise, now, the now. 
A rìst, a rìs, a rithist, again. 
Am feadh, while, whilst. 
Am feasda,/or ever. 
A' so suas, henceforth. 
Am màireach, to-morrow. 
An aithghearr, in a short time, 
soon. 

An ceartar (an ceart uair, this 
very hour), just now, pre- 



An còmhnuidh, an cò-nuidh 
(an comh th&igh, dwelling to- 
gether), always, continually. 

An dàmhair, time, in proper 
time. 

An dè, yesterday. 

An diugh, this day, to-day, 
hodie. 

An earar (ìar thrà, day after), 
the day after to-morrow. 

An nochd, to-night, nocte. 

An raoir, an rair, last night. 

An tràth, the time, when. 

An trà so, an tràsa, an dràsta, 
this time,just now. 

An toiseach, at first, first, 
primo. 

An uiridh (uair a 'ruith), last 
year. 

Air-bàllj immediately ; on the 



* The article a is employed in forming compound adverbs without the apostrophe 
or mark of elision written over it. In some cases, the a is rnerely a euphonic 
particle. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 141 



Air a' mhionaid, on the minute, 

immediately. 
Air an uair (on the hour), pre- 

sently, instantly. 
Air chiònn, by the time, as soon. 
Air toiseach, air tùs, first, at 

first, foremost. 
Air uairibh {on hours), some- 

times, occasionally. 
Cia lìon ? how many ? 
Cia minic, cia tric, how often. 
Comhluath agus, as soon as. 
De 'n uair (ciod è an uair), 

what time. 
Do là, a là, by day, daily. 
Do dh-diche, a dh-òiche, by 

night. 

Do ghnàth, a ghnà, always, 
constantly ; according to 
custom. 

Do shìor, ever, for ever. 

Fhad 's (f had agus), as'Jong as, 
while. 

Fa- dhèigh, fa-dheòigh, fa 
dheireadh (at the end), at j 
length, after, at last,finally. 

Compound Adverbs 

A bhos, on this side, below, 
here. 

A làthair, present, here. 
A-mhàin, a-mhàn, a-bhàn, 

down, downward. 
A-mhain 's an àird, up and 

down. 
An àird, up, upward. 
A-nàll, over, to this side. 
A-nìos, up, from below. 
A-nuas, down, from above. 
A-nùll, a-nùnn ? over, to the 

other side. 



Gu-bràth, gu là bhràth,* for 
ever. 

Gu dìlinn (dith lìnn, without 

time), for ever. 
Gu-minic, gu-tric, often, oft. 
Gu-sìor, gu siorruidh, (sìor 
ruith, ever running), for ever 
and ever. 
Gu suthain, for evermore. 
Mar thà, already, so soon. 
Mu-dheireadh, at last. 
Mu-dheireadh thàlj, at long 
last. 

'Nà thrà (in its time), in due 

time ; duly. 
Ni's mò, no more, no moreat all. 
O cheann, o chiònn (from the 

end), some time ago. 
O cheann treis, a while ago. 
O chìan, ofold, long ago. 
O chìan nan cìan (from an age 

ofages), very long ago. 
Rè seal, rè tamuill, for a time. 
'S a' bhliadhna, (in the year), 
i yearly, annually. 
Uair-èigin, sometime. 

denoting place ; as, 

A-stàn, down, down below. 
A-thaobh, aside. 
A-stigh, a-steach (anns tigh, 
anns teach, in the house), in, 
inward, within. 
Am-fad,/«r, as far. 
Am fagus, near, at hand. 
A-mach, am muigh, am magh 

(on a plain), out, abroad. 
An cèin, far aivay, distant. 
An còir, near, nearly. 
An-cois (at the foot), along 
with. 



* Sometimes spelt bràch. Bràth signifies conflagration , hence " gu là bhràth," 
till the day of conflagration ; till the world is consiimed by Jire ; for ever. Qr. 
T^n&ca, incendo, to burn. 



142 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



An làimh (in hand), in cus- 
tody. 

An-sàs, in hold, infast hold. 
An-sin, there; then. 
An-so, here; then. 
An-sid, an-sud, yonder ; then. 
C'ionadh, ceana (co ionad, what 

place), whither. 
Fad as, far off; at a distance. 

Compound Adverbs 



Le bruthach, le leathad, down 



Ach beag, but little ; a< 
A dh-aindeoin, in spite of. 
A dh-aon-obair, purposely. 
A dh-aon-bhèum (wìth one 

bite), at once. 
A dheòin, willingly,purposely. 
A dheòin Dia, God willing,for 

Godsake; Deo volente. 
A-mhàin, only, alone, merely. 
A mheud, inasmuch,forasmuch. 
A nasgaidh (without binding), 

freely, gratis. 
A rìreadh, a rìreabh, a rìre, do 

rìreadh, in earnest, indeed, 



Am bidheantas, habi 
erally. 

Am feabhas, am feothas, in a 
better state, better 
cent. 

Aill air nàill, whether 
or not, in spite of; nolens 
volens. 

Amhuil, àmhluidh, as, lihe as, 
even. 

An coinneamh, an comhair (in 

meeting),nearly, almost, well- 
nigh. 

An comhair a' chìnn, headlong, 

precipitately. 
An comhair a' chùil, backward. 
An eatorras, between the two, 

pretty well, so so ; tolerable. 



Mu 'n cuairt, mu thimchioll 

(about the circle), about, 



Shìos-ud, down yonder. 
Shuas-ud, upyonder. 
Thall-ud, over yonder. 
Urad-ud, up, above yonder. 



manner : as, 



An ìmpis, an imis, nearly, al- 
most, on the point of. 

As a chèile, asunder. 

As an aodann, as an aghaidh 
(in the face), outright, ex- 



As 'us às, out and out, ulto- 

gether, totally. 
As na sadaibh (from tlie dusts), 

hastily, in haste. 
As ùr, afresh, anew. 

[Phrases formed by joining 
AIB with Nouns are numerous 
in the language. The follow- 
ing are such as are most com- 
monly used in the sense of an 
Adverb ; as,] 

Air achd, air alt's, so that, in 

such a manner that. 
Air-ais, back, backward. 
Air athais, slowly, leisurely. 
Air chàll, astray, lost. 
Air chàrn, outlawed. 
Air chòir, right, well. 
Air a chor sin, in that state. 
Air a h-uile cor, at all events. 
Air chor-èigin, somehow. 
Air èìginn, witli difficulty, hard- 



Air falbh, away, 
Air fasgaidh, a-lèeward. 
Air fògradh, in exile, banished. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 143 



Air fuaradh, a-head, a-wind- 
ward. 

Air ghlèus, ready, in tune. 
Air iomadan, air siùdan, adrift, 

tossed about. 
Air iomrall, air seacharan, air 

ionndrain, astray, amissing, 

lost. 

Air leth, apart, one by one } sep- 
arately. 

Air mhàgaran, on all fours, 

slowly, witli a slow step. 
Baileach, buileach, gu buileach, 

completely, altogether, totally. 
Bun os-ceann (bottom above 

head), topsy-turvy. 
Caoin air as-caoin, inside out, 

with the wrong side out. 
Car air char (turn on turn), 

rolling, tumbling. 
Cas mu seach, heads and 

thraws. 
Casa-gòbhlach, astride. 
C'arson (co air-son), ciod uime, 

c'uime (co uime), why? 

wherefore ? for what ? 
Cha mhòr (not great), almost, 



Cha mhòr nach, 
Fa leth, severally, individually . 
Gu dearbh, gudeimhin, truly, 
■verily, 



Gu diachadaich, especially. 
Gu-lèir, wholly, altogether, en- 
tirely. 

Gun amharus, gun ag, gun teag- 

amh (without a doubt), doubt- 

less, certainly. 
Gun chàird (without delay), 

speedily, quickly. 
Le chèile, together ; both. 
Leth mar leth, halfand half. 
Ma dhaoite (it may be), per- 

haps. (See Note, p. 122.) 
Mar-an-cèudna, lihewise, also. 
Mar so, thus, in this manner . 
Mar sin, mar sud, so, in lihe 

manner ; in that manner. 
Mu làimh, so so, indifferently. 
Mu seach, one by one, alter- 

nately. 
Ni h-è, nay, no, not. 
Os àird, os n-àird, openly, pub- 



Os ìosal, os n-ìosal, 

privately. 
Thar a chèile (athwart each 

other) at variance. 
Troi chèile, through other, con- 



Tuille fos (more still), more- 
over. 

Uigh air n-uigh, by degrees, 
gradually. 



PREPOSITIONS. ROIMHEARAN. 
(See page 30, No. 7.) 
The Prepositions are divided into two classes, namely, 
Simple and Compound. 



SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 



ROIMHEARAN SINGILT. 



Simple Prepositions governing the Dative case of Nouns 
only : * — 



* A simple Preposition never governs a Pronoun, like from me. on me, in Eng- 
lish. The Preposition and the Pronoun unite into one word ; as, asam, out of me 
òrm, on me.— See pp. 77, 78. 



144 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Latin. 



Latin. 



out of from, a, ab. 



Aig, ag, a', a£. 
Air, eir, 



Iar, after. 
Le, leis, with, by, 
Mar, Z«3be fo, 
Mu, about, a-\ 
round. ) 
0, bho, from, 
Os, above, 
H\,to,against ; at, 
Roimli, roi, \ 
ro', before, t 
Seach, from, 1 
£>as£, beyond, j 

TrlnhìroiJ^ <> ^''^P er - 

Gu-ruig, fo, wnfo ; asfar as. 

Simple Prepositions governing the Genitive case of Nouns : — 



ad, apud. 
, on, upon, super, in. 
Ann, anns, in, into, in. 
Bho, from, ab, 
De > °f, offfrom, de, ex. 
Do, a, to, into, unto, ad. 
Eadar, between,} j n ^ er 

betwixt, among, ) 
Fa, on, upon, to, ad, in. 
Fo,fa,fuidb,zmt7er,ì , 

below, beneath, ) ' 
Gu, gus, to,unto,for, ad, in. 
Gun, without, sine. 



cum. 
instar. 

circum. 

ab, e. 
supra. 
ad. 

ante. 
trans. 



de. 



Bhàrr, fàr, from, off, \ 
down, from, j 

Car [applied to time), 
during, for. 

Chum, to, unto ; over to, ad. 

Chun, thun,* to, (imply- 
ing motion to). 



ì 



per. 



Feadh, ihrough ; 

during, 
Thar,-|- over, across, trans. 
Timchioll, about, \ ^ 

around, j 
Rèir, according to, secundum. 
Rè, during, per. 



circum. 



EXEMPLIFICATION OF THE VARIOUS USAGES OF THE PREP0SITI0NS. 

A, or às X signifies — 1. Motion ont of, i. e. originating in and 
proceeding out of a place : 2. Motion from a place : 3. Adverb- 
ially, extinction, destruction : 4. Freedom from : as, 



1. As an uisge, out of the water. Às a' choill, out qf the wood. 

Thàinig an t-eun às an ubh, the chicken has come out qf the egg. 

2. À baile Dhunèdean, from ihe city of Edinburgh. 

3. Cuir às a' choinneal, put out the candle, extinguish the candle. 

4. Leig às mo làmh, let my hand go, let my hand alone. 



* Ctnm, thun, and also hun, gun, are in common nse in conversation ; as, 
" chaidh è chun na mara, " or ' ' thun na mara," he went to tìie sea. These appear 
to be different forms of chum, which is frequently pronounced choum, or chom. 

f As, " thar chuaintean," over seas ; trans oceanos. 

% The Prepositions a, ann, gu, le, ri, become as, anns, gus, leis, ris, before the 
aiticle or a relative : a and a/are, in many places, pronounced è, ès, short. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 145 



A ig, (ag, a) signifies — 1. Positioii and rest of one object 
in proximity to another : 2. In possession of: 3. With or in the 
service of: as, 

1. Aig mo cheann, at my head. 1. Aig an dorus, at the door. Tha 

Iain aig taobh na mara, John is at the side ofthe sea. 

2. Tha leabhar aig Sèumas, James has a book. 

3. Tha mì nis aig maighstear ùr, / am now with a new master. 

Air signifies — l.Position and rest of one object upon another : 
2. At or on : 3. O/or on : 4. For, as tìie price of: 5. On, for : 
6. To : 7 .About, of concerning : 8. Under debt, or obligationto : 
9. Over, i. e. overcoming, getting the better of, or managing : as, 

1. Tha a' choìnneal air a' bhòrd, the candle is on the table. 



2. Bha mì air a' bhainis, 

3. Dean grèim air à làimh, 

4. An gabh thu tasdan air an tun- 

naig ? 

5. Air an aobhar sin, 

6. Tha còir agam air oighreachd 

m' àthar, 

7. Am beil guth agad air an 

Fhèinn, or air na Fìannaibh ? 

8. Tha crùn agam air Tomas, 

8. Chuir thu comain òrm, 

9. Chaidh agam air a' chùis, 

9. An doach agad air na fèidh a 
mhàrbhadh ? Chaidh agam 
orra, gu-deàrbh, 



/ was at, or on the wedding. 
ìay hold of his hand. 
will you take a shilling for the 
duck ? 

for that cause, on account of. 

Ihave a right to myfather's estate. 
have you a word about the Fingaì- 

ians ? — concerning the Fingal- 

ians ì 

I have a crown on Thomas, Thomas 

owes me a crown. 
you obliged me, — put an obligation 

on me. 

I overcame the affair, — managed it. 
Havè you succeeded in killing the 

deer ? / have overcome them in- 

deed. 



Obs .— The preposition air is used after verbs and adjectives like for 
and o/in English ; as, " gairm air Peadar," call for Peter. " Miann- 
ach air cliù," fond of praise. 

Ann, anns, signifies — 1. Rest in aplace : 2. Motion, or rest in 
or on a place : 3. Motion into aplace: 4. Existence : 5. There, 
thither ; as, 



1. Ami an gàradh JÈdein, 

2. Thanacaoraichanns an arbhar, 

3. Cuir ant airgiodannsansporan, 

4. Tha fuachd ànn an-diugh, 

5. Am beil thu ànn Iain ? 

Tha mis' a' dol do 'n choille- 
chnò, an tèid thus' ànn, a 
Thòmais ? Matà cha tèid mì 
ànn an-diugh ach thèid mì 
ànn am-màireach, 



in the garden of Eden. 

the sheep are in the corn. 

put ihe money into the purse. 

there is cold, it is cold to-day. 

are you there, John ? 

/ am going to the nut-wood ; will 
you go tìiere, Thomas ? Indeed I 
vnll not go there to-day, but I 
shall go {thither) to-morroiv. 



146 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

Obs. — Ann, when it signifies existence, is always joined with the 
verb Bi, and pronounced long. It is always used in this sense to ex- 
press the appearance of the phenomena of nature ; as, tha 'n t-uisg 
ànn, there is rain, it rains, pluit. Tha na fìr-chlis ànn an-nochd, 
there are (the) merry dancers, or northern lights, to-night ; sunt aurorae 
boreales hac nocte. 

JBho, o, signifies — 1. From a place: 2. In composition, some- 
times,/rom duty, or a sense of duty or obligation : 3. After the 
verb thig, defiance; as, 

1. Bho lochan nan nial, from the lake of 'clouds. 

O mhullach na beinne, from the top of the mountain. 

bhonn mo choise, from the sole of my foot. 

2. Tha bhuainn a bhi falbh, we must be going. 

Tha bhuat èirigh, you should rise ; get up. 

3. Thig bhuat* a bhodaich, come, you churl, t defy you. 

De signifìes — 1. Of off, in the sense of taJcing from : 2. From, 
separating from ; as, 

1. Thoir a' phoit de 'n teine, taìce the pot off the fire. 
Thug è 'n dìollaid de 'n each, he took the saddle offthe horse. 
Mìr de sin, a piece of that. 

Tha gu leòr agam dheth, / have enough op it. 

2. Geàrr sliseag de 'n mhulachaig, cut a slice from the cheese. 

Do signifies — 1. To, into, towards : 2. For : 3. By : 4. Of 
possessive : 5. In composition sometimes, freedom ; as, 

1. Thèid mi do 'n Eaglais, / shatt go to the church. 

2. Dean bìadh do Thdmas, prepare food for Thomas. 

3. Do ghnàth, by custom, customarily. 
Do bhrìgh, by virtue, because. 

4. Mac do dh-Alasdar, a son of Alexander. 

5. Leig dhomh, leig dhà, let me alone, let him dlone. 

Obs. — Do is frequently used for de ; but when the opposite mean- 
ings of these two words are considered, the impropriety of using the 
one for the other will become at once manifest. Do is softened into a 
before the infinitive, &c. — See page 90, Note f. 

Eadar signifies — 1. Betioeen: 2. Boili together; as, 

1. Eadar an talamh 's ant-adhar, between the earth and the sTcy. 
Eadar mis' 'us tusa, between me and thee. 

2. Eadar bheag 'us mhòr, both small and great. 

Fa signifies — 1. On, upon : 2. Sometimes, to ; as, 

1. Fa dheireadh, on the end, at last ; finally. 

2. Fa 'n choill, to the wood. 



* Literally, come/rom thee. This curious idiom is common in the North among 
hoys and others when they are threatening or pretending to fight. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 147 

Feadh signifies — 1. Motion through, among : 2. Through 
other, or mixeà togelher : 3. During, through ; as, 

1. Feadh nan gleann, through the glens. 
Feadh na tìre, through the land. 

Tha na luchan feadh an f hodair, the nìice are among the straw. 

2. Uisge, min 'us baine feadh a water, meal, and milk through 

cheile, other, or mixed together. 

3. Air feadh gach lìnn, during or through every age. 

( Obs. — Feadh is an indeclinable noun signifying extent of space or 
time ; it is often preceded by air. 

Fo, fa, fuidh, signifies — 1. Rest or motion under, below, be- 
neath : 2. Below, at the base of: 3. Suffering under : 4. Chiefly 
in composidon, intcntion or purpose as coming under the mind 
and moving it to action ; as, 

1. Tha na brògan/o'n bhòrd, the shoes are under the table. 

Na h-uisgeachan à ta fo 'n ta- the waters which are under the 
lamh, earth. 

2. Fo 'n chreig mhcir, below, or at the base of the bigrock. 

3. Fo bhròn, undeb sorrow, sorrowful. Fo gheasaibh, under en- 
chantments, enchanted. Fo eagal, under fear, afraid. 

4. Tha 'tighinn fodham eirigh, / intend to rise, literally, it is coming 
under me to rise. Ciod a thainig fo na fir ? What has rnoved the 
fellows ì Thainig fòpa falbh, ihey resolved to depart. 

Obs. — Fuidh is chiefly used in the written language, and fa is pro- 
vincial or confined to local dialects. — See Note, p. 154. 

6rw, gus signifies — 1 . To, till, or until, motion, or time ter~ 
tninating : 2. To, towards, in the direction of: 3. To, about to, 
motion, or action commencing : 4. For, during : 5. Before ad- 
jectives, gu converts them into adverbs, and corresponds to the 
affix -ly in English ; as, 

1 . Thàinig an ldng gu tìr, the ship has come to land. 
Thoir mo shoraidh gu Tomas, give my compliments to Thomas. 
Gu crìch mo shaoghail, till (the) end of my days (my 

world). 

A sheachduin gus an-diugh, a week to this day, this day week. 
Na gluaisibh gus an tig sinne, do not move ttll we come. 
Tha è gu falbh 's a' mhaduinn, he is to depart in the morning. 

2. Gu Tuath, gu Deas, to (the) North, to (the) South, 

northward, southward. 

3. Tha ìad gu tòiseachadh air a' they are to begin (on) the reaping 

bhuain air Di-luain, on Monday. 

Tha 'chraobh gu tuiteam, ihe tree is about to fall. 

4. Gu bràth, gu sìorruidh, for ever, for ever. 

5. Gu mòr, gu glan, togreat,toctean,\.Q.greatly,cleanly. 

Gun signifies— 1. Without : 2. Placed before a noun, it cor- 



148 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

responds to the English affix -less : 3. In the second clause of 
a sentence, it is equivalent to the negative adverb not ; as, 

1. Gun eòlas, wìthout knoivledge. Gun airgiod, without money. 

2. Gun chìall, without sense, sensefess. Gun chùram, without caret 
c&veless. Gun eagal, ivithoutfear, fearfess. 

3. Dh'-àithn è dhomh gun sin a dheanamh, he ordered me not to do 
that. Thuirt mì ri Cailean gun an crodh a leigeil a-mach, / said to 
Colin not to let out the cattle. 

Iar, after ; done, is never used before a noun. It is the proper par- 
ticle to be prefixed to the Infinitive, to denote the completion of the 
verbal action ; as, iar sgrìobhadh, iar togail, writte?i, lifted. The pre- 
position air, though not so proper, is generally used for this purpose, 
— See page 84, Note +. 

Le, leis signifies — 1. With, along witli : 2. Away with, down 
with : 3. By means of, with: 4. In possession of: 5. By ; as, 

1. An te'id thu leam ? will you go with me ? 

2. Dh'-fhalbh ì le fear eile, she went away with another man. 
Chaidh a' chraobh leis an abh- 

ainn, the tree went away with the river. 

Chaidh am fiadh leis a' chreig, the deer went down with the roch, 

i. e.fell over the rocky precipice. 

3. Bhris mì a' chlach leis an òrd, / hroke the stone by means of the 

hammer ; with the hammer. 

4. Co leis an t-each bàn ? Tha è le whose is the white horse ? he he~ 

Tdmas, longs to Thomas. 

Iadsan as le Criosd, ihose who are Chrisfs. 

Is le Seònaid an gùn so, this gown helongs to Janet. 

Is feam-sa an leabhar sin, that hook is miiie. 

5. Is beag le Cailean tasdan 's an a shilling a-day is thought lìttle by 

là, Colin. 

Os is chiefiy used with ceann, forming the compound preposition 
os-ceann, or os-ciònn, ahove, over. And the adverbs os-n-àirde, os- 
ìosal, os-làimh. It is sometimes pronounced fos. 

Bi, ris signifìes — 1. To, applyingto, holding to, supporting 
to; 2. Against, up against : 3. Against, towards : 4. Exposed 
to : 5. After, following after : 6. Adding to : 7. With : 8. At, 
acting, or worìcing at : 9. Liìce to, or unto : 10. In the same clause 
with cho, as, or equality : 11. In, during ; as, 

1. Cuir a' ghloine ri do shùil, put the glass to your eye. 

Cum do làmh ri mo cheann, hold your hand to my head, sup- 

port my head. 

2. Ris an t-sruth, against the stream. 

3. Cuir na caoraich ris a' mhon- 

adh, set the sheep towards the hill. 

4. Tha na siùil ris a' ghaoith, the sails are exposed to the wind. 

5. Chuir sìnn an cù ris na caor- 

aich, we set the dog after the sheep. 



ÈTYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 149 

6. Cuir teine ris a' phoit, put fire to, or add fuel to the pot. 

Cuir ris, cuir riu, add to it, add to them ; work on. 

7. Cha bhi gnothach agam ris an / shall have no business with that 

f hear sin, rnan. 

8. Tha è ri clachaireachd, he is at mason-work, he is building* 

9. Tha Sèumas coltach n'athair, James is like (to) hisfather. 
Cha n-'eil è cosmhuil Wut-sa, he is not like you. 

10. Cho geal ris an t-sneachd, as whit&as the snow. 

11. Ri dà là, during two days, in two days. 

Obs. — Maille or mar, with, together with, combines always with ri or 
ris, both in its simple and compound form ; as, " Maille ri mo chorp 
marbh-sa eiridh ìad," together with my dead body they shall rise. — 
Bible. Maill rium, along with me ; maille riut, maille ris, rithe, 
r. inn, &c. Mar-rium, along with me ; mar-riut, mar-ris, rithe, 
ruinn, &c. 

Seach signifies — 1 . From, distinguishing from : 2. Beyond, 
farther than : 3. Comparison, or difference ; as, 

1. Cha n-aithne dhomh fear seach I donot know a man from man of 
fear dhiùbh, them. 

2. Na rach seach a' chlach mhìle, do not go beyond the mile-stone. 

S. Is mòr a' chlach sin seach ì so, that stone is large in comparison of 

this one. 

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. ROIMHEARAN MEASGTE. 

The Compound Prepositions are composed of simple Preposi- 
tions and of nouns. These phrases, for the most part, govern the 
genitive case of the nouns to which they are prefixed ; as, 

A bhàrr, from, off ; downfrom. 

A* chòir, do chòir, near, nigh to, about. 

A chum, do chum, to,for,for the purpose. 

A dhìth, de dhìth, wzthout,for want qf. 

A dh-easbhaidh, dh-easbhaidh, for want of, without, in want of. 

A los, air lcs, for the purpose offor. 

A rèir, do rèir, (to the will), according to ; secundum. 

A thaobh, do thaobh, thaobh, as to, regarding, respecting ; 

quoad. 

Am bun, an cois, near to, beside, waiting on. 

Am fagus do, near to, close to. 

Am fìanuis, an làthair, before,inthepresenceof; coram. 

Am fochaìr, near to, along with. 

Am measg, (in mixture), among, amongst. 

An aghaidh, an aodann, against, contraryto, {in face of). 

An àit, an àite, (in place), instead of, for, in lieu of. 



* A,a dh-, dli-, are contractions of do. Am or an for ann am, ann an, in the 
Compound Prepositions. 



150 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 
An ceann, (at the head), by, with, among. 

t ^vtdlis, } ^*. ** 

An èiric, an èirig, in return, as a ransom for. 

An lòrg, (in the tract), in consequence. by reason of. 

As leth, (from a half ), in behalffor. 

As easbhaidh, as èugmhais,+ for want, without. 

Air bèulaobh, (bèul taobh), before, infront of. 

Air cùlaobh, (cùl taobh), behind, at the baclc. 

Air fad, air feadh, through, throughout, among. 

Airghaol,airghìamh,airghràdhj for the love of, on account offor. 

Air sgàlh, air-sgà, for the sake of. 

Air-son, arson, (for value), for, on account of. 

Air tòir, after, inpursuit of, in search of. 

Còmhla ri, cuide ri, with, along with. 

Dh-fhios, (to the knowledge), to, unto, towards. 

Dh-ionnsaidh, a dh-ionnsuidh, to,unto,{totheattacJcorattempi). 

Fa chùis, (on a case), by reason of because of. 

Fa chomhair, opposite, before. 

Faisg air, near to, nigh to. 

Ghios, (dh-ionnsaidh), to, towards, unto. 

Làmh ri, làimh ri, (hand to), beside, near to, at hand. 

Maille-ri, mar-ri, with, along with, together with. 

Mu choinneamh, opposite, before. 

Mu'n-cuairt, (aboutthecircle), about, around, circum. 

Mu dhèibhinn, about, regarding, respecting. 

Mu thimchioll, mu thimcheall, about, concerning, respecting. 

Muthuaiream, (about vicinity), to, towards, near to. 

Os-ceann,os-ci6nn,(overhead), above, over. 

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS COMBINED WITH 
PRONOUNS. 

A Compound Preposition, like a simple one, never takes a 
Personal Pronoun after it. When persons or things are referred 
to, the Possessive Pronouns are interposed between the compon- 
ent terms of the Preposition, according to the following rules and 
examples. 

Rule 1. — When the first term of the preposition ends in a 
consonant, and the second term begins with a consonant, the 



* Sometimes 'na dhèigh as, " 'na dhèigh sin," afler that. 
f Also, as èvgais, as /hèvgais, asaonais, as ùnais ; from as, outof, without, 
and èugxnhais, or èugas, possession, presence. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 151 



Possessive Pronoun is generally written entire in every person ; 
as, Air-son, for. 

Air mo shon, /br me, i. e. for my profìt, or my sake. 

Air do shon, for thee, i. e. for thy profit, or thy sake. 

Air à shon,/or him, i. e. for his profit, or his sake. 

Air à son, for her, i. e. for her profit, or her sake. 

Air ar son, for us, i. e. for our profit, or our sake. 

Air bhur son,foryou, i. e. for your profìt, &c. 

Air an son, for them, i. e. for their profit, &c. 

So, Air mo bhèulaobh, before me. Air mo chùlaobh, behind 
me. Air mo sgà, for me. Air mo los, for me. Air mo lòrg, 
air mo thòir, after me. As mo leth, in my behalf for me. Air 
m'* f had, on my length. Air m' fheadh, ihrough me. Fa mo 
chomhair, opposite to me. Os mo cheann, os mo chiònn, above 
me, &c. 

Rule 2. — When the first term ends in a consonant, and the 
second begins with a vowel, mo and do elide their vowels, and à 
masculine is suppressed ; thus, 

As easbhaidh, without,from want of. 
As m' easbhaidh, without me. As ar n- easbhaidh, without us. 
As d' easbhaidh, without thee. As bhur n-easbhaLÌdh, withoutyou. 
As 'easbhaidh, without him. As an easbhaidh, without them. 
As à h-easbhaidh, without lier. 

Rule 3. — When the fìrst term ends in a vowel or dh (do), and 
the second begins with a vowel, mo and do become m', d', and 
the fìrst elides its vowel before the initial vowels of the Pos- 
sessives ; thus, 

Dh-ionnsaidh for do ionnsaidh, to, toward. 

Do m' ìonnsaidh, to me, to my attaclcox attempt. Do d' ionn- 
saidh, d' à ionnsaidh, d' à h-ionnsaidh. D'ar n-ionnsaidh, do 
bhur n-ionnsaidh, d' an ionnsaidh. 

Rule 4. — Compound Prepositions beginning with am or an, 
transpose the Possessives mo, do, into am, ad, and change am and 
an of the preposition into 'n before all the Possessives ; thus, 

An aghaidh, against, in face of. 

'N amt aghaidh, 'n ad aghaidh, 'n à aghaidh, 'n àh-aghaidh. 



* Mo and do become m' d', and à masculine becomes (') before f pure aspirated ; 
as, air m' fhad, air d'/kad, air 'fhad, air àfad, &c. 

t These combinations are variously formed by different writers ; 'n, the fragment 
of the simple preposition ann, is sometimes united to the initial letters of the 



152 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



'N ar n- aghaidh, 'n 'ur n-aghaidh, 'n àn aghaidh. 

So, 'N am àit. 'N am f hiannis. 'N am fhochair. 

An-dèigh, after. 

'N am dhèigh, after me, in mypursuit. 'N ad dhèigh, 'n à 
dhèigh, 'n à dèigh. 'N ar dèigh, 'n 'ur dèigh, 'n àn dèigh, 'n 
àn dèigh. 

So, 'N am bhun. 'N am chois. 'N am chòdhail or chòmhail. 
'N am choinneamh. 'N am chòir. 'N ar measg, among us. 
'N am làthair. 'N am èiric, &c. 

Rule 5. — When the first term of the Preposition ends in a 
vovvel and the second term begins with a consonant, the final 
vowel of the fìrst term is elided before the Possessives beginning 
with a vowel ; thus, 

Mu dhèibhinn_, conceming. 

Mu mo dhèibhinn,* concerning me, de me. Mu do dhèibhinn, 
m'à dhèibhinn, m'à dèibhinn. M'ar dèibhinn, m' ur dèibhinn, 
or mu bhur dèibhinn, m' an dèibhinn. 

So, Do mo thaobh. Mumo choinneamh, orchoinnimh. Mu 
mo thimchioll. Mu mo thuaiream. 

Am fagus do, faisg air, còmhla ri, làmh ri, maille ri, when 
applied to persons, are followed by the Compound Pronouns 
formed by air, do, ri ; as, am fagus clomh, faisg òrm, làmh 
rium, near me, &c. Còmhla rium, maille rium, with me, &c. 
A-dJììth and Timchioll require òrm ; as, Tha sin a-dhìth òra, 
lam in want oftJiat. Timchioll òrm, around me. 

CONJUNCTIONS. (See page 30.— No. 9.) NAISGEARAN. 

SIMPLE CONJUNCTIONS. 



Ach, but, hoivever, until. 
Agus, 'us, 'Sj as, is, and, also, 
as. 

Am, an, wJiether. 
Cho, co, as, so. 
Chiònn, because, for. 
Coma, however, nevertJieless. 
Cuideachd, also, too, besides. 
Dheadh, or. 



Eadhon, even. 

Ged, geda, tJwvgJi, although. 
Gidheadh, giodh e, get, stitt, 

notwithstanding. 
Gu, gu'm, gu'n, gur, that. 
Gu ma, guma, ihat, [inay 

it.) 
Ma, if. 
Mar, as how. 



Possessives, and the remaining letter apostrophated ; thus, 'na m', 'na d\ 'na, 
'na 'r, 'nu 'r, 'na 'n. These forms are very improper, for none of the Possessives 
should be separated by the mark of elision ; the apostrophe belongs properly to the 
n, the elided form of ann, and should be placed over it only, whether standing 
alone or united to the Possessives ; thus, 'n am, 'n ad, 'n a, 'n ar, 'n 'ur, 'n an, 
or 'nam, 'nad, 'na, 'nar, 'nur, 'nan or 'nam. Sometimes the fragment of the pre- 
position is omitted altogether in the fìrst and second person singular ; as, am aghaidh, 
ad aflhaidh. 

* Often mu m' dheibhinn, mu d' dheibhinn. Do m' thaobh, do d' thaobh, &c. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 153 



Mu'n, mu's, before, ere, lest. 
Mur, ifnot. 
Na, no, thctìi, or. 
Nach, notj that not. 



Na'm, na'n, if. 

Neo, no, or, nor. 

Oir, or,/or, because. 

0, o'n, ona, since, because, as t 



COMPOUND C0NJUNCTI0NS. 

These are for the most part composed of Nouns, simple Pre- 
positions, and simple Conjunctions. 

Ged tha, ge ta, (though it is), 

nevertheless. 
Gun fhios ara, an, nach, (not 

knowing), in case that. 
Gus am, gus an, until. 
Gus nach, until not. 
Ionnus gu, gu' m, gu'n, ionann 



A bhàrr, a bharrachd, (above), 

moreover, besides. 
Ach am, ach an, till, until. 
A chidnn gu, because that. 
Ach co dhiù, ach coma, ach 

coma co dhiù, however, not- 

withstanding, but then, well 

then. 

A chum gu, chum 's gu 'ra, in 

order tliat, that. 
Aon chuid — no, an dara cuid 

— no, either — or, neither — 

nor. 

Air an aobhar sin, (for that 

cause), therefore. 
Air son sin, for that, because. 
Air chor agus gu'n, air chor 

'us nach, (in such a manner 

that, that not), so that, so 

that not. 
Air dheadh, air neo, or else, 

otherwise. 
Air eagal gu, d' eagal gu, eagal 

's gu,forfear that, else. 
Air son gu, do bhrìgh gu'm, {by 

reason that), because that. 
Ged nach, though not. 



I s gu, gu m, gu n, 
I that, so that. 
| Mar gu, gu'm, gu'n, as if, 
i liìce as if. 
! Mar nach, as ifnot. 
| Mar sid agus, UJcewise, and 
| also. 

Ma's è, ma's è 's gu, gu'm, if 
it be so, if 

Ma ta, matà, ifso, then. 

Mu'm, mu'n, lest. 

Mur b' è, were it not. 

Nara, neo nach, or not. 
ì Os-bàrr, moreover, besides. 

Sòl mu'n, suil mu'n, ere, be- 
fore. 

Tuille eile, a thuille, moreover, 

furthermore. 
Uime sin, (about that), there- 

fore, then. ' 



INTERJECTIONS. (See page 30, No. 8.) CLISGEARAN. 

Aha! hah! aha! (laughing). 
Cuist ! uist ! tosd ! hush ! 

harh ! silence ! quiet ! 
Eudail ! dear ! dear ! 
Faire faire ! ay ay ! what ! 



A ! ah! oh ! 

Ab ab ! no no ! shame ! fy ! 
A chìall ! O dear ! strange ! 
Ad ad ! At at ! what ! tahe 



154 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Fuigh!* fuh ! fich ! pshaw ! 

Jiut ! tut ! 
Ho! haoi! ho! halloo! hoy ! 
Ho-lò ! ho-rò ! hurra ! hurra ! 
Hù ! pù ! hut ! pugh ! non- 

sense ! 

1 1 èh ! O ! wonderfid! grand! 
Ibh ibh ! ip ip ! fyfy! nasty ! 
Obh obh ! O dear ! dear me ! 
Och ! oh ! alas ! pity ! 
Och och ! alas alas ! dear 
dear ! 



Oich ! oich oich ! O sore ! oh ! 

sore sore ! 
O hòth ! a hah ! well done ! 
Puf ! puth ! pu ! pshaw ! 
Seall ! faic ! feuch ! see ! be- 

hold! lo! 
Seadh! ay ! ìndeed ! what! 
Ubh ùbh ! alas alas ! bad 

bad! 

Ud ud ! pity pity ! no no ! 
fy! 



Several other phrases areused as interjections ; as, A ghràidh- 
ein ! dear fellow ! A ghràdhach ! O dear woman ! A 
ghràidh ! m' èudail ! my dear ! A mhic cridhe ! son of my 
heart ! dear sir ! A nic cridhe ! O dear woman ! A shaoghail ! 
O world! A shaoghail bhèugaich ! O deceitful world ! A 
'laochain ! brave feìlow ! O hero ! 

Mo chreach ! mo lèir chreach ! mo ledin ! mo thruaighe lèir ! 
mo dhìobhail ! alas ! pityme! woe is me ! Mo nàire! (my 
shame), mo mhasladh ! (my disgrace), mo nàire shaoghalta ! 
mo nàire 's mo mhasladh ! O fy ! fy ! shame ! 

O mise ! me ! dear me ! Mis' an-diugh ! dear me to-day ! 
O chòin ! Och nan ochan ! Och 'us och ! Och 'us ochan ! Och 
'us ochan nan och èire ! Oh ! alas, alas ! O rì! O strange ! 
H-ugad or Thugad ! at thee, taJce care ! H-ugaibh or Thugaibh, 
atyou, talce care ! Air Moire ! Oire ! By Mary ! Truly. 



DERIVATION. 

Derwatìon is that part of 
Etymology which treats of 
the origin and primary 
signification of words. 

The words o"f a language 
are either Primitive or De- 
rivative. 

A Primitive word is not 



FREUMHACHADH. 

Is è FreumJiachadh an 
earrann sin de dh-Fhoclach- 
adh à ta 'teagasg mu stoc 
'us mu phrìomh-sheadh 
fhocalan. 

Tha focail càinnt', an dara 
cuid PrìomJiacJi no Freumh- 
ach. 

Cha f hreumhaichear focal 



* Fuigh is an exclamation of disgust in the North, when any disagreeable 
odour comes into contact with a person's olfactory ; as, " fuigh ort a choin, mach 
thu." In Perthshire it is commonly used as an exclamation of disapprobation or 
surprise. Considering the sense attached to the word fuigh, we object to the use of 
the preposition/wz'd/i, a word of the same sound, instead of/o.— See page 147, Obs. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOOLACHADH. 155 



Prìomhach o fhocal sam 
bith a 's lugha na e-fèin 's a' 
chàinnt ; mar, ceart, just. 

Bheirear focal Freumhach 
o f hocal àraid èile, a's lugha 
na e-fèin ; mar, ?ra-cheart, 
zmjust. 

Atharraichear focail Phrì- 
omhach gu-mòr araon 'n àn 
cumadh, agus 'n àn seadh, le 
bhi iar an aonadh ri lidean 
àraid ris an canar Tùsicean 
agus Risicean. 

The following examples will afford an idea of the changes and con- 
tractions which the words of a language undergo when two or three 
terms are merged into one word : — Bealltuinn from Bel,* or Belus, the 
ancient deity of the Celts, and teine, fire, May-day, Whitsuntide, the 
day of offering sacrifice to Bel. Bliadhna, Bel-ìadh-ùin, Bel encom- 
passing time ; the period which circulates or passes between the annual 
sacrifices to Bel ; a year. Miorbhuil, meur Bheil, the finger of Bel ; 
any thing ascribed to the hand or power of Bel; a miracle. Samhuinn, 
sàmh, rest, peace ; mn,time,orteme,fìre; season of rest ; a Druidical 
festival held in the beginning of November ; hallowtide ; halloween. 
Bainis, bean-fhèis, woman's feast ; entertainment for a wife ; a wed- 
ding. Oigear, òg-fear, a young man. Morair, mòr-fhear, a great man ; 
a lord. Moraich, muir-fhaich, sea-field ; a sea-marsh. Mac/iair, mach, 
or magh-thìr, plain land. 



derived from any simpler 
word than itself in the lan- 
guage ; as, duine, man. 

A Derivative word is de- 
rived or formed from some 
word simpler than itself ; 
as, duine//, man^. 

Primitive words are materi- 
ally changed, both in their 
structure and signification, by 
being united with certain parti- 
cles, called Prefixes and Affixes. 



A Prefix is a particle 
placed before a word or 
root, to vary its sense ; as, 
cfemol, d&praise. 

An Affix is a particle 
added to a root to vary its 



PEEFIXES. 

Words denoting error, 
defect, or the sense of not, 



Is ì Tùsic lid a chuirear 
roimh fhocal, 110 freumh 
a mhìith à sheadh ; mar, 
ath-ihogj rebuild. 

Is ì Risic lid a chuirear 
ri freumh a mhùth à sheadh ; 
mar, àmneil. 

TUSICEAN. 

Nìtear focail a' cìallach- 

adh niearach, easbhaidh, no 



* Hebrew bl» Bel, a domestic and chief god of the Babylonians, worshipped in 
the tower of Babel. " And I will punish Bel in Babylon." — Jer. li. 44. Belus, 
" Quintus in India, qui Belus dicitur." — Cic. de Nat. Deorum, iii. 16. Baal, 
a lord, the name of the idol of the Phoenicians and Syrians ; their domestic and 
chief deity, worshipped by them and by the Hebrews.— Jud. vi. 25.— Vide Gesenhis' 
Hebrew and Clialdee Lexicon, in loco. 



Ì56 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



im-, in-, un-, -less, in Eng- seadh not, im-, in-, un-, 
Hsh, are formed by prefix- -less, 's a' Bheurla le roimh- 
ing the particles, iceadh nan smidean, 



An-, ana-, ain-, ao-, as- } ea-, eas-, èu-, d\-, mi-, neo- ; as, 



Abuich, 


ripe, 


<m-abuich, 


unripe. 


Measarra, 


temperate, 


awa-measarra, 


intemperate. 


Ji.olacii, 


acquainted, 


d^-eolach,* 


unacquainted. 


Dìonach, 


tight, 


ao-dìonach, 


untight, leaky. 


Caoin, 


Jcind, 


«s-caoin, 


unkind, harsh. 


Slàn, 


healthy, 


e#-slan, 


unhealthy, sich. 


Onoir, 


respect, 


eas-onoir, 


disrespect. 


Trom, 


heavy, 


<?w-trom, 


light. 


Meas, 


honour, 


efo'-meas, 


dishonour. 


Ceart, 


just, 


mi- cb.ea.rt, 


unjust. 


Nì, 


a thing, 


neo-'ni, 


nothing. 



Obs. — An becomes ana before b, c, g, m, p, and ain befcre a 
word of which the first vowel is small. In some words, it is 
written aimti, as in aimh-\eas, aimh-reit. An is commonly 
privative ; but in several words it is intensive ; as, teas, heat : 
am-teas, excessive heat, inflammation. Mìann, desire : ana- 
miann, excessive desire, lust. Before some words, an has the 
senseof theadjectives droch, olc, òad, evil ; as, An uair, an evil. 
Anacàinnt, had language. 

The other Prefixes are aih- ; ban- ; bith-, cath-, sior- ; co-, 
comh-, con- ; do-, so- ; fear- ; iol- or iom-, im-, in-, ion-, 
luchd, Mac-, Nic-. 

Ath signifies again, back, next, re ; as, tog, Uft; ath-thog, 
lift again, rebuild. Ris, history ; aithris, tell, repeat, narrate. 
Leasaich, add to, form ; ath-'leasaich, improve, reform. Uair, 
an hour ; ath-uair, next hour. 

Ban, bana, bean,t afemale ; lady, corresponding to the Eng- 
lish affixes -ess,- ix ; as, ban-rìgh, a queen. Bana-mhaighstear, 
a mistress. Arach, a cow-herd ; banarach, a milkmaid, dairy- 
maid. Bain-treabhaiche, contracted Bàntrach,t awidow. Ban- 
diùc, a duchess. Bean-tighe, a housewife, landlady, goodwife. 
Bean-bàinnse, a bride. Bean-ghlùine, a midwife, obstetrix. 
Bean-shìth, a fairy. For other forms of ban, see page 33. — Obs. 

Obs. — From bean is derived the word banas, signifying the 



* Manx, Ben. Wel. Benw. Goth. Wen. Pers. Benanj. Gr. BivòCv (benòn), 
uniting. 

f From bean, a wife, and treabhaiclie, ahusbandman ; hence the meaning of the 
word is, a wife left to cultivate the land after the death of her husband. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 157 



office or administration of a wife ; as, banas-ghlùine, midwifery. 
Banas-tighe or beanas-tighe, housewifery ; female economy. 
" Is duilich banas-tighe 'dheanamh air na fraidhibh falamh," 
it is difficult to do the office of a housewife in empty partitions, 
i. e. to manage an empty house. — Gaelic Prov. 

Bith, cath, sior, ever, incessant, constant, continual ; as, 
buan, lasting, durable; bith-bhuan, everlasting, eternal ; bith- 
bhuantachd, eternity. Deanta, done ; bith-dheanta, always 
done, common, frequent ; bith-dheantas, or bidheantas, constant 
habit,frequency, commonness. Losgadh, burning ; cath-losgadh, 
incessantly burning. Ruith, running ; sìorruidh, ever running 
on, eternal; sìorruidheachd, etemal running, eternity. Sìor- 
ìarraidh, ever ashing. 

Co, comh, con, coin, together, corresponding to con, com, col, 
cor, syl, sym, syn, in English, as, Ainm, a name ; co-ainm, an 
addiiional name ; surname, cognomen. Ràdh, saying ; còmh- 
radh, saying togeiher ; conversation, dialogue. Cur, placing, 
puiting ; co-chur, application. Ith, eating ; coimh-ith, con- 
tracted còmaidh, eating together ; a mess. Aois, age, comh- 
aois, one ofthe same age, contemporary. Feitheamh, waiting ; 
coin-fheitheamh, abridged coinneamh, waiting together, meet- 
ing ; hence coinnich, to meet. 

Obs. — Comh is generally written coimh, when the first vowel 
of the next syllable is a small, and frequently contracted co', 
coi'; but -imh is, for the most part, superfluous. 

JDo signifies difficult, ill, hard to do, or to be done. It is of 
the same import as im-, in-, mìs-, un-, in English, or ìv$ and av 
in the Greek. So, the opposite of Do, signifìes easy, apt, good. 
With the past participle, it nearly corresponds to -ble in English, 
-bilis in Latin, and ìv- in the Greek ; as, 

Car a turn / 50cnar ' a 9 00 ^ tum, benefit ; ^ochar, injury. 

3 ' \socair, ease, comfort ; <7ocair, misfortune. 

Nos habit, sonas, prosperity, happiness, <ionas, mischief. 
Lèir, sight, soìlìevc, visible, clear, doilìeix, darJc, invisible. 

Deante, done, dfo-dheante,* difficult to do, or to be done, im- 



* Sometimes written do-dheanamh. In all the Gaelic Lexicons the past parti- 
ciple is generally annexed to do and so in forming adjectives of this kind ; but it is 
asserted in one Gaelic Grammar that we have seen, that it is improper to combine 
the past participle with these prefixes ; that the infinitive alone shouldbe combined 
with them. With due deference to the opinion of others, we shall submit reasons 
which, upon maturely considering the subject, have appeared to us, as supporting 
the propriety of conjoining do and so with the past participle, in forming adjectives 
of a passive capacity , or implying the sense of the affix -ble in English. It is evident 
that the prefix do, (im, in, or un), does not imply an absolute and objective neg- 
ative, or the entire sense of not. Nor does so imply an absolute and objective 



158 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



possible ; c?o-dheante, easily done, possible. Rdinnte, divided ; 
efo-rdinnte, hard to dinide, or to be divided ; indivisible. So- 
ròinnte, easily divided, capable of being divided, tliat can be 
divided; divisible. Rànnsaichte., searched. Do-rànnsaichte, 
unsearchable. So-rànnsaichte, searchable. 

FeaRj a male, or any object of the masculine gender ; it cor- 
responds to the English affixes -er, -or, &c, prefixed to the 
genitives of nouns, or to the genitive of the infinitive of verbs, 
it denotes an agent or doer ; as, Fear-tighe, or fear an tighe, the 
man qf the house, goodman, landlord. Fear-ceàirde, a man of 
trade, a trcdesman. Fear-tagraidh, a pleader, an advocate. 
Fear-saoraidh, a redeemer. 

Fear and bean are employed before the names of landed pro- 
perties and farms, to distinguish the male andfemale proprietor 
or possessor ; thus, Fear Chuilodair, the Laird or proprietor of 
Culloden. Fear an Uird, the Laird of Ord. Fear Dhunballoch, 
the taclcsman of Dunbalìoch. Bean Bhealladvum, the proprie- 
trix, or female tenant of Belladrum. 

Iol, ioma, many, numerous ; as, zW-chosach, many-footed ; 
soma-cheàrnach, having many comers, midtangular ; ioma- 
dhathach, or 2o£-dhathach, many -coloured. 

Im, iom,* ioma, about, around, circum, complete ; as, ceist, a 
question ; zmcheist, a question about anything ; doubt, anxiety. 
Guin, pain, a wound ; iomag&ìi, a painful feelìng, trouble, 
grief anxiety. Cubhaidh , fit, right ; «om«-chubhaidh, abridged 
iom-chuidh. proper, expedient, suitable. Slàn, whole, healthy ; 
ioma-shlani, abridged iomìan, completely whole. entire. loma- 
ghaoth, a wind blowing around ; whirlwind. Car, a turn ; 
eowachair, turn about ; carry, bear. 

Ion, fit, worthy, proper, like ; as, «ow-mholta, praiseworthy. 



effect. Both prefixes are subjective in their signification, and imply an approxima- 
tion or close tendency to objective and absolute effect ; thus, òo-rànnsaichte does 
not mean not searched, but hard or difficxdt to be searched, unsearchaWe. So- 
rànnsaichte means not positively or absoìuiely searched, but easily searched, cap- 
able of being searched, searchaWe. The English adjectives unsearcha&te and 
searchaWe are of a passive sense. But if we annex the infinitive instead of the past 
or passive participle " rànnsaichte," to the prefixes do, so ; as, do-rànnsachadh, 
difficuli or uneasy searching ; so-rànnsachadh, easy oy gentle searching ; a"o-dhean- 
amh, difficult do'mg it is'manifest that no part of a*o-rànnsachadh or #o-rànns- 
achadh, &c. denotes capacity in a passive sense, which is uniformly the meaning 
of the corresponding affix -ble, and the sense necessary to be expressed by the G aelic 
words; as, divisiWe, thatmaybe divided, 50-roinnte. Therefore, in order to give 
a passive sense to the Gaelic adjective, the common practice is to combine do and 
so with the passive participle. 

Irregular infinitives are, however, annexed to do and so in forming passive ad- 
jectives ; as, do-fhaicsinn, so-fhaicsinn ; but these are, in many cases, changed into 
•ach ; as, do-fhaicsinneach, invisible ; so-f haicsinneach , visible. 

* Im, iom, becomes am- in the Latin ; as, ambio, ambivi, ambitum, ambire, to 
go round. Imich. im-shiubhail. Iom chuairtich. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 159 



Mìann, desire, wisli ; zcm-mhìann, abridged ionmhuinn, desir- 
aòle, lovely, precious, dear. Aon, one; ionaon, abridged iomn 
or scwann, Wce one, aliJce, equal. 

Luciib, persons, people, folJcs, company, society, forms the 
plural of the prefix fear ; as, fear-faire, a watcJtman, pl. luchd- 
faire, watcJimen. Fear-àiteachaidh, an inJiabitant, pl. luchd- 
àiteachaidh, inJiabitants. Luch-comhairle, advisers, counsel- 
lors. Luchd-e'isdeachd, hearers. Luchd-millidh, destroyers, 
plunderers. 

SURNAMES. SLOINNEADH. 

Mac, a son, a male descendant, is prefixed to names of per- 
sons to distinguish a male descendant; as, Dònull, Donald; 
Mac-Dhònuill, a son, or descendant of Donald ; a Mac-Donald, 
Donaldsow ; Mac-Thòmais, Thomsow ; Mac-Uilleim, Wil- 
liams<m. 

Nic (contracted for nigJiean), a daugJiter, distinguishes a 
female descendant ; as, Nic-Dhònuill, a female descendant of 
Donald, a woman whose surname is Macdonald, a daughter of 
Donald. Anna Nic-Iain, Ann Johmo^. Màiri Nic-Thdmais, 
Mary Thomscm. 

Obs. — The English language wants this nice and important 
distinction, as it makes sons of both males and females ; as, 
Ann Johnson, that is, strictly speaking, Ann the son of John. 
Mary Thomson, i. e. Mary son of Thomas. 

REMARKS ON THE LETTERS ì, D, S, T. 

The letter I is remarkable for its use in words denoting rational 
beings and their places of abode ; it is also the radical vowel in the 
two verbs Bi and Is, to be ; as, an Tì a's àirde, the most High Being. 
Dia, God. Is mi, I am. Bith, being, existence. Is mì an Tì a's mi, 
I am that I am. An talamh-tì, the earth that exists. Tìgh, tìm, tìr, 
ì, ìle, ìre, ìrm, ìnnleachd. In English I is the vowel of the present 
participle, the part of the verb which denotes the existence of tne state 
or progress of an action ; as, standmg, walking, loving, shaking, 
Kving. T\, a rational being, seems to be akin to the Greek f'Sj t<» 
some, any. 

The v letter I is also used as a noun, and signifi.es an island or isle ; 
as, " I Challuim Chille," lona, or St Cotumba's isle, in the Hebrides. 
This good man, the founder of the Christian religion in Scotland, in 
the sixth century, is said to have uttered the following prediction 
respecting the fall and rise of Iona, once the seat of religion and 
learning in Scotland : — 

" 'An ì mo chridhe, ì mo ghràidh, 'an àit guth manaich bidh gèum bà, 
Ach mu'n tig an saoghal gu crìch, bidh ì mar a bhà." 
Literally, In the isle of my heart, the isle of my love, instead of the 



160 ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 

voice of a monk, shall be the lowing of cattle, but ere the world come 
to an end Iona shall flourish as it was. 

Ifrinn, that is, ì-fuar-f hònn, the isle ofcold land, a coìd, icyclimate ; 
hell; as, " Is beag òrm Ifrinn fhuar, fhliuch ; àite bith-bhuan is 
searbh deoch." * / abhor cold wet hell, eternal place of bitterest drink. 
This line illustrates the notion which the ancient Celts entertained of 
the place of future punishment. The word Jfrinn, though now of a 
diametrically opposite meaning, is the name generally applied to the 
place of torment by Gaelic speakers at the present day. 

Flaitheanas, from flath, a prince, a hero, and innis, an island, signi- 
fied of old the island of the brave, or the virtuous ; the Elysium of 
heroic spirits. Flaitheanas (flath-innis) is frequently used at the pre- 
sent day in the Gaelic language, to denote heaven. But Neamh {Gr. 
vz<P'4, a cloud, multitude), is the name generally given to heaven in the 
Bible and in religious discourse.* 

The Celtic words ì, innis, an island, will form a key to the etymol- 
ogy of the names of many insular and peninsular places in the world ; 
as, Ile, Islay. Jura or Iura, Jura. Uist, Uist. Inchkeith, isle of 
Keith. Eirinn, or Eirionn, ì-iar-fhònn, westland isle ; Ireland. 
Iberia, i, isle ; bior, water, the peninsula of Spain. Italy, èdal-ì, the 
isle of cattle, or pastoral peninsula. Sicilia, siculus-ì, the isle of 
Siculus, the son of Neptune ; Sicily. JEoliae, or JEolìdes, iEolus-ì, 
the isles of iEolus, the ruler of winds and storms, between Sicily 
and Italy. Melita, mil-ì, the fertile or honey isle, Malta. Candia, 
cìan-ì, distant isle. 

Many islands in the Archipelago have their etymon in as, 
jEgilisi, iEgina, /caria, icos, /on, los, /cus, /mbrus, Chios, Dia, Milo, 
Minos, Nia, &c. 

Indies, India, inrÀs, island ; Innseachan, islands. Innis signifies also 
a sheltered valley, pasture ; as, " innis mhaith," goodpasture. " Innis 
nan gobhar," the vale of the goats. 

D, s, t. — Several words beginning with s, d, or t, convey opposite 
meanings ; as, subhailc, virtue ; dubhailc, vice. Saor, cheap ; daor, 
dear. Saoi, worthy ; a hero ; daoi, umiiorthy,foolish; a worthless person. 
Soirbh, easy, good ; doirbh, peevish, hard. Sòlas, comfort, pleasure ; 
dolas, grief trouble. Sona, happy ; dona, bad. Soisgeul, good news, 
gospel ; toisgeil, wrong. Sàth, plenty, fulness ; tàsg, a bodiless being, 
a ghost. Sùil, an eye, sight ; dall, blind. Sùnnt, joy, cheerfulness ; 
dùr, dull, stupid, 

AFFIXES OF NOUNS. RISICEAN NAN AINMEAR. 

The Affixes of Nouns are -a, -ach, -achd, -ad, -adh, 
-ag, -aid, -an, -as, -e, -ear, -air, -eir, -oir, -idh, -ridh. 

Nouns denoting the agent or doer of a thing, are formed from 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs, by adding -ear f or -air, -ach, -e, 



* The Rev. Dr Smith's Gaelic Antiquities and MSS. 

t The terminations -ear, -air, -eir, -ir, -ire, -oir, are differeut forms of the word 
i6 fear," an individual ofthe mascidine gcnder. It becomes -earafter a small, -air, 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 161 



•iche ; as, Sùist, a flail, sùistear, a flailman, a thrasher. Ceist, 
a question ; ceistear, a catechist. Gunna, a gun ; gunnair, a 
gunner. Gaisge, bravery ; gaisgeach, a òrave man ; a cham- 

pioti. Sgèul, a narrative ; sge'ulaiche, a narrator. Mòr, 

great ; morair, a great man, a lord. Foirfe, good, perfect ; 
foirfeach, a wise man ; an elder. Og, young ; òganach, òigear, 

a young man. Ol, to drinJc ; òlach,* a drinJcer, a hospitable 

fellow. Co-ghairm, to call together, to convene ; co-ghairmear, 
a convener. Coisich, to walk ; coisiche, a walker, a pedestrian. 

Many Nouns, chiefly those derived from Verbs, insert d be- 
fore -air and -ear, to strengthen the sound ; as, Snàmh, io 
swim ; snàmhadair, a swimmer. Figh, to weave ; fìgheadair, 
a weaver. Rdinn, divide; roinneadair, a divider, divisor. Uair, 
an hour ; uaireadair, a time-Jceeper, a clock. 

Nouns derived from words ending in l or n, insert t before 
-ear, -ean ; as, Mìll, destroy ; mìlltear, a destroyer. Tòinn, to 
twist ; tdinntean, a tJiread. 

A great variety of Nouns terminate in -ach ; such as Nouns 
denoting sect or party, opinion ; common names of persons ; 
names of animate and inanimate objects, and names of diseases ; 
as, Protestanach, a Protestant. Pàpanach, a Papist. Bais- 
teach, a Baptist.f Sadusach, a Sadducee. Bodach, an old man ; 
Cailleach, an oldwoman. Fieasgach, ayoung man ; Gruagach, 
ayoung woman. Buitseach, a wizard. Sionnach, afox. Fitheach, 
a raven. Bonnach, a bannocJc. Darach, oaJc. Broilleach, a 
breast. Teasach, a fever. Buidheach, jaundice, (from buidhe, 
yellow). Griuthach, measles. 

Ad, — Nouns denoting abstract quality are formed from the 
flrst comparison of Adjectives, by adding -ad ; as, gilead, wJiite- 
ness ; deirgead, redness. — See page 65. The fìrst comparative 



and sometimes -ar, after a broad ; as, ceist-f hear, abridged ceistear. Mòv-fhear, 
abridged morair. The forms -aire, -eir, -ir, -eire areimproper in the nominative, 
for these properly belong to the genitive case. — See Ons. page 47. 

The affix -ear is found under various forms in other languages ; as, carter, cairt- 

ear : doctor, pillar, s&tyr, iounàry, barrister, chaiiotm', esquire. Gener, mors. 

Latin vir. Gothic ver. Saxon wer. 

* Some of our best Gaelic dictionaries assert that òlach is a corruption of òglach 
(og laoch), a young man ; a man-servant. But this is incorrect, for the meaning 
of the tvvo vvords is widely different, as òlach from òl, properly signities one who 
cheerfully gives and receives drink ; a hospitable fcllow ; as, " olach còir," a fine 
fellow. 

t In the Gaelic Bible the term " baptist," fia.tr<rnr7ris, is improperly rendered 
by the past participle of the verb " baist," to baptize ; as, " Eòin baiste," i. e. 
baptized John : accordingto the original, 'Imkvv/i; ò Bocvrurr'/iSi the Gaelic render- 
ing should be " Eòin am Baisteach," John the Baptist. It is difficult to conceive 
what led the translators of the Scriptures to render Ba.TTi/rrh; by the past parti- 
ciple baiste, as there is no usage in the language to support it. An individual be- 
longing to the sect commonly called " BaptLsts," goes regularly under the name 
Baisteach in all parts of the Highlands. 

L 



162 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



of several Adjectives is used as abstract Nouns ; as, buige, soft- 
ness, humidity. Doille, blindness. — Gen. xix. 11. 

Aid, — Several feminine Nouns are forraed froin other Nouns 
and Adjectives, by adding-az'J/ as, glag, a noise ; glagaid, a 
noisy or clamorous woman. Briosg, brisk, brittle ; briosgaid, a 
biscuit. 

PATRONYMIC AND GENTILE AINMEARAN FINEACHAIL ? U8 

NOUNS. TIREIL. 

Patronymics and Gentiles are formed by adding -ach to 
tbe proper names of persons and places ; as, Friseal, 
Fraser; Frisealach, a Fraser, a man ofthe name of Fraser. 
Dònull, Donald. Dònullach, a Macdonald. Ban-Fhris- 
ealach, a woman of the name of Fraser. Ban-Dònullach. 
Bana-Chamaronach. 

Albainn, Scotland; Albannach, a Scotchman. Sasunn 
(from Saxon), England ; Sasunnach, an Englishman. Ei- 
rionn, Ireland; Eirionnach, an Irishman. Eudailt, Italy ; 
Eudailteach, an Itaììan. Ban-Albannach, a Scotchwoman. 
Ban-Fhràngach. Ban-Sasunnach. Ban-Duitseach. Ei- 
phit, Egypt; Eiphiteach. 

When a country derives its name from a river, or 
any other place, the gentile is formed from the name of 
the river, or that place ; as, Srath-ghlais, Strathglass 
(from srath, a vale, and Glas, its river). Glaiseach, a 
Strathglass man ; Bana-Ghlaiseach, a Strathglass woman. 
Srath-Chonain (from srath, a vale, and Conan, its river). 
Conanach, Bana-Chonanach. Loch-Abair, Lochaber ; 
Abrach, a Lochaber man ; Ban-Abrach. 

OF DIMINUTIVES. MU CHRINEANAIBH. 

Diminutive Nouns are formed from other Nouns, by 
adding -an for the masculine, and -ag for the feminine ; 
as, balach, a lad; balaclKm, a boy. Bòrd, a table, or board; 
bòrdan, a lìttle table. Balg, a bag ; balgmz, a little bag. 
Caile, a girl; caile^, a little gìrl. Bean, a wife; bean^, 
a little wife. Sùil, an eye ; sùile^, a little eye. Clach, a 
stone ; clachay, a small stone. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



POCLACHADH. 163 



A few masculine Nouns in -e insert ch before -an ; as, 
duine, a man ; duineacAan, a lìtile man, manikin. 

Diminutives of proper names follow the same rule ; as, 
Uilleaclian, WilUe. Ceiteag, Katie. Some names of males 
add -idh; as, TomaetfA, Tommy. Seuma«c?^, Jamie. 

Obs. — Diminutives and primitives in -ean are often 
changed into -ein in the nominative ; as, caimm, a mote. 
Cuilem, a whelp. But the termination -ein properly be- 
longs to the genitive case ; therefore these and all other 
Nouns of this termination should have -ean in the nomi- 
native ; as, caimecm, euiletm, isean, ìsbean. — See page 47, 
No. 22. 

Cottective Nouns are formed from Nouns and Adjectives, by 
adding -ridh ; as ceòl, music; ceòìraidh (the), muses. Cas, a 
foot; casraidh, foot-soldiers, infantry. Each, a horse ; each- 
raidh, horse-soldiers, cavalry. Og, young ; òigridh, young 
people, youth. 

Nouns denoting being or a state of being are derived from 
nouns, adjectives, and verbs by adding -a, -achd, -adh, -t, -as, 
-sa ; as, Tànaistear, a regent : tànaistreachd, regency. Rìgh, a 
king : rìoghachd, a hingdom. Duine, a man: daonnachd, 
manhood. Ur, new, fresh : ùrachd, newness, novelty. Ceart, 
just : ceartas, justice. Saor, free : saorsa, freedom, liberty. — 
Dànns_, to dance : dànnsa (contracted for dànnsac?^), dancing. 
Diùlt, to refuse : diùltadh, refusing, denial. Coisich, to walk : 
coiseachd, walking, pedestrianism. Marcaich, to ride: marc- 
achd, riding, horsemanship. Labhair, speak: labhairt, speak- 
ìng, speecL 

DERIVATION OP ADJECTIVES. FREUMHACHADH BHUADHARAN. 

Adjectives are forraed from nouns and verbs, by adding -ach, 
-ail, -eil, -da, -idh, -mhor, -or, -ar, -rra, -ra, -ta. 

Ach corresponds to the English affixes, -unt, -al, -ar, -ate, 
-ble, -fid, -ic, -ish, -ose, -ous, -y, &c; as, Buadhac/i, triumphawf. 
AbstolacA, apostolic^. Cuairteac/^, circukzr. Gràdhac^, affect- 
ioriate. Buailteach, Mable. Freagarr<zcA, answeraWc. Creideas- 
ucJi, credita&/e. Nkrach, shame/W, bash/w/. FocalacA, verbose. 
Cunnartac/i, hazardows. SùnndacÀ, merry, glad. 

Amhuil,* like, contracted -ail, -eil, -al: as, banail, like 



* The affix amhuil or amhail is uneontracted in the Irish ; as, fe&ramhuil, like 
a man, manly. Beanamhuil, womanlike, modest. This affix appears under vari- 
ous forms in other languages ; as, English, fina^ movtal, beautifuJ, darkty. Latin., 
tatalti, mortalis. Greek, hpos, like, similar. 



164 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



woman ; modest. Duineil, manly. Sryòrsail, sportive. Ordail, 
orderly. Cìana«7, lonely, solitary. Vasal, bigh, noble, generous. 
lo&al, low. Deiseo^, or deiseè^* by the right hand, right. 

Da, -ta, denoting a state of completeness, or the sense of be- 
ing done ; as, Aosda, old, aged. Glèusta, prepared, ready, ex- 
pert. Fileanta, ready-worded, poetical, eloquent (from fìlidh, a 
poet). Pòsda, married. Cuanta, able ; handsome. GaMda, 
Lowland ; speaking English. 

Idh, corresponding to the English affixes, -al, -ant, -ive, -ous, 
-y, &c. ; as, Fìaìaidh, liberal, generous. TdXmhaidh, earthly. 
Neamhaztì^j heavenly. Criosdaidh, christian. Dìadhaidh, 
godly. hesLTìsìbaidh, childish. EagnaidA, prudent. Tìamh- 
aidh, dismal, gloomy. TJisgidh, watery, aqueous. 

Mhor, -ar, -or, corresponding to -al, -ble, -ous, -some, -y, 
&c. ; as, Grksmhor, gracious. Ceòhnhor, musica^. J&udmhor, 
zealoits ; jeaìous. Feòlmhor, carual, ileshy. Fionnar, cool. 
Greànnar, neat, \o\ely, ryìeasant. 

Ra, -rra, corresponding to various adjectival affixes in Eng- 
ìish ; as, Eagarra, exact, precise, regular. Corparr«, bodily, 
corporeal. Measarra, temperate. 

Eann+ or -ionn, -inn ; as, Maireann or mairionn, lasting, 
existing, durable. Coitcheann or coitehionn, common, general. 
Tarsainn, transverse. 

DERIVATION OF VERBS. FREUMHACHAUH GHNÌOMHAR. 

Verbs involving the idea of to make, as a part of their signi- 
fìcation, are formed from nouns and adjectives by adding -ich ;% 
as, cuairt, a circle ; cuaxrXich, make circidar, encircle. Neart, 
strength ; neartaich, make strong, strengthen ; obair, ivorJc ; oib- 



* The Druidical terms " Deiseil" and " Tuathal " are derived from deas, soidh „■ 
tuath, north ; and iùl, guide, course, direction ; so that deiseil properly signifies 
in a southern direction, sunward ; prospcrous. Tuathal or tuaitheal, in a north- 
crn direction, against the course of the sun, disastrous, unlucky. Tlie Druids of 
old, in making their divinations, walked thrice round their altars, beginning at 
the east side, and movingwith their right hand towards the altar, in the course of 
the sun, which they regarded as the image of God, portcnding by this ceremony a 
favourable omen, or one according to tlie will of God. If the Druid started round 
the north side, with his left hand towards the altar, the movement signified a bad 
omen, or one contrary to the will of' God, disastrous. At the present day the 
words deiseil and tuathal are used in the Highlands to signify a right and a wrong 
direction. When in eating or drinking, the breath of a person is obstructed by the 
food, and the individual coughs, the parent, or any one who may be at hand, 
exclaims " deiseil." And in approaching the grave with a dead body, the " car 
deiseil " r/ght turn, or course of the sun, is scrupulously followed.— Vide Dr 
Smith's Uistory ofthe Druids. 

t The affix -eann or -ionn appears to be derived from the verb " dcan," to 
make ; as, mair-dhean, mair-eann, making or causing to last, ìasting. C'omh- 
dhean, changing d into t, coit-cheann ; sometimes pronounced coi-dheanta, muking 
logcthcr, co-operative, common. 

i The affix -ich signifies to make. Saxon, ican, to add, to increasc. Gr. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 165 



rich, to work ; to operate. Geal, white ; gealaich, whiten. Mìn, 
plain, soft ; mìniclr, explain. Mòr, great ; mòraich, enlarge, 
amplify. 

Obs — The root sometimes undergoes changes, and letters are 
inserted or omitted before -ich, to improve the sound ; as, 
làmh, a Jiand ; \k\mbsich, handle. Socair, ease ; socraich, 
fix, establish. Daingean, strong, firm ; daìngmch, strengthen, 
fortify. 

English verhs are turned into Gaelic by adding to them the 
termination -ig, a corrupted form of -ich ; as, dealaf^, to deal. 
Depend^, to depend. Resolbh^, to resolve. Intend^, to in- 
tend. Reform«<7, to reform. Verbs of this kind are used in 
most parts of the Highlands, but particularly in Perthshire. 

OF ADVERBS. MU CHO-GHNIOMH ARAN. 

Adverbs denoting quality and manner are formed from ad- 
jectives by prefixing gu ; as, Gu-dona, badly. Gu-h-uasal, 
nobly. Gu-bòrb, fiercely. Gu-h-iongantach, wonderfullj/. — See 
page 138. 

EXERCISES ON THE IN- | CLEACHDADH AIR TEAR- 
FLECTIONS OF WORDS. | NADH NAM FOCAL. 

1. Nouns. — What Gender and Declension is — Mult, a tved- 
der ; giomach, a lobster ; cròg, apaio ; làmh, a hand ; cluaran, 
a thistle ; osag, a breeze; dàn, apoem ; fòid, a turf; cuilc, a 
reed ; fàladair, u scythe ; mil, honey ; àirc, an arlc ; luachair, 
rushes ; meacan, a root ; coille, a wood; là, a day ; diche, 
night ; òighreachd, an estate ; banais, a wedding ; èilid, a hind ; 
còir, right ; coinneal, a candle ; saighead, an arrow ; boir- 
ionnach, u woman ; mart, a cow ? — (See p. 34, 38.) 

2. What is the Genitive and Dative Singular, and Nomina- 
tive, Genitive, and Vocative Plural, Definite and Indefinite, of— 
Bòrd, a table ; saor, a wright ; òxbxì, a song ; glas, a locJc ; 
corp, a body ; seòl, a sail ; Dònullach, a Macdonald ; saoghal, 
world ; cuileag, a fiy ; tunnag, a duck ; lòn, a marsh ; nighean,* 
a daughter ; gleann, a glen ; leabhar, a book ; peacadh, sin ; 
gruagach, a maid ; làrach,« site ; teaghlach,« family; bealach, 
apass ; àlt, a joint ; clag, a bell ; tònu, a wave ; feàrg, anger ; 
preas, a bush ; meur, a finger ; sìol, seed ; tàillear, a tailor ; 
duilleag, a leaf ; cinneach, a nation ; cuilionn, holly ; nì, a 
thing ; urra, a child ; modh, mode ; bò, a cow ; caora, a sheep ; 
cù, a dog ; gobhar, a goat; fear, a man; bean, a woman ; 
sgìan, a knife; tarrang, a naiI?—(See p. 38-49.) 

* Nighean, Gen. and Dat. SiDgular, nigldnn. Sometimes spelt inghcan accord- 
ing to the Irish. 



106 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADIL 



Cìr, a comb ; braid, theft ; briosgaid, a bìscuit ; leisg, laziness ; 
trudair, a stammererj muir, sea ; druim, a back ; feòil, flesh; 
fuil, blood ; cathair, a chair ; urchair, a shot ; anail, breath ; 
athair, father ; piuthar, a sister ; smuain, a thought ; sail, a 
beam ; linne, apool; cridhe, a heart ; uisg, water ; cnàimh, 
a bone ; fìacail, a tooth ; leabaidh, a bed ; oisinn, a corner ; 
slìasaid, a thigh ? — (See p. 53-55.) 

3. Article and Noun. — What Declension, Number, Gender, 
and Case is — Am bòrd, the table. Tìr nan gaisgeach, the land 
of heroes. An t-òr, the gold. Na mìnn, the hids. Tigh na 
bantraich, the widow's house. Cuachag an fhàsaich, (the) maid 
ofthe desert. Mullach nan tdnn, (the) top of the waves. Deir- 
eadh an t-saoghail, (the) end of the world. Fuaim na h- 
osaige, (the) sound of the breeze. Glas an doruis, the door's 
locL A f hleasgaich, young man. A ghruagaeha, ( yè) maids. 
Tuarasdal na nighinn, the girl's wages ? 

4. Translate — Sùil ròin. Obair nàduir. An t-slat. Na h- 
amhaichean, Closaichean. Taobh a' chladaich. Cas a' bhuic. 
Na sùinn. Seòl na luinge. Eilean nan torc. Athair Shàuil. 
Cluas an tairbh. Sròn na muice. Làmh a' bhalaich. Tìr nam 
bèann. Tigh chon. Ubh circe. Cìrean coilich. Crò nan 
caorach. Na mìrean. Cluas na poite. Na cuilcean. Prìs an 
ime. Gnùis na h-òighe. Cnàimh na droma. An t-sràid. 
Pùnnd feòla. Iasg na mara. Lìon an ìasgair. Breacan a' 
phìobaire. Bun na stùice. Tigh Dhaibhidh. Trudair bodaich. 
Bìan na maithich. Munar gìlle. 

5. Translate — Cas na cathrach, na h-iuchraichean, teas na las- 
rach, paidhir bhròg, mullach na staidhreach, a' pheasair, an t- 
srathair, trìan na h-analach, sèula na litreach, àm dinneireach, 
bràthair athar, mac màthar, nighean peathar, guth seanar, 
pùnnd meala. 

In what Number and Case is — Cùiltean nam mearlach, the 
thieves' corners or hiding-places. Làitheanfèille,/e5^'w^ay5. 
Fasanàn nam bailtean, the fashions of towns. Tuil Noàh, 
Noah's fiood. Smuaintean dhaoine, thoughts ofmen. Uisgeachan 
na fàirge, (the) waters of the sea. Mùinntear na Fràinge, the 
people of France. Fuaim òrd, sound of hammers. Cìnn shion- 
nach, heads offoxes. Sùilean bhroc, badgers' eyes. Cas tuirc, 
a boar's foot ? 

6. Translate — Na h-ainglean. Làmh na mnà. Tigh bhan. 
Na bà. Ris a' bhrcinn. Crò nan caorach. Solus na còinnle. 
A choin, na coin sròn ri sròin. Uan Dè. Deoch an doruis. 
Dorsàn a' chaisteil. Ceòl na f ìdhle. Na gobhair. Gòibhlean 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 167 



nan tighean. Mic mhorairean. Truaill na sgine. Ceann na 
h-ùinnle. Bhruach. Slataibh. Na h-ùbhlan. — (See p. 49.) 

7. Translate — Bruach na h-aibhne, na h-aighnean. Fear 
na bàinse. Ar càirdean. Tigh do chleamhna. Cnàimh de mo 
chnàmhaibh. Còraichean na rìoghàchd. Gnìomhra na colla. 
Daoine na dùcha. Mac na h-èilde. Fìaclàn a' ghàmhna. 
Nan guaillean. Fiodh 'leapaichean. Rìghrean na talmhuinn. 
O'iche shàmhna, slèisdean.— (See p. 55.) 

8. Indeclinable Nouns. — Give the English and Nominative 
Plural of—Ag, at, breab, beach, bad, bàrc, bith, brat, brot, 
casg, ceal, cean, cead, cleas, col, conn, cron, cor, deann, drànnd, 
dreach, dùrd, eag, eas, ear, falbh, feàll, fead, fleadh, fleasg, fleòg, 
gab, gean, greànn, geòb, gìamh, gìall, goc, ìar, leòb, leòg, lear, 
leas, leth, loch, luch, luach, meang, mìagh, mìann, meas, meath, 
mort, neach, neas, plànnt, peasg, pic, rian, rìgh, sad, samh, 
sànnt, sèinn, srànn, sian, sult, sùnnt, dùrd, sgealbh, sgread, 
sgreach, stad, stamh, stàmp, taibh, tart, teach, teas, trian, tosd. 
— (See p. 48, 49.) 

9. Adjectives. — Decline and Compare — Glas, grey ; dubh, 
blacJc ; lònach, greedy ; lìonmhor, numerous ; càm, crooked ; 
lag, weak ; bog, soft; màll, slow ; cìan, distant ; teànn, tight ; 
còrr, excellent ; sona, happy ; òg, young ; maiseach, heautiful ; 
grìnn, fine ; glic, wise; luath, swift; sean, old ; fialaidh, hos- 
pitable ; duineil, manly. 

Dìleas, faithful ; ìosal, low ; reamhar, fat ; uasal, noble ; 
beag, little ; gèur, sharp ; maith, good ; mòr, great ; olc, bad ; 
còir, proper ; dogh, probable ; ionmhuinn, dear. Bòidheach, 
salach, odhar, leathan, beag, bodhar. 

10. Translate — Uan bàn, cearc ghlas, coileach dearg, cù 
ddnn, tùinn àrda, càl gòrm, a' chaileag bhòidheach, na saigh- 
dearan dearga, an t-slat 'rioghail, ris a' ghaoith mhòir, do 'n 
f hear bheag, dorus an tighe bhig, taobh na mara ruaidhe, gùn 
na mna còire, an t-snàthad bhiorach, na h-eich mhòra, na bà 
caola, ceann an f hir bhig, fuaim na trompaide deireannaich. 

Aithntean an Dè bheò, do 'n mhnaoi òig, clàrsaichean fdnn- 
mhor, cas na sgine gèire, coinneamh nam bràithrean dìleas, 
aodach an duin' uasail, laogh na bà ìdhre, prìs an èisg ghil, ìochd- 
ar a' bhùird ghuirm, crànn na luinge faide, soitheach na dibhe 
milse, tigh mo sheanar, na coilich dhubha 's ruadha, an t-slat- 
shuaicheantais 'rioghail. 

1 1. The following rendering of Latin phrases of different cases into their corre- 
sponding cases in the Gaelic will exhibit to the elassical reader, the fiectional capa- 
bilities of the language, as well as the importance and propriety of minutely 
attending to the infiections of the article, noun, and adjective in speaking and 
writing Gaelic. 

Dies irae, là na fèirge. Ovum gallinae, ubh circe. Domus 



168 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



insulae, tigh an eilein. Super flatum oceani, air osaig a' 
chuain. Super clivo principum, air slìabh nam fiath. Sicut 
tumultus undarum, mar bhruaillean thònn. In montibus altis, 
air beanntaibh àrda. Domine miracùlorum, A Thigheama 
nam feart. Apud latus rupis sub calorem solis, aig taobh na 
creige fo bhlàs na grèine. Ille divulsit hederam ab arbore, 
'spìon è an eidheann o'n chraoibh. Color parvae pennae, dath 
na h-iteige bige. Juvenis dux populi, òg cheannard an t- 
sluaigh. In fundo maris rubri, 'an zochdar na mara deirge. 

O formose puer, a ghiullain bhòidhich. O cari comites, a 
chòmpanacha gaolach. Care comes, a chòmpanaich ghaolaich. 
Septem vaccae tenues, seachd bà caola. Relinque lernen flumin- 
um et camporum, tuam uxorem et canem gracilem cervi, fàg 
Eirinn nan sruth 's nan raon, do bhean 'us cù caol an fhèidh. 
Ejus clypeus latus, terribilis in ejus manu, sgiath 'leathafi, 
fhuasach 'n à làimh. Dicessit Sorka cum nubibus noctis sicut 
ves'.igium navis ejus super facìem aequorum, theich Sorcha U 
neòil na h-òidhche mar lòrg à lùinge, air aghaidh chuaintean. 
In pollicem manùs eorum dextrae et in pollicem eorum pedis 
dextri, air òrdaig an làimhe deise agus air òrdaig an coise 
deise. 

12. Comparisonof Adjectives. — What degree of 'Compari- 
son is — Bàine, ivhiter, bàinid : guirme, bluer, guirmead : mìne, 
milder, mìnid : eòlaiche, more shilful : gra.ma.ile, firmer : duir. 
che, darker, duirchid : lugha, less, lughad : duilich, difficult, 
duilghe, dorrad : geòire, sharper, geòiread : làidir, strong, treasa, 
treasad : maith, good, feàrr, feàirrd, feothas : mò, greater, 
mòid, meud: miosa, worse, misd, olcas: ànnsa, dearer. 

13. Translate— AnTì a 's àirde. A' chlach a 's truime. An 
sgìan a 's geòire. An cù a 's luaithe. An t-sùil a 's duibhe. 
Na h-eòin a 's gile. Am fear a 's glice. An toll a 's doimhne. 
Tha so na's buige na sin. Tha è na's feàrr. So bò a 's reamhra. 
Tha am bòrd so na's leithne na 'm fear sin. Is è so rathad a 's 
cùinge. Gle bhòrb. Anabarrach teth. Is buaine dùchas na 
oilean. An gaisgeach a 's luaithe cèum. 

Tha na craobhan so na's lugha. Is lughaid a' chraobh sid. 
Gabh sin air à lughad. Tha 'n obair tròm, 's ànn air à trui- 
mead. Am fear a 's miosa dhiùbh. Is misd a' chraobh à rùsg- 
adh. Sin bìadh a 's feàrr. Is f heàirrd mì 'n deoch ud. Tha 
Tòmas a' dol am feothas. Is math sin. An ldng a 's mò. Is 
mòid an càrn a' chlach ud. Co a 's sine dhiù ? Tha m' eòlas a' 
dol am meud. An tè bu bhòi'che 's a' chuideachd. Na mic a 
b' òige. Is giorraid an ròp am mìr ud deth. Is feàirrd bràth à 
breacadh. Eu shleaaihna briathran à bheil na 'n t-ìm. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 169 



14. Compound Nouns. — Translate — Na coin-uisge. Thàinig 
na gillean-coise. Fhuair mì nead na circe-fraoich. Tha na 
mucan-mara 'rànail. Bithidh nathraichean anns na tuim- 
fhraoich. Sheòl na longan-cogaidh. Chunnaic mì lòrg nan 
con-chaorach. Prìs an ùird-chlich. Sgìath an deargain-àllt. 
Bàrr nan crànn-fìge. Thuit ceann an eich-mhaide air uachdar 
mo choise-maide. 

15. EXERCISES ON NUMERALS AND PlìONOUNS ON PAGES 70 

and 79. 

16. The Verb. — Conjugate and decline — Bi, to be ; bris, to 
breah ; dearbh, to prove ; tog,tolift; tòisichj to begin ; bogaich, 
tosoften; aom, to incline ; àrdaich, to exalt ; fìll, to fold. 

What part qf tlie Verb is — Bitheam : tha mì : bitheamaid : 
bha sìnn : bì thusa : tha ìad air bhi : bitheadh è : bithidh sìbh : 

bithibh : biodh iad : bitheamaid : bha sìnn air bhi. Am beil ? 

am bheil thu ? Cha n-'eil : nach 'eil ? mur 'eil : ged nach 'eil. 

An robh ? cha robh : ni'n robh : na'n robh : Am bi ? cha bhì : 
mur bì : bhithinn, bhitheamaid : bhitheadh è : Ma bhitheas : 
ged bhios : a bhi : air bhith or iar bhith. 

Paisgeam : tha mì 'tòiseachadh : bhris mìse : togaibh-se : tilg- 

eamaid : * tha sìnn air briseadh : tòisichidh è : Faodaidh mì 

briseadh : b' urrainn mì dearbhadh : fèumaidh sìnn tòiseachadh : 
dh'-fhaodamaid dearbhadh : is urrainn mi èirigh : dh'-fhaod- 

adh ìad tòiseachadh. An do bhris thu: cha do thilg mì: 

mur dearbh ìad. Am bris sìbh ? cha tog sìnn : na'm briseadh è. 
— — Thilginn : na'n tilgeamaid : ged bhriseadh è : ma dhearbh- 
astusa: dearbhadh : adhearbhadh: dearbhte: togail: togte. 

Tha sìnn ag òl : dh'-ìoc è : dh'-fhìll sìnn : dh'-àrdaichinn-sa : 
dh'-fhàisgeamaid : ma dh'-aomas è : àrdachadh : àrdaichte. 

Tha è mìllte : thogadh mì : dearbhar sinne : Am beil ì pòsda?t 
cha n-'eil è briste: an doghabh thu? Nach do thogadh ìadsan : 
mur tilgear sìbh — Faodaidh è bhi briste : is urrainnear mo 

bhualadh : dh'-fhèumainn a bhi dearbhte. Thilgteadh sìnn : 

na'n togteadh ìad : an càillteadh sìnn ? 

Dh'-ùraicheadh ìad : an d' àrdaicheadh sìbh ? Cha d' f hàisg- 
eadhsìnne: dh'-ùraichteadh mì. Na'n àrdaichteadh sìnn. Mur 
tilgteadh an spàin. Na'm brosnaichteadh na gaisgich. Na'n 
glaisteadh an dorus, cha n-fhaigheadh na crochairean ud a-stigh. 

17. Irregular and Defective Verbs. — Translate, and 
tell wìiat part of Speecli is — Am beii an là fuar ? 'llug a' bhd 
bhàn lao^h. Beiridh a' chaora dhubh uan. Beir air a' chat 
ghlas. Chuala sìnn an tàirneanach. Chualas guth ann an Rà- 



* For the roots and meaning of the verbs in the exercises, see p. 135, 136, &c. 
t Conirnonly written for pòsta. 



170 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



mah. Sin cluinnidh mise. Dean-sa so agus bithidh tu beò, 
'Rinn sìnn ar dleasanas. Na h-oibre cumhachdach a 'rinneadh 
annaibh-se. 'Nì mì mo ghnothach. Cha dean è olc. Dhean- 
adh tu teadhair de 'n ròinneig. Rach do 'n sgoil. Tha mì 
'dol dachaidh. An tèid sìbh leam ? Cha tèid. Theirigibh 
a-mach. An deachaidh ìad suas ? Thoiribh dhùinn port. 
Thug ì deoch dhà. Bheir mì leasan dhuit. Cha tugainn-sa 
putan àir. Na'n toirteadh fios dòibh. Cha tug ì snàthad 
dhomh-sa. 

Ruigeamaid air an aran. 'Ràinig sìnn an t-àit. Ruigear an 
àiridh ri dà là. Ach 'ruigeadh do ghaoir mo chridhe. Cia 
fhad a ruigeas tu ? Cha ruig è leas. Thigeadh è nuas. Tha 
na gobhair a' tighinn. Cha d' thàinig am brocair. C'uin a 
thig na cìbearàn? Thig ìad gu Sion le h-iolaich. Thàinig 
eadar na fir. Is math a thig am fèileadh beag 's an t-osan do 
Chailean. Na h-abair ach beag. Thuirt mi sin riut. Cha 
dubhairt mo bhean rìamh rium ach Dìa leat a Challuim. Mar 
so their thu ri clòinn Israeil. Chuala sìbh gu'n dùbhradh ris 
na sìnnsiribh, na tabhair mionnan eithich. Ged theirinn sin. 
Faic an càrn so. Faiceam à làmh gheal. Chunnacas leamsa 
fìadh. Chì thu ì air balla nan sleagh. Chì mì a' ghrìan. Faigh 
gliocas. Faigheam do lòrg. Fhuair ìad a mach thu. Fhuaradh 
na mìnn. Gheibh thu do dhuais. Cha d' fhuaradh an sprèidh. 
Cha n-f haighear focal de 'n uachdaran. 

Dh'-fhaod sìnn. Cha n'-fhèudadh è. Faodaidh or fèud- 
aidh ìad. Nach fhaodadh sìbh. Ged dh'-fhèudainn. Fèum- 
aidh mì. Na'm fimirinn. Mur fèumteadh. Ged dh'- fhèum. 

as è. Is urrainn thu. B'urrainn sìbh. An urrainn ì? 

Is èudar dhomh falbh. Is tu. Am mì ? Cha n-è. Ma's ìad. 

Gur sìbh. Mur mì. Ged nach è. Bu mhì. B'è. Am bu 
sìbh. Cha b'ìad. Mur bu sìnn. Geda b'ì. 'S mì tìnn. 'S mì 

'g èirigh. 'S è gun ich, gun oich, gun acain. Is tu a tha 

fuar. Is è nach 'eil slàn. Is è a bha luath. Is ìad nach robh 
toilichte. Is mì a bha duilich. Is è a bhitheas teth an-diugh. 
Is e-fèin a sgrìobhadh. Is mì nach bean riut. — (See p. 122- 
128.) 

Shaoil mì gu'n robh ulaidh agam, arsa Cairistine, 
'Nuair fhuaìr mì ann mo chuilidh thu, arsa Cairistine, 
Mo mhuidhe fèin 'n à ghurach * agad, arsa Cairistine, 
'S do chròg gu-ruig an uileann ànn, arsa Cairistine. 

Ars' an searmonaiche. Theab an t-each tuiteam. Theab 



* 'N à ghùrach for ann à ghùrach, cotoered dotvn / resting upon its bottom. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 171 



nach faighinn a-nùll. Theabas na gillean a chàìl. Cha deach 
theabadh rìamh a mharbhadh. — (See p. 128.) 

18. Idioms Formed by thej Verbs Dean, Rach, Ta — > 
(see p. 130.) — Translate — 1, Dean suidhe. 'Rinn an comunn 
fuasgladh òrm. Cha dean sìnn magadh òirbh. Ni sìnn fuireach 
rìs. Mur deanar àm milleadh. An deanadh tu sgrìobhadh? 
Dheanadh 'us lèughadh 'us cùnntadh. Dheanainn sùgradh 

rithe. 2. Dean Beurla. 'Rinn na fleasgaich uaill. Cha d' 

rinn mì mo dhìnneir. 'Nì sìnn aoibhneas. Dheanamaid fàis- 

neachd. Cha deanar cron sam-bith air an leanabh. 3. 4. Na 

deanaibh mo chiùrradh. 'Rinn an t-uisg ar fliuchadh. 'Rinn- 
eadh an tigh a rùsgadh. Rachadh na builg a lìonadh. Chaidh 
am bàta 'thearradh. Thèid an trèud a sgapadh. Dheanteadh 

na litrichean a shèulachadh. An tèid mo chuideachadh ? 

5. Tha cìr agam. Am beil sporan agad ? Tha uan bàn aig a' 
chaora dhuibh. Na'n robh ùin againn ? Cha n-'eil airgiod 
aca. Thàtar ag ràdh gu'n robh buitseachd aig a' bhodach mhòr. 
Tha triùir mhac aig Callum Figheadair. Bithidh pailteas 
againn. Is mairg * a dheanadh tàir air giullan òg ged bhitheadh 
è luideagach. 

19. Composite Verbs. — Translate — Tha dùil agam. Bha 
tàmailt òrm. An robh fios agad air sin? Bithidh cùimhn' 
againn. Bhitheadh uamhas orra. Am beil dòchas agad ? Is 
toigh leam Dia. Is fuath leat am peacadh. Bu mhath leam 
do chuideachadh. An còir dhùibh? Is lèir dhomh sin. Is 
gràin leis. Is feàrr dhòibh. Bu dorra leò. Nach b'fheàrr 
dhuit. Cha b'àill leò mo chumail. Ma's aithne dhùibh è. Bu 
mhòr leis sid ìarraidh. Cha bheag òirnn sin. Is mò leam. 
B'ànnsa le Seònaid. Bu dacha leam. Is beag òrm a' ghràisg. 
Is mairg a dh'-aontaìcheadh leò (See p. 132.) 

20. Irregular Infinitives. — Spell or write the Injinitive 
of— Agair, amhairc, at, bean, blais, buachaillich, càraich, cois- 
ich, creid, cuir, èisd, fàs, fan, fuirich, gabh, gin, ìnndrig, leig, 
òl, ròinn, srànn, tachrais, tairg, tàr, tionndaidh,, tilg, tionnsgain, 
tuit.— (See p. 134-137.) 

Contract and decline — Cagainn càraich, caochail, ceangail, 
coisinn, cràgair, dìrich, èirich, fòghainn, fosgail, freagair, fuas- 
gaiì, fuirich, mosgail, seachainn. — (See p. 137, &c.) 

21. What is the Etymology and English of — Abrach, adh- 



* Mairg (mairig), a noun, fem. ind., pity, a subject of regret. Mairg, an ad- 
jective, pitiable ; silly ; foolish. ' ' Sònn nàch mairg," a hero that is not despicable. — 
Ossia^. Mairg is generally combined with the verb Is, and followed by the rela- 
tive a and the third person singular of the Subjunctive Active; as, " Is mairg a 
ghabhadh cus de 'n deoch Iàidir," he is a subject o/pity that would take too much of 
strong dririk. 



172 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH, 



radh, aimhleis, anacriosd, ànnsachd. Banail, bàntrach, bealU 
tuinn, bàillidh, bìadhtachd, brògach, buachaill, buarach, bual- 
aidh, buar. Casach, caithtiche, carach, ceannard, ceòlraidh, 
clàrsair, còmhdaich, còmhradh, coinneamh. Dealgan, dìadhair^ 
donnas, doimhnead. Dònull, dùslainn. Easaontas, eascaraid, 
eòlach. Flaitheanas, fìdhlear, furanach. Geamhradh, gear- 
radaireachd. Iomchair, ìslich, lùdasach. Làmhainn, lìathag. 
Mactalla, mìlsead. Naoidhean, òlach, rìbìiinn. Seachtlnar, 
seachduin. Turcach, Eòrpach, Sasunnach, Tuathach. 

INDECLINABLE PARTS OF SPEECH. 

Translate the following sentences, and point out tJie Simple 
and Compound Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions, and In- 
terjections. 

Is ainmic a thig è. Cìan mu'n do ghineadh na cnuic. Cha 
deanainn idir è. Nis o'n bhuail an aois mì, fhuair mì gaoid a 
leanas rium. Am beil an nighean shìos ? Chaidh ì sìos do 'n 
tobar agus thainig ì nìos. Tha 'n soitheach a' cur thairis. Tha 
d' eòlas gle mhaith, càit an d' fhuair thu d' ionnsachadh ? 
Anns an sgoil. Dìreach. An dean thu Gàelig ? 'Nì cuid- 
eachd. Nach glèusd' thu ? An tig an lòng an-nochd ? Thàinig 
ì cheana. Am bi thu ri sealg ? Bithidh air uairibh. 

Ged bu toigh leam riamh ìad 's ged fhaicinn air an t-slìabh iad, 
Cha tèid mì nis 'g àn ìarraidh, o'n chàill mì trìan na h-analach. 

Dh'-fhalbh m' athair a-chìanamh. A chaoidh cha n-fhaic mì 
fear mo ghràidh. A là 's a dh-òiche, tha ì ri bròn. Bhuail è 
mì a-rìst, 's a-rithist. Bithidh na caoraich an-so an ceartar. 
'Nì mì sin am màireach. Faodaidh tu à dheanamh an-diugh. 
Ach 'rinn thu è mu-dheireadh thàll. O cheann trì làithean. O 
chìan nan cìan. Dol a-mhàin 's an-àird. Cur a-nùll 's a-nàll 
Seàll a-nuas. Am beil an t-eunadair a-stigh ? Tha è. Abair ris 
tighinn a-mach mata. Thig è air an uair. Thigeadh è air- 
bàll. An d' thàinig an seasgach {barren cattle) le bruthach ? 
Cha d' thàinig fathast. Am beil ìad fad às ? Cha n-'eil a-nis. 
C'àit am faca tu ìad ? Shuas-ùd. Cuirmu 'n cuairt am fìon. 
Cuiridh cuiridh mì gu-dearbh. Ol às do ghlaine, a dh-aon- 
bheum. Thuit am misgear an comhair a' chìnn anns an tobar. 
Cha b' iongantach leam sin idir, oir is tric à sheòrsa 'dòl clìth. 
Tha 'n t-eutroman an ìmpis sgàineadh. C'ar-son a c leig sibh an 
iuchair air chàll ? Ciamar tha sibh an-diugh ? Tha gu sùnnd- 
ach, gu'n robh math agaibh-se. Cionnas tha bean an tighe 's 
a' chlànn ? Tha ìad an eatorras, ach cha n-'eil am pàist a's 
òige ach mu làimh. Is math a mharcaicheas an rìbhinn ud. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 173 



An robh ì casa-gòbhlach air an each? Ab ab, cha robh. Cha 
mhòr nach 'eil an Caiptean Gàllda 'g am aomadh gu dol a dh- 
America. Sin sìbh a Thòmais, an ànn air America tha sìbh a' 
tighinn an-tràsda ? 

Ged tha bacadh air na h-armaibh ghlèidh mì 'n Spàinteach* chum na sèilge, 
Ge do 'rinn è òrm nì cearbach, nach do mharbh mì mac na h-èilde. 

Thug Dia na h-Israelich a-mach à tìr na h-Ephit agus à tigh 
na daorsà, do thìr Chanàain. Thoir a' pheasair às a' bhalg. 
Leig às an cat, agus bheir è às. Thig ìacl o Chròna nan nial. 
Tha fìdhlear aig an dorus, ach cha n-'eil Gàelig aige. Tha 
ceithir chòtaichean aigmo bhràthair. An gabh thu mùinntearas 
aig a' chìbear ? B' fheàrr leam gabhail agaibh-fèin. Tha 
Phcebust 's na spèuraibh ag èirigh 'n à thrìall. Thoir an t- 
srathair de'n each agus cuir air a' chromaig ì. Tha trì pùinnd 
Shasunnach agam air a' ghreusaich. An saoil sìbh an tèid agam 
air àm faighinn an-diugh ? An ànn rium-sa tha thu 'faigh- 
neachd sin ? Oire 's ànn. Is coma leam càinnt gun dealbh, leig 
dhiot do ghlagaireachd 'us thig gu do dhìnneir, oir tha 'chuid 
eile de 'n chuideachd gu suidhe sìos gu-grad. Crathamaid air 
chùl gach bròn le fònn, le ceòl 'us cànntaireachd. Is duilich 
leam gu'n deachaidh è le leathad. Is leibh-s' an leacag sìn. 
Tha 'n lòchran a' sgaoileadh soluis mu 'leapaidh Dhìarmid. 
Seall ris an roth à ta mu'n ghealaich. Cha bhi gnothach agam 
ris an fhear ud. Cuir sròn a' bhàta ris an t-sruth. Na rach leò 
seach an drochaid. Tha na mìnn timchioll an 'ighe. Chaidh a' 
bhean thun na mara, an-dèigh dhì an leanabh a chur a bhàrr na 
cìche. Biodh fhios agaibh-se gur ànn tre 'n duine so tha 
maitheanas pheacanna air à shearmonachadh dhùibh. Na leig 
an t-aodach a chòir an teine ; ma leigeas tu fllleag dheth 'n à 
chòir, is daor a phàidheas tu air à shon. Tha na beathaichean 
sin a dhìth fasgaidh, gidheadh cha n-'eil dìth feòir orra. Is 
cruaidh leinn falbh às d' easbhaidh, oir a dh' easbhaidh do cho- 
bhair-sa, tha eagal òrm gu'n tèid an gnothach so 'n ar n-agh- 
aidh. Tha à mhaise mar ghathaibh na grèine, 's à spionnadh 
a-rèir à mhaise. Feuchaibh-se gu'm bi sibh rèir a chèile. Ged 
bha mo ghaol am-measg mhìle nàmh, cha n-fhaodainn dad a 
'ràdh do thaobh na cùise. Is ann an-sud a bha 'n spealtadh, 
guin an-aghaidh guin' agus bèuin an aghaidh bèime. Dh- 
fhalbh am buachaill air tòir a' chruidh, fhuair è 'n atharla 
'ruadh agus an damh rìabhach air cùlaobh an aonaich. 'Nuair 



* Spàinteach, a Spaniard ; a fowling-piece, a rifle, a gun. 
t Phce'bus, Apollo, a poetic name for the sun, froìn the Greek word <bo\$i 
{phoibos) clear, bright. 



174 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



a thig sìbh a dh-ionnsuidh an fhearainn à bheir mise dhùibh. 
Mur cuirteadh an sìol 's an (anns arì) earrach cha bhuainteadh 
am bàrr 's an fhoghar. Gu-cìnnteach àrdaichear agus molar 
gach neach a ghluaiseas gu-dìreach còir. Na'n togteadh an 
tigh air làraich chruaidh cha tuiteadh è. Ged dh'-ìarrteadh 
ìasad de 'n chòinnleir, tha eagal òrm nach faighear è. Togar na 
siùil cho luath 's a shèideas a' ghaoth à Tuath. Nach do 
bhàthadh an seòladair ? Cha d' rinneadh sin. Mur sìninn-sa 
an ràmh d' à ionnsaidh bha è dheth. Na'n teagaisgteadh an 
t-òganach ud, is toileach, ullamh a thogadh è 'm fòghlum. Cha 
n'-eil teagamh air-bith nach deanadh è sin, ach ciamar a cheann- 
aichteadh leabhraichean dà agus a phàidhteadh an sgoil air à 
shon gun airgiod ? Cuirtear do'n sgoil è co dhiùbh agus ullaich- 
idh am Freasdal air à shon, ma bhitheas e-fèin glic, grùnn- 
dail. Am bi crìoch air briathraibh gaoithe ? no ciod a tha 
'toirt an dànadais duit, gu'm beil thu a' freagairt ? Dh'-fheud- 
ainn-se mar-an-cèudna labhairt cosmhuil rì'oh-se : na'm bìth- 
eadh bhur n-anam 'an àit m' anama-sa, dh'-fheudainn briathra 
'chur cuideachd 'n ur (ann bhur) n-aghaidh agus mo cheann a 
chrathadh ribh ach 'neartaichinn sìbh le mo bhèul agus 'lugh- 
daicheadh gluasad mo bhilean bhur doilgheas. Ged labhair mise 
cha lughdaichear mo dhoilgheas agus ma bhios mì a'm thosd 
ciod am fuasgladh à gheibh mì ? Ach a-nis 'sgìthich thu mì : 
£ sgap thu mo chuideachd uile. 

EXERCISES, CLEACHDADH, 



IN READING, TRANSLATING, 
AND PARSING, DESIGNED TO 
ILLUSTRATE THE STRUC- 
TURE AND USAGES OF THE 
GAELIC LANGUAGE. 

Parsing is the analyzing 
of a sentence, or the ex- 
planation of all its words 
according to the Definitions 
and Rules of Grammar. 

Example of a sentence 

" An t-sùil a 'nì magadh air 
'athair, a 'nì tarcuis air ùmh- 
lachd do 'mhàthair, spìonaidh 
fithich a'ghlinne a-mach ì, agus 
ithidh na h-iolairean òga suas 
ì." — Prov. xxx. 17. 



AIR RAIRTEACHADH LEUGH- 
ADHj AGUS EADAR-THEANG- 
ACHADHj SÒNRUICHTE CHUM 
RIANÀN 'us SEANACHAS NA 
gàelig A SHOILLEIREACHADH. 

Is è pàirteachadh eadar- 
dhealachadh cìallairte, no 
mìneachadh gach focail à ta 
ànn, a-rèir Co-mhìneachaidh 
agus 'Riailtean Gràmair. 
parsed in Gaelic : — 

Pronounced thus — An tùilà 
rìx mak'-ugh eìr dh'-ar, à rìi tar'- 
Tcuìsh eir àv'-lachg do và'-hàr 
spiù'-ni fi-'ich dylinn-è à- 
mach z, ak'-us i'-hi nù h-iul- 
uràn òk'-a suas ì. 



ETYMOLOGY. FOCLACHADH. 175 

An, Pùngar aonar, boireanta, anns a' char ainmeach,— Faic Pviailt 
15,taobh41. 

T-sùil, Ainmear neo- riailteach de 'n dàra teàrnadh, aonar, boireanta 
anns an ainmeach a' còrdadh ann an àireamh, gin 'us car, ris a' 
Phùngar An. Gabhar sùil an an-so air-son neach no mac. 

A, Riochdar Dàimheach, boireanta, aonar, a' còrdadh ri sùil, ann an 
àireamh, gin 'us car. 

'Nì, Gnìomhar Asdach, an treas pears' aonar de Theacail an Tais- 
beanaich o'n ghnìomhar neo-'riailteach dean, 'rinn, 'nì, deanamh, 
deanta. 

Magadh, Ainmear aonar, fearanta anns a' char chusparach, spreigte 
fo'n ghnìomhar 'nì ; no faodar Feairteach a 'ràdh ris,à bhuineas do 
'n ghnìomhar mag, mhag, magadh. 

Air, Roimhear sìngilt a' spreigeadh an ainmeir 'athair, anns an Doirt- 
ach. 

' Athair (air-son a athair), Ainmear aonar fearanta de'n dara Teàr- 

nadh, spreigte anns an Doirtach leis an Roimhear air. 
A, Riochdar Dàimheach à bhuineas do'n ainmear sùil. 
Wì, Gnìomhar Asdach, treas pears' aonar de Theacail an Taisbean- 

aich bho dean, &c. 
Tarcuis, Ainmear aonar boireanta de 'n dara Teàrnadh, spreigte anns 

a' chusparach leis a' ghnìomhar 'm. 
Air, Roimhear sìngilt, mar chaidh ainmeachadh cheana. 
Umhlachd, Ainmear èu-teàrnach, aonar, boireanta de'n cheud Teàr- 

nadh, spreigte 's an Doirtach le air ; freumhaichte bho umhal. 
Do, Roimhear singilt a' spreigeadh an Doirtich. 
'Mhàthair (air-son à mhàthair), Ainmear aonar, boireanta,de 'n dara 

Teàrnadh, spreigte 's an Doirtach le do. 
Sphnaidh, Gniomhar, an treas pears' iomadh Teacail an Taisbeanaich 

Spreigich, de'n ghnìomhar Asdach spìon, 'spìon, spìonadh, spìonta, 

no spìonte. 

Fithich, Ainmear fearanta de'n cheud Teàrnadh 's an ainmeach iom- 
adh, o fitheach, — Teàrnar e so mar theàrnar coileach. — Faic taobh 47. 

A', Pùngar aonar fearanta, anns a' char Ghinteach a' còrdadh ri 
ghlinne. 

Ghlinne, Ainmear aonar fearanta anns a' char Ghinteach agus anns 
an staid shèidichte ; sèidichidh ainmear fearanta an Gint. agus an 
Dòirt. aonar. Ainmeach aonar gleann, Iom, glìnn gleànntan no 
gleanntaichean. 

A-mach, Co-ghmomhar measgte, a' ciallachadh àite, air à chur ris a' 

ghnìomhar spìonaidh. 
/,lìiochdar pearsantail, aonar, boireanta : is è riochdar focal à ghnàth- 

aichear an àit ainmeir agus cuirear an-so e, an àit sàil. 
Agus, Naisgear sìngilt, a' nasgadh ri chèile an dà ghnìomhar spìonaidh 

agus ithidh 's an aon Tìm agus 's an aon Mhodh. 
Na, Pùngar iomadh, boireanta, 's an ainmeach, a' còrdadh ri iolairean. 
H-iolairean, Ainmear iomadh, boireanta, de' n dàra Teàrnadh 's an 

ainmeach, agus cùisear do 'n ghnìomhar ithidh ; o iolair freumh- 

aichte bho iùl, adhar. — Teàrnte mar tha ìasgair, — Faic taobh 53. 
Oga, Buadhar iomadh, de 'n cheud Teàrnadh anns a' chèum Sheasach 

a' còrdadh ri h-iolairean ; coimeasaichte òg, òige, oigid, òigead. 
Suas, Co-ghnìomhar sìngilt a' cìallachadh àite. 
/, Riochdar pearsantail 's an treas pears' aonar boireanta, a' riochd- 

achadh sùil. 



176 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Example of a sentence parsed in English : — - 
Thigeadh a' Bhìnnhheul a's àillidh, 
Mar bhogha braoin, a-nàll 's a' ghleànn, 
'Nuair dh'-fheuchas è 'cheann 's an àirde, 
'S a' ghrìan a' dol air chùl nam beann. — Ossian. 

Pronounced thus — Hih'-ùgh a Vinn'-vel ùs àilli, mùr vo'- 
yà braoin a-ndùll sà yleànn, nùar yech'-us e %edùnn sùn àirje, 
sàyrlùn à dòll eìr %ùll nùm hedùnn. 

Literally translated. — Let Vinvela come, who is most beau- 
tiful, like the rainbow over in the glen, when it shows its head 
on high (on the height), and the sun going behind the hills 
(on the back of the hills), 

Thigeadh, a verb, the third person singular imperative of the irregular 

intransitive verb thig, thainig, tighinn. 
A\ the nominative singular feminine of the article An, agreeing with 

Bhìnnbheul. 

Bhìnnbheul, a proper noun feminine, the nominative to thigeadh. — 
Bìnnbheul signifies a melodious mouth; a sweet poetess ; from bìnn 
and beul. 

A, a relative pronoun, feminine, relating to Bìnnbheul. 

'S (is) a verb, the third person singular, present indicative of the de- 
fective neuter verb is, bu. 'S is contracted here for is after the 
vowel a, which is a relative pronoun. — See p. 66, No. 50. 

Aillidh, an indeclinable adjective, in the superlative degree ; a pre- 
dicate of the noun Binnbheul. When an adjective forms a part of 
the predicate, it does not agree with the noun of which it is predi- 
cated in any respect. The superlative a's àillidh is formed accord- 
ing to No. 50, p. 66— See also No. 46, p. 60 ; and No. 9, p. 181. 

Mar, a simple preposition, governing the nominative of a noun de- 
finite, and the dative of an indennite noun. 

Bhogha, an indeclinable noun, masculine, singular number, dative 
case, governed by mar. Nouns ending in a vowel terminate alike in 
every case of the singular. 

Braoin, a noun, singular, masculine gender, of the first declension, in 
the genitive case governed by bogha ; nominative braon. 

A-nàll, a compound adverb denoting place. 

P S (anns), a simple preposition contracted for anns- It is commonly 
joined with the article a', na, thus, 'sa' 'sna, or sna. 

A\ the dative singular of the article An, governed by '5, and agreeing 
in number, gender, and case with ghleann. 

Ghleann, a noun, masculine, of the first declension, singular number, 
governed in the Dat. case by 's. A'ghleann aspirated by Rule 7, p. 38. 

'Nuair* an adverb denoting time, from an, uair. 

Da'-fheuchas, a verb in the active voice, second conjugation, and third 
person singular, future tense subjunctive, of the transitive verb 
feuch, dh , -fheuch,feuchainn, &c DK-fheuchas is used here as pre- 
sent tense — See Fut, p. 111. — Sy.ntax, Rule XIV. 



* The particle a is generally placed between 'Wnair and the verb which follows 
it; as, " 'Nuair a thig è." — Vide Syntax, Rule XI. 



ETYMOLOG-Y. 



FOCLACHADH. Wl 



E, a personal pronoun in the third person singular, masculine, used 
instead of òogha. 

'Cheann (for à cheann), a noun, singular, masculine, of the first de- 
clension, in the accusative case governed by the verb dh'-fheuchas. 
Nom. pl. cìnn. It is aspirated by the possessive a, which is sup- 
pressed after the vowel e, and an apostrophe is put in its place. 

'iS (anns), a simple preposition contracted for anns. 

An, the dative singular, feminine, of the article An. — See p. 36. 

Airde, an indeclinable noun, singular, feminine, from àrd. 

'S (agus), a simple conjunction, contracted for agus. 

A \ the nominative singuiar, feminine, of the article An, agreeing with 

fkrìan, in gender, number, and case, and aspirating it according to 
tule 13, p. 40. 

Ghrian, a noun, singular, feminine, nominative case of grian, gen. 
grèine : in the aspirated form, a definite noun, feminine aspirates 
the nominative, dative, and accusative singular. — See p. 41. 

A'dol, a verb, the present participle of the intransitive irregular verb 
rack, chaidh, iheid, dol, &c. — See p. 117. 

Air, a simple preposition governing the dative ca-se of nouns. 

Chùl, a noun, singular, masculine, of the first declension, governed 
and aspirated in the dative by air, from cùl, gen. cùil. Air chùl 
may be called a compound preposition. 

Nam, the genitive plural of the article An. The form nam is used 
before nouns beginning with b,f, m,p. 

Beann, a noun feminine, governed in the genitive plural by cuL Nom- 
inative singular bèinn of the second declension, formed from the 
genitive singular of beànn of the first, which is rarely used in the 
singular : plural beanntan, beanntaichean^ beannàn. 

I. When one Noun governs another in the Genitive, the Article is prefixed only 
to the Noun govemed in the Genitive case. AMien two or more Nouns, not sig- 
nifying the same person or thing, are governed by a preceding Noun, the last only 
is generally put in the Genitive. — See Syntax, Rule XVI. No. 2. 

Tdllna glaise, (the) hole of the lock. Lili nan gleann. Ceann 
a' bhùird. Tigh nam ban. Prìs na peasrach. Sùil a' bhalaich 
mhòir. Suaran nan ldng. Clànn an t-saoghail so. Tha mo 

chiabh fliuch le braonaibh na h-diche. Piuthar bean a' 

ghobhainn, the smith's wife's sister (notmna). IVlac piuthar mo 
mhàthar. Tigh nighean Thdmais. A' gabhail òran an t- sàmh- 
raidh. Am-measg clànn nan daoine. A' sìneadh làmh na h- 
airce do chridhe na circe.* 

II. The Genitive an of the Article is prefixed to the Genitive Singular of Noims 
masculine, heginning with a vowel, and with d-, /-, l-, n-, r-, s-, t-, sc-, sg-, sm-, 
sp-, st-. — See p. 36. 

Taobh an ùillt, (the) side of the streamlet. Tuarasdal an 
òglaich 'us gainnead an airgid. Tha do dhàn mar aiteal an ear- 
raich. Tha prìs an arain a' dol an lughad. Fear an ime mhòir 

's è a's binne glòir. Cuir an t-iarunn air uachdar an innein. 

Adharc an daimh dheirg. Is mòr duais an fhir a dh'-èisdeas 
gu-cùramach ri briathraibh an t-Soisgeil. Fhuair mì lòrg an 
* Cridhe na circe, the heart of the hen ; a sordid person ; a niggard. 

M 



178 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



laoidh, ann an coire gòrm an fhàsaich. Bàs an naoidhein. 
Chunnaic sìnn lùchairt an rìgh. Chuir e 'n t- airgiod ann an 
seòmar an sgiobair. Trèig comunn an sgeigeire sin gun dàil. An 
d' fhuair thu nead an smùdain ? Iompaichear anamannan 
dhaoine tre obair an spioraid 'naoimh. C'uin a chluinneas sìnn 
fuaim an stuic ? Cha chlùinn sìbh è gus am pillear o shealg an 
tuirc. 

III. A Possessive Pronoun prefixed to the Noun governed in the Genitive ex- 
cludes the Articlefrom both Nouns.— See Syntax, Rule XVI. 

Guth mo ghràidh, (the) voice ofmy love. Is è so tìr ar dùchais. 

Càit am beil nighean do pheathar a' fuireach ? Ann an tigh à 

seanar. Nach bòidheach falt à chìnn ? 'S ann air à bhòidh- 

chead gu-dearbh. Nach 'eil faireachadh bhur cogais fèin ag 

ìnnseadh dhùibh gur còir an t- olc a sheachnadh ? Cha mhair 

daoine cealgach leth àn làithean. Fòirneart bhur làmh. Diol- 

aidh è fuil à sheirbhiseach. Tha deagh 'rùn bhur coimhear- 

snach agaibh-se. 

IV. The Genitive Plural preceded by the Article, or the Possessives à (her), ar, 
bhur, am, an, is always plain. Without the Article, or preceded by the Possessives 
mo, do, à (his), it is aspirated. 

Clànn nan daoine. Tigh nam ban. Sionadh nan còrn. Cùing 
dhamh. Nimh 'nathraichean. Thainig mo dhithis mhac. Tha 
triùir ghillean 's a' bhaile so. A' glèusadh sheannsairean Buc- 
uill a' dùnadh ar bròg. Is mòr càll ar coimhearsnach. An è 
so fearann bhur peathraichean ? O dhùbhra dùint' àn cruachan 
fèin. Cùl mo dhòrn. Ri taobh shruth gàireach na h-diche. 'llìnn 
thu gnothach do chàirdean gu-nàdurra, dìleas. Dh'-fhàg an 
saighdear rathad à chompanach. Togail àn gòrm shùl tlàth. 
Cha chluinnear annad ni's mò, fuaim chlàrsairean agus 'luchd- 
ciùil agus phìobairean agus thrompadairean ; agus cha n-f haigh- 
ear annad ni's mò fear-ceird de ghnè ceirde sam-bith agus cha 
chluinnear fuaim cloiche-muilinn annad. 

V. The Genitive Pluràl of a Definite Noun is formed and distinguished by the 
Genitive Plural of the Article, whether the Noun be like its Nominative Singular 
or Nominative Plural in -an, -a, or -e. 

Eòin nan tdnn, the birds of the waves. Bèul nan òran. Air 
mullach nam beann àrda. Caoimhneas blàth nan cailleagan. 
Thuit è le Oscar nan carbad. Gu sealgaireachd nam beallaich- 
ean. Tilgear na h-aingidh* bun os-ceann, ach seasaidh tigh 
nam f ìrean. Ithidh anam nam feàlltair ainneart. Chì mì ain- 
nir nam màll rosga gorma. Cruth Lòduinn nan gòrm lànn. 

Fosgail talla cìar nan stoirm, 

Thigeadh bàrda le toirm nan dàn. — Ossian. 

* Aingidh, adj. wicked, nefarious: used substantively, and alike in both numbers. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 17 £ 



VI. The Genitive Plural without the Artiele is determined by position, when the 
noun begins with a vowel or an unaspirable consonant, that is, the Possessor or 
Noun governed in the Genitive is always placed after its regimen or Noun govern- 
ing it. 

The Genitive Singular of Indeclinable Nouns is determined by position, when 
the Genitive a' or na of the Article is not prefixed, and when the Genitive an is pre- 
fixed to an Indeclinable Noun.— See No. II. and p. 36.— Syntax, Rule XVI. No. 3. 

Obs.— The mark ( a ) distinguishes the genitive when the noun wants final or 
initial infiection. It is written over the last vowel of the genitive singular, and over 
the initial vowel of the genitive plural indefinite. 

Air sgìathaibh ìolairean, on eagles' wings. Mòran ùisgeachan. 
Fuil f hàidhean agus (fuil) c naomh. Feadh stùcàn 'us bhacàn. 
B'ì sin a' mhaoisleach luaineach feadh òganàn. Thigibh agus 
cruinnichibh sìbh-fèin chum suipeìr an Dè mhòir, chum gu'n 
ith sìbh feòil 'rìghrean agus feòil àrd-cheannard agus feòil 
dhaoine cumhachdach agus feòil èach agus na muinntir a shuidh- 
eas orra, agus feòil nan uile dhaoine, araon shaor agus dhaor, 
araon bheag agus mhòr. Thug è dhomh eitean cnò. Is math 
a b'aithne do Chèasar òrdugh feàchd. Siti rùn cridhe ghràdh- 
aich. Cheannaich è glèus gunnà air leth-chrun. Dh'-èirich 
Tearlach òg aig camhanaich an là. Ciod a thàinig ri sùil an 
daimh dhùinn. Tha meàll teinè air a' bhèinn. 'S è so uair- 
eadair an ìasgaìr chìataich. Is beag òrm rìaghailtean an duine 
shànntaich sin. Na dean cron air cuid neàch eile. 

VII. The Nouns cruinne, fàsach, taiamk, tònn, though Masculine in the Nom- 
inative, are frequently construed with the Genitive Singular Feminine of the 
Article. Boirionnach, capull, mart are applied to females, but construed with the 
Article and Adjectives like Masculines. 1 Sgalag, a man-servant, is construed as 
a Feminine Noun. Some Nouns, such as àireamh, beachd, cailin, eartaid, mlos, 
nead, salm, teaghlach, tìm, tobair, &c. are construed as Masculines in some 
countries, and as Feminines in others. 

Chum gu'n dean ìad ge-b'-e, ni à dh'-àithneas è dhòibh air 
aghaidh a' chruinne-chè. Co is urrainn ìmeachd gu crìch na 
cruinne? Is fheàirrd an talamh tioram 'uisgeachadh. A 
thaobh na talmhainn, aisde 2 thig aran agus fuidhe (fodha) tidnn- 
daidhear suas amhuil teine. Thubhairt thu gur fàsach falamh 
an tìr so. Nach cual' thu mu chuachaig na fàsaich ? Tha 'n 
cuan gàrbh a' bèucadh 'us cobhar na tuinne 'tilleadh o'n tràigh. 
Thainig am boirionnach mòr le crios na sgalaige bige. Fàg 
thusa boineid a' bhoirionnaich mhòir. Thug an earraid bhuidhe 
sumanadh do Ghilesbig Friseal. Ceann na teaghlaich so. 



1 In the Scriptures we find instauees of feminine nouns construed with the geni- 
tive singular masculine of an adjective ; as, oisinn làchairt mhòir for Ihchairt 
mòire^ Rè àine bhig for ùine bige—Faxc Salm cxliv. 12. Taisb. xx. 3. 

2 Aisdefor às. Anuncommon solecism occurs in this passage (from Jobxxviii. 51, 
— a pronounof the feminine gender represents talamJi, which is always masculine in 
the nominative. We can see no reason for altering the gender of the noun on ac- 
count of its being construed as a i'eminine noun in one of the oblkjue cases. — See 
Gen. iii. 17, 1.9. Similar violations of the rules of grammar are found in the Latin ; 
as, Vel virtus tua, vel vicinitas quod ego in aliqua parte amicise puto.— Tbr. 



180 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



VIII. The Adjective is generally placed after its noun. An Adjective in the 
Predicate of a verb, is placed after the subject or nominative when it is employed 
with the verb Bi or Dean, and before the subject with the verb Is. In eithef of 
these positions the Adjective is always indeclinable. A series of Adjectives often 
accompany the same Noun with a beautiful effect, especially in poetry. SeveraJ 
Adjectives of one syllable precedeand aspirate their Nouns, or other words to which 
they are prefixed, but in this position the Adjective has no infiection except aspira- 
tion. Adjectives are often used as Adverbs with and withont gu before them. — 
See Syntax, Rule VII. 

'Labhair a' ghruagach dhdnn ris an òigear ghrìnn. Tha fraoch 
groganach a' fas air gualainn a' chnuic mhòir. Gabh an aire 
de làmhainnibh geala na mna còire sin. Iarraidh cluas nan 
daoine glice eòlas. Fuilingidh an t-anam dìomhanach ocras. 
Molaibh an Tighearn le ciombalaibh fònnmhor agus àrd- 
fhuaimneach. 

Bi'idh anluaidh ghlas 'na deamiaibh 'us siubhal rèith aig conaibh seanga, 
'S an damh dònn a' sileadh fala, 's àbhachd aig na fearaibh glèusda. 

Tha 'n là so fuar. Is fuar an là so. Tha do ghruaidh 
dearg. Is bìnn ceileir nan eun. Tha a* mhin daor. Is cruaidh 
na clachan sin. Dean an t-uisge teth. 'Rinneadh an lobhar 
glan. Is mòr Diana nan Ephèsianach. 'S fèurach, craobhach, 
luideach, gaolach, an tìr fhaolaidh, sheannsail. Do shùil shuil- 
bhear, shocrach, mhòdhar, mhireagach, chòmhnard, 's ì meal- 
lach. Fàilt ort fèin a mhòr-thir 1 bhòidheach anns an òg-mhios 
Bhealltuinn. Tha 'n darag sìnte, seargte fo ghàrbh ghaoith. 
Is è urram dhaoine òga an neart agus is è maise sheann daoine 2 
an ceann lìath. Ainnir nam màll 'rosga gorma. Air dubh 
dhruim na mara fo nial. Dh'-ìmich an sàr cheannard, le cruaidh 
f harum, mar mhòr thorc a' chuain a' tarruing nam fuar thònn 'n à 
dhèigh. 

Dh'-èirich maduinn le sòlas còrr (great), 
Chunnacas monadh thar lìath cheann nan tònn ; 
An gòrm chuan fo aoibhneas mòr, 
Na stuaidh fo chobhar ag aomadh thàll, 
Mu charraig mhaoil 'bha fada uainn.— -Ossian. 
Mìos lusanach, mealach, fèurach, failleanach, blàth, 
'S è gu-gucagach, duilleach, luachrach, dìtheanach, lurach, 
Beachach, seilleanach, dearcach ; ciùrach dhealtach, thròm thà, 
'S è mar chùirneanàn daoimein bhratach bòillsgeil air làr. 



1 A noun and an adjective prefixed to it, are often combined by a hyphen, and 
represent one complex idea ; in which case, the accent is generally placed on the 
antecedent term when the succeeding term is a monosyllable ; as, mòr'-thir, a 
large territory, a continent. Og'- mhios, young month, the month ofjune. Deadh'- 
ghean,/awn<r. Droch'-bheart, an evil deed, vice. Inmanywords, the adjective 
and noun coalesce and form one compact word ; as, òigear, a young man, from 
òg-fhear or fear òg. Morair, a great man, a lord ; from mòr-fhear. Garbhlach, 
a stony or rugged place ; from garbh-chlach, a rough or large stone. 

In several Compounds of this description each term retains its own primitive 
accent, especially when the second term is a dissyllable or governed in the geni- 
tive ; as, liath-fheasgar, grey evening, twilight. Leac-ùrlair, a ftoor-flag.—Sw 
Syntax, Rule XVI. No. 5. 

2 A noun beginning with d, s, or t, is plain after seann. And c, g, are for the 
most part plain after droch j as, droch cridhe ; droch gille. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 181 



IX. The Adjective in comparison is frequently connected with its Noan by the 
verb is, bu, preceded by the relative a. Both the Comparative and Superlative 
degrees are formed by the First Comparative and Is, Bu, preceded by A. When 
an Adjective preceded by a's, is, ab', or bu, stands between two Nouns ; the 
succeeding Noun, which is always a property or quality of the antecedent Noun, is 
qualified by the intermediate Adjective, and the relation between the two Nouns 
is expressed in English by the preposition of, and in Latin by Cujus, Quorum, or 
by the genitive òf the Adjective and succeeding Noun.— See p. 66. Svntax, 
RuleXXII. 

An làmh a's gile, the whitest hand ; literally, the hand whick 
is whitest An tì a's àirde. A'chlach a's mò. An t- sùil a's 
guirme. Am fear bu shine. An tè bu bhreagha. Am mac à 
b' òige. Am bìadh à b' f heàrr à f huair mì riabh. 'Nì neach 
a's sine seirbhis do'n neaeh a's òige. 

Am fear a's 1 laige làmh, the man op the weahest hand, vir 
cujus manus est infirmissima, or vir infirmissimce manus. A 
shiol Oisein 2 a's trèine làmh. Air làithibh nàn sònn a b' àirde 
gnìomh. Air Larmon mòr a's uaine tdm. A 'righ innis a's 
fuaimeara càrn. Thuit an t-òg bu chaoine snuadh. Greidhean 
bu gheal cèir. Gunna bu mhath glèus. 'Fhir a's cèillidh 
càinnt. A thrìath mhòir a's gèire cruaidh. Sàr shiol Thrèun- 
mhoir a's colgaiche cruth. Trìath nan tòrr bu chòrr 'an 
eòmhrag. 

Thig-sa 'shiol nan trìath a- nàli; 

Tha 'n didhche mu chàrn, 's ì cìar, (darlc) 

Clùinn-sa guth a's gloine fdnn ; 

O òigh nan tònn a's fuaire fead. — Ossian. 

X. Numerals are prefixed to their Nouns. In compound numbers the Noun is 
placed after the first term of the Numeral. The Noun is always in the singular 
after dà, Jichead, ceud, mìle, muillean, whether simple or cembined with other 
numerals.— See Syntax, Rule XXI. 

Tha trì dorsàn agus ochd luidheirean air a' chaisteal ud. 
Cha robh ach aon sùil mhòr ann an ceann Pholiphèmuis, famh- 
air bòrb à bha ann an Sicilia, taobh ìar-dheas na h-Eudailt. 
Geàrr sìos an dà chraoibh sin, agus suidhich flchead craobh òg 
'n àn àit Sè làithean cruinnichidh sìbh è, ach air an t-seachd- 
amh là bithidh an t-sàbaid. Agus dh'-ith clann Israeil am 



1 The verb Is alone is sometimes used in this construction, — a mistake into which 
persons writing the language from the ear are apt to fall, the sound of a's and 
being alike ; as, ' ' air a' ghèig is àird' a mhothaicheas è," for air a' ghèig a's aird', 
&c, on ihe Mgliest branch which he sees. — D. Macintyre's Summer. When tliis 
eomparison is put in the past tense, the relative a becomes quite audible, and must 
always be prefixed to the verb of the comparative when tlie adjective begins with a 
vowel ; as, air a' ghèig a b' àirde, &c— See p. 66, Note §. 

2 Oisean gen. Oisein, Ossian, the Homer of the Highlands, son of Fionn or 
Fionnghal, Fingal the Caledonian king and of Roscrana. ' The works of Ossian 
excited the astonishment of every cultivated mind in Europe, and the most en- 
lightened critics have placed the ancient Bard of Caledonia among the first poets of 
any age.' His poems, not surpassed byanyin Greek or Latin, have been trans- 
laied into the English, French, German, Itahan, and Latin languages. 



182 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Mana dà fhichead bliadhna. Is è omer an deicheamh cuid do 
ephah. Agus timchioll na rìgh-chaithreach mu n-cuairt bha 
ceithir chaithrichean fichead ; agus air na caithrichibh chunnaic 
mì ceithir seanaire fichead 'n àn suidhe air àn sgeadachadh le 
culaidhibh geala. 

'S ìad làith' ar bliadhna mar-an-cèudn', trì fìchead bliadhn* 's a deich, 
No fèudaidh bhi le tuilleadh neart, ceith'r fichead bliadhn' do neach. 

XI. The Relatives a, am, an, nach, na precede their verb, whether they be in 
the Nominative or Aecusative case. The Interrogatives Co, Cia, Ciod, precede the 
Prepositions which govern them. The Compounds Coairbith, Ciod air bith, Ge 
b'e, $c, precede their Nouns and Verbs. Cia prefixed to an Adjective or Adverb 
signifies lww. The Relative a is sometimes suppressed before its verb. — See p. 
73, 74, and Syntax, Ruie XI. 

Am fear à cheanglas is è à shiùbhlas. Am fear à dh'-ìmich 
an cruinne cha d' fhiosraich è co-dhiùbh a b* fheàrr luathas no 
maille. Bu mhath an deoch a thug thu dhomh. So làmh nach 
bean riut. Am fear aig àm bi ìm, gheibh è ìm. Co ris a 
shàmhlaicheas mì rìoghachd Dhe'? Tha ì cosmhuil ri taois 
ghoirt a ghabh bean agus a dh'-fholaich ì ann an trì tomhas- 
aibh mine gus an do ghoirticheadh an t-iomìan. Cia as a thig 
gliocas agus c'àit am beil ionad na tuigse? Ciod gus an tig 
a.' chùis so ? Ciod air am beil bunaitean na talmhainn air àn 
daingrieachadh, no co a leag a* chlach-oisinn ? Cia'n rathad à 
ghabh è. Cia àillidh do chosan ann am brògaibh a c nighean 
'rìoghail. Dh'-fhdillsicheadh mì dhòibh-san nach robh 'g am 
fharraid ; fhuaradh mì leò-san nach robh 'g am ìarraidh. Co 
air-bith a c ni murt no meirle dìtear a chum peanais è le lagh 
na dùcha so. Och nan ochan cha tìll na dh^-fhalbh gu-bràth. 

C'àit am bheil am bòrd 'bha fìal, ' bheireadh do gach acrach bìadh ? 
'Sgapadh ìad le fòirneart gèur, 's cha n-'eil aon an-diugh le chèil'. 

XII. The Demonstratìves So, Sìn, Sid, Sud, Ud, require the Article with their 
Nouns. So, sin are placed both before and after their Nouns. Sid, sud, always 
precede their Nouns, and ud always follows its Noun. So, sin, sid, sud, are often 
joined with Co, Cìod, and with è, ì, ìad, without the article or a verb espressed.— 
See p. 76. 

Na h-eòin sin. An t-ùrlar tioram so. Tog na leabhraichean 
sin. Tha iteag dhearg ann an sgìath na circe bàine sin. Is 
è so an carbad mòr. Sin an t-òrd beag, there is or that is the 
small hammer. Sin agad eaglais na sgìreachd so. Co a dh'- 
f huaigh na còtaichean sin ? Ciod a thuirt am fleasgach ud riut. 
Sid an deoeh mhilis nach cuireamaid ualnn. Sud an làmh a 
thogas an t-sleagh. Co so a ta 'teachd o Edom? Co sin? 
Tha mise. Ghabh aon d' à laochaibh truas dhiom maoth (is 
mì maotb), b' è sin à shaor mì o bheum na sleàgh. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 183 



A 'Righ na Feinne 1 thoir dhòibh do chòmhnadh, 
Do 'n t-sean 's do'n òg so 'n ad làthair. 

Shèid adharc Fhìnn, 2 ghrad-chlisg an damh 

Ciod so chlùinn 3 mì ?— Teich do'n fhàsach.— Oss. Diarmad. 

XIII. Both the Subject and Object of a Verb are generally placed after it, but 
the Nominative stands between the Verb and its objeet. 

1. When the language is solemn, emphatic, or poetic, the Subject or Object often 
precedes its verb. An Interrogative Pronoun always precedes its verb. 

2. In the Compound Tenses the Subject is placed between the Auxiliary and the 
Infinitive or Participle. 

Geuraichear ìarunn air iarunn agus geuraichidh duine gnùis 
à charaid. Ge b'e ghleidheas craobh-fhìge, ithidh è d' à tor- 
adh, mar sin esan à dh'-f heitheas air à mhaightear gheibh è 
urram. Cha duine Dìa gu'n deanadh è brèug, no mac duinè 
gu'n gabhadh è aithreachas ; an dubhairt è agus nach dean è ? 
agus an do 'labhair è, agus nach coimhlion se è ? 

1. Thubhairt Iacob àn athair riu, thug sìbh uam-sa mo 
chlànn : Ioseph cha mhaireann agus Simeon cha mhaireann, 
agus Beniamin bheir sìbh air-falbh. Co thèid suas gu slìabh 
an Tighearna agus co sheasas 'n à ionad naomh-san ? Esan aig 
am beil làmhan neochiontach agus cridhe glan, nàch do thog 
'anam ri dìomhanas 'us nàch do mhìonnaich chum ceilge. 

Agus mar a dh'-eadar-mhìnich è dhùinn, mar sin bha è, 
mise chuir è rìs ann am àit, esan chroch è. Agus chuir 
Pharaoh (Fàro) teachdair uaith agus ghairm è Ioseph agus thug 
ìad le cabhaig a-maeh às an t-sloc è agus bheàrr sè e-fèin agus 
mhùth è 'èudach agus thàinig è steach a dh-ionnsuidh Pharaòh. 
Cha tog fiodhal no clàrsach, pìob, tàileasg no ceòl mì. 

Dhiùlt a' cheòlraidh an còmhradh bìnn, 
'Us clìù nan trèun cha n-èirich leam. 

2. Tha mìse 'lèughadh. Tha na mnathan sin a' tachras. Bha 
'n ainnir ud a' tuireadh. Bithidh an t-àllt so ag at air uairibh. 
Nach bi ìadsan ag òl. Am beil na rìbhinnean a' gàireachd- 
aich ? Nach robh na fir a' snàmh ? Faodaidh tusa tighinn a- 
stigh. Cha n-fhaod mì gluasad. Is urrainn an searrach èirigh 
an-diugh ach cha b' urrainn è carachadh an-dè. Dh'-fhaodainn 
sgrìobhadh a dh-ionnsaidh mo bhràthar agus bu chòirdhà-san 
sgriobhadh cuideachd. Dh'-fhèumainn gèilleadh, gidheadh 



1 A 'Righ na Feinne, O king of the Fingalians. Feinn, f., a collective noun, 
gen. Feinne, the followers and descendants of king Fingal. Fìann or Fìannaidh, 
one of the Fingalians. " Oisean an-dèigh na Feinne," Ossian, the last of tfie 
Fingalians.—Gaelic Prov. This Highland race of brave and noble warriors is 
commonly called " Na Fìannaibh " by many of the Highland people who, in their 
mythology, represent them as men of a gigantic stature and of supernatural 
strength, something like the Cyclops of Sicily.— 2 Fh'mn gen. of Fionn, Finga). 
— 3 Chlùinn for chuala, fromclùinn, tohear. 



184 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



cha b' urrainnear a' chùis ud a shocrachadh. Tha 'n obair m 
deante. Bha dorsàn na h-eaglais dùinte. Bha na caoraich air 
àn rùsgadh agus 'reieeadh an olainn air cdig tasdain dèug a' 
chlach. Bithidh na ballachan so air àn gealaehadh gu-grìnn 
leis an aol sin. 

XIV. In the Compound Tenses formed by the Verb Bi and the Infìnitive of a 
Transitive Verb, tfae Object, when it is a Noun, is put in the Genitive Case. 

Bì-sa 'Honadh a' bhuilg mhòir agus bitheadh ìadsan a' tional 
nan dearcagan dearga. Tha 'ra feòladair a' feannadh an tairbh 
'riabhaich. Bha na clèirich a* cùnntadh an airgid ghil, agus an 
dorsair a' trusadh a' chopair. Nach 'eil an cù a' ruith na circe 
duibhe ? An robh an naoidhean a' deoghal na cìche ? Faodaidh 
sìbh a bhith 'fosgladh an doruis bhig. Dh'-fhaodadh na clach- 
airean a bhith 'snaidheadh nan clachan glasa. Cha b'urrainn è 
bhith *g òl an fhiona. Fèumaidh an gille bhith 'g aiseag an 
t-sluaigh. Oir bheir an Tighearn gliocas; às à bhèul thig 
eòlas agus tuigse. Tha è 'tasgaidh suas gliocais fhallain air-son 
nam firean ; is sgìath è dhòibh-san à ghluaiseas gu h-ionraic. 
Tha è a' coimhead cèumanna a' bhreitheanais agus a' dìonadh 
slighe à 'naomh. Is mise an Tighearn cruith-fhear nan uile 
nìthe, à ta 'sìneadh nan nèamhan a-mach a'm aonar ; à ta 'sgaoil- 
•eadh na talmhainn 'leam fèin. Taim 1 a' dealbhadh an t-so- 
luis agus a* cruthachadh an dorchadais, a* deanamh sìthe agus 
a' cruthachadh dòlais ; tha mise an Tighearn a' deanamh nan 
nithe so uile. 

'S a' mhadumn chiùin ghil 'an àm dhomh dùsgadh, 

Aig bun na stùice 2 b' è 'n sùgradh leam, 

A' chearc le sgiùcan a' gabhail tùchain 3 

'S an coileach cùirteil a' dùrdail crom ; 

An dreathan sùrdail, 's à ribheid chiùil aige, 

A' cur nan smùid deth gu-lùthor bìnn ; 

An druid s' am brù-dhearg le mòran ùinich, (bustle) 

Ri ceileir 4 sùnntach bu shiùbhlach rànn. — D. Macintyre. 

XV. When one Verb governs another in the Infinitive, the Object is put in the 
Accusative when it is placed before the Infinitive, and in the Genitive when plaeed 
after it. In the Potential Mood both the Subject and Object stand between the 
Infinitive and the Auxiliaries faodaieth, is urrainn>Jèumaidh, Sfc. 

Tha mì 'rùnachadh tigh ùr a thogail. An tèid thu dh-ìas- 
gach a' bhradain ? Thig dhuit do 'leasan ìonnsachadh na's 
feàrr. Tha Coinneach a' dol a dh-ionnsachadh na tàillearàchd. 
Faodaidh tu an sìol a chur. Thàinig a' bhean a cheannach sìl 
ùir. Cha n-urrainn na gillean an t-each f ìadhaich sin a cheann- 

1 Taim is a contracted form of ta mì, or tha mì, I am. 

2 dig bun na stìtice, at the foot of the rock.— Stìlic or Stuc signifies a jutting 
hUls a cliffor pinnacle ofarock. 

3 A' chearc, $c. the hen by cackling taking a eooing, the plaintive moox-hen 
raisins? her cooing note. Tùchan signifies also a hoarseness of the throat. 

4 Ri ceileir, <§ c. engaged in joyful warbling of flowing verse or song. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 185 



sachadh. Am beil ìad a dol a reic an eich ghlais? Fèumaidh 
sìnn uile an saoghal so fhàgail. Am beil thu 'dol a chruinn- 
eachadh nan uan Sasunnach ? Mur faodainn an teine 'bheoth- 
achadh. B'èiginn dùinn an àmraidh dhearg a ghlasadh. An 
deachaidhj na gruagaichean a bhogadh an lìn ? 'N àm 1 do 
dhaoine dol 'n àn èideadh los na rèubalaich a thilleadh. An ur- 
rainn thusa le rànnsachadh Dìa f haghail a-mach ? Ni 's faide 
na 'n talamh à thomhas agus ni's leithne na 'n fhairge. 

XVI. When the Object is represented by a Pronoun, the Possessives Mo, do, 
am, ad, a, ar, bhur, ur, am, and the Preposition ag are always used in Com- 
pound Tenses formed by the Verb Bi and the Infinitive. The Possessives, or the 
emphatic forms of the Personal Pronouns are used before the Infinitive when it 
is governed by another Verb. 

Tha 'n dealg so, 'g am chiùrradh, this pin is hurting mè. 
Nach 'eil am maighstear 'g ad theagasg-sa. Tha sìbh 'g à chà- 
ramh, you are mending it or him. An robh na muilt 'g 'ur 
sàrachadh 'nuair a bha sìbh 'g àn glacadh ? Cha bu shà- 
rachadh leinn idir è na'm bitheadh na coin 'g ar leantuinn. 
Càit am beil an oisg chleideach ? Tha Cailean 'g à toirt leis. 
Thar leam gu'n robh thu-fèin 'g à h-ìarraidh. Faodaidh tu 
mo phàidheadh, you may pay me. Cha n-urrainn an t-àmhlair 
sin do sheòladh; mur urrainn thèid à chur a-mach. Tha na 
sgoilearàn 'g àn cluich fèin air an àilean. Faodaidh tu àn 
gairm a-stigh a-nis. Fèumaidh tu mise a threòrachadh gus an 
t-seòmar, ach cha n-fhaod thu ìadsan a leigeil a-steach. Co dh - 
fhaodas àm bacadh ? Cha mhòr nach d'rinn ìad ise a mhas- 
lachadh. Car-son a'rinn is' ìadsan a chàineadh mata ? A Shàuil 
Car-son a ta thu 'g am ghèur-leanmhuinn-sa ? 

Tha aingeal De a' càmpachadh mu'n dream d' an 2 eagal è, 
G' am 3 fuasgladh 'us g' an teasairginn o'n trioblaidibh gu-lèir. 

Dean iochd òrm, a Dhè ; oir b' àill le duine mo shlugadh 
suas ; tha è 'g am shàrachadh gach là le cogadh. Feuch, cuir- 
idh mì d' ur n-ionnsuidh arbhar agus fion agus oladh, agus 
bithidh sìbh air ur sàsuchadh leò, agus cha dean mì sìbh ni's 
mò 'n ur masladh am-measg nan cinneach. Glac targaid agus 
sgìath agus èirich chum mo chuideachadh. 

Tha 'mhaoisleaeh chùl-bhuidh' air feadh na dùslainn'* 
Aig bun nam fiùran 'g àn rùsgadh lòm, 



1 'N àm for ann an àm, in the time. For the contractions of ann, and the use 
of the euphonic particle an before nouns of both numbers, see Syntax op the 
Prepositions. 

2 D' an eagal è, d' for do ; to whom He (is) a fear, those who fear Him. 

3 G' for gu, to. Bràth, chum, gu, gus, los, air tì, placed before the infinitive 
and its object express design, purpose, or intention. — Syntax, Rule XXVII. No. 3. 

* Dùslainn, a lonely, gloomy place ; from dubh, black, and lànn, enclosure ; 
lànd. 



Ì86 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



'S am boc gu h-ùdlaidh 1 ri leabaidh chùirteil, (courtly) 
Is è 'g à bùrach le rùtan 2 crdm. — D. Macintyre. 

XVII. An absolute clause, or the beginning of a narrative is often expressed by the 
Infìnitive preceded by the Prepositions Air, An-dèigh, An-deis, and Do simple 
or compounded with the Pronoun answering to the object spoken of. The Infini- 
tive in this state is rendered into English by the Past Tense of its Verb preceded 
by When, After, &c, or by the Past Participle preceded by having. 

The Past Participle, when it begins a sentence, is generally preceded by the 
verb Is, when the subject is in possession of the act expressed by the Participle. If 
the Actionbe conditional or future, the Participle is commonly followed by a Verb 
in the Future Tense. 

Air do 'n ldng seòladh, phìll sinne dhachaidh, when the ship 
sAiLED,.or the ship having sailed, we retumed home. Agus an- 
dèigh Eòin a chur 'am prìosan, thainig Iosa do Ghalile, a' 
searmonachadh soisgeil rìoghachd Dhè; agus air dhà bhi 'g 
ìmeachd ri taobh fairge Ghalile, chunnaic è Sèumas agus Ain- 
dreas à bhràthair a' tilgeadh lìn 's an fhairge, oir b' ìasgairean 
ìad. Air clùinntinn so do 'n deichnear thòisich ìàd air mòr- 
chorruich a ghabhail ri Sèumasfagus Eòin. Air faicinn craoibhe- 
f ìge fada uaith air an robh duilleach, thainig Iosa dh-fheuch- 
ainn am faigheadh è nì sam-bith oirre agus air dhà teachd d' 
à h-ionnsuidh, cha d' fhuair è ach duilleach ; oir cha robh àm 
tionail nam fìgean fathast ànn. Mar sin an-dèigh do 'n 
Tighearn labhairt riu, ghabhadh suas gu nèamh è agus shuidh 
è air deas làimh Dhè ; agus air dhòibh-san dol a-mach, shear- 
monaich ìad anns gach àit, air bhi do 'n Tighearn a' co- 
oibreachadh leò agus a' daingneachadh an f hocaii leis na comh- 
araibh à 'lean è. — Is beannaichte luchd-deanamh na sìthe ; oir 
goirear clànn Dè dhiùbh. Ma dh'-èisdeas tu ri guth do Dhè ; 
beannaichte bithidh tu 's a' bhaile agus anns a' mhachair. Mur 
èisd thu ri guth do Dhè mallaichte bithidh do bhascaid. 

XVIII. The Subject or Object is often separated from its Verb by other inter- 
vening words, or a relative clause. The Infmitive is also separated, by different 
words or clauses, from its auxiliary or verb which governs it. Any part of the 
verb Rach combined with the Infinitive of a Transitive Verb, is rendered into 
English by the corresponding Passive Tense.— -See p. 130, No. 4. 

Oir'rugadh dhùibh an diugh Slànuighear ann ambaile Dhaibh- 
idh, neach a's è Criosd an Tighearn. Ghabh gach neach à 
chuala so iongantas ris na nithibh sin à dh'-ìnnseadh dhòibh 
leis na buachaillibh. Ullaichidh an duine gnìomhach, glic, 
grùnndail, ànn an làithibh 'òige, stbras chum à bheathachadh 
'n à sheann aois. Tha rèultan na h-ìarmailt uile agus a' gheal- 
ach fèin a faotainn àn soluis o'n ghrèin. Dhealbh an Tighearn 
Dìa às an talamh, uile bheathaichean na macharach, agus uile 
eunlaidh nan spèur agus thug E ìad chum Adhaimh a dh- 



1 Gu h-Mlaidh, in alonely, morose raanner.— 2 RUtan, the horn of the roe-buck. 
Also a little tup. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 187 



fhaicinn cionnus a dh'-ainmicheadh è ìad. Cruinnichidh an 
neach à ta 'gràdhaehadh beartais agus airgid, saoibkreas, ach 
cha n-urrainn maoin, aig uair à bhàis, à là 'shìneadh car mionaid. 
Caomhnaidh an tì aig am beil eòlas à bhriathran agus bithidh 
fear na tuigse, ciùin 'n à spiorad. Nighidh uile sheanairean a' 
bhaile sin a's faisge do 'n duine à mharbhadh, àn làmhan os-ceann 
an aighe d' an do ghearradh an amhach 's a' ghleann. O chionn 
còrr 'us dà-cheud-deug bliadhna, chaidh creideamh nan Drùidh 1 a 
thilgeil gu-tur bun-os-ceann ann am Breatann. Agns 'rinneadh 
gèur-ìeanmhuinn ghuineach crra-san à ghnàthaich è. Bha na 
Lochlannaich 2 's an àm sin, ag aideachadh creidimh nan Drùidh 
agus fkuair mòran de na chaidh fhògradh às an dùthaich so, 
dìon agus fasgadh uatha. Bu ghnàth leis na sagartaibh 
Drùidheach a bhi 'cumail mhqd leo-fèin air tulaehaibh uaine, 
air cùirn lìatha, 'us air cnocaibh crùinn àrda ; an lorg siu, tha 
mòran de na h-àitibh 's am àbhaist dòibh a bhi 'socrachadh àn 
cùisean, air àn ainmeachadh 'n àn dèigh. Bhuineadh do Eas- 
buigibh nan Drùidh, a thaobh àn oifTge, sìth a chumail suas 
am-measg dhaoine, agus uime sin, thugadh Dùn-sìth, Càrn-sìth, 
Sìth-bhruth 'us aiumean mar sin, air na h-ionadaibh 's an robh- 
as a' cumail àn cùirtean. Fada nan cìan an dèigh na Drùidh- 
ean so fhuadach a-mach, gu-lèir às an tìr, cha chreideadh 
sluagh aineolach faon, nach robh spioradàn no tannais nan 
daoine sìtheach so, fathast ag àiteachadh nan cnoc 's nan slìabh. 
Is ann mar so a thugadh Goill 'us Gàedheil gu bhi creidsinn 
gu'n robh crèutairean beaga, tana, guanach, do-fhaicsinneach. 
anns na cnuic, d' àm b' ainm Sìthichean no Daoine Sìthe. 

Bhiodh eagal mòr orra roimh na bòcaidhean, (apparitions) 

'S ìad a' faicinn mòrain diu nàch robh ànn ; 

Bhiodh giseag 's òrrachàa 3 'ns seachnadh chòmhlaichean, 

Ua mòran sheòlaidhean ac' 'n àn ceann : 

Bhiodh aca Sìthichean anns gach sìthean, (knoll) 

A bheireadh sìos leò mnai 'us clann 

'S bhiodh cuid a' bmadair 's an sluagh 'g à mhìneach' 

'S gun ghuth air Bìobull bhi idir ànn. — Rev. P. Gra>~t. 



1 Drùidh, a Druid j — the Druids were the priests of the ancient Britons, Ganfe, 
and Germans. Their aathority, Kke that of the Bramins of India, was suprexoe 
in all matters orreligion, and in settling public and private differences, It is sup- 
posed they believed in the hmnortality of the soul, and also in the metempsychosia. 
— " nii Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrincia publica ac privata procurant, 
religiones interpretantur. . . . Hi certo anni tempore in finibus Carnutum 
quae regio totius Galliae media habetur, considunt, in loco consecrato. Huc omnes 
undique qui controversias habent, conveniunt eorumque decretis judiciisque parenL. 
Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam translata esse existima- 
tur." — Caesah, Bel. Gal.. Iib. vL 13. — - Lochlannaich, or. accordijg to some, 
Lochlinnich, Danes, Xorwegians, or Scandinavians. from loca, a lake or arm of the 
sea, and li.nn, a race or people ; hence Lcchlann signifiesa nation bounded by seas 
or lakes, and Lochlannaich, people oi the seas,— 3 òrrachan, from òrra, an amolet, 



188 ETYMOLOGY. 



FOCLACHADH. 



Ach is ait leinn a thoirt fainear, gu'm beil an saobh-chreid- 
eamh so, maille ri iomad amaideachd eile de'n t-seòrsa chèudna, 
a-nis air teicheadh roimh ghathan dealrach an t-Soisgeil ghlòr- 
mhoir, mar sgaoileas ceò na òidhche fo ghathaibh na grèine. 

XIX. The following extract from the Scottish and Irish Gaelic Bibles is a speci- 
men of the difference of Dialogue and Orthography between the Scottish and Irish 
Gaelic :— 



SCOTTISH GAELIC 

A mhic na dìchuimhnich 
mo lagh ; ach gleidheadh do 
chridhe m' àitheantan. Oir 
làithean buan agus saoghal 
fada agus sìth bheir ìad dhuit. 
Na trèigeadh tròcair agus fìr- 
inn thu : ceangail ìad mu d' 
(do) mhuineal agus sgrìobh 
ìad air clàr do chridhe. 4. — 
Agus gheibh thu deadh-ghean 
agus tuigse mhaith 'an (ann 
an) sealladh Dhè agus dhaoine. 
Eearb as an Tighearn le d' 
uile chridhe agus ri do thuigse 
fèin na biodh do thaic. Ann 
ad uile shlighibh aidich è agus 
seòlaidh esan do chèumanna. 
Na bi glic a'd (ann do) shùilibh 
fèin biodh eagal an Tighearna 
ort agus trèig olc. 'Nà shlàinte 
bithidh è do d' iomlaig agus 'n 
à smior do d' chnàmhaibh. — 
9. Thoir urram do 'n Tigh- 
earn le d' mhaoin agus le ceud 
thoradh d' uile chinneis agus 
lìonar do shàibhlean le pailteas 
agus le fìon nuadh, ruithidh d' 
f hìon-amair thairis. Air cron- 
achadh an Tighearna, a mhic, 
na dean-sa tàir agus na sgìthich 
d' à smachdachadh. Oìr esan 
à 's toigh leis an Tighearn 



IRISH GAELIC 

A mhic 1 na dearmaid mo 
dhligheadh, acht coimheadadh 
do chroidhe m' aitheanta. Oir 
do bhearuidh siad chugad fad 
laetheadh, agus saoghal fada 
agus sìothchain. Na trèigeadh 
tròcaireagusfìrinnethù: cean- 
gail fa d' bhràghaid iad ; 
scrìobh iad ar clàr do chro- 
idhe. — 4. Marsoin do gheabhfa 
tù gean agus tuigsi mhaith a 
nadharc Dè agus duine. Cuir 
do dhòigh annsa d Tighearna 
rè do uile chroidhe agus na bi 
taobh rè do thuigsi fèin. Ann 
do shlighthibh uile admhuigh 
eision, agus do dheanfa sè do 
shlighthe dìreach. Na bi glic 
ann do shùilibh fèin: biodh 
eagla an Tighearna ort agus 
seachain an tolc. Biaidh sin 
'na shlàinte do t' imlinn agus 
'na smior do t' chnàmhuibh. — 
9. Onoruidh an Tighearna le 
do mhaoin agus le primidil t' 
uilebhisigh: Marsoinlìonfuigh- 
ear do sciobol le saidhbhrios 
agus brisfìdh do chantaoirighe 
amach lè f ìon nuadh. A mhic 
na tarcuisnigh smachtughadh 
an Tighearna, agus na bì curtha 
d' a cheartughadh : Oir an tè 



a piece of stone or wood with a particular image on it, and worn by superstitious 
nations as a preservative against enchantments, diseases, and an evil eye. 

1 Aspiration is represented in the Irish letters by a dot over the consonant where 
it has an aspirated sound ; as, A mic for a mhic. 



ETYMOLOGY. 



FOGLACHADH. 189 



smachdaichidh è mar asmachd- 
aicheas athair am mac anns 
am bheil à thlachd. — Gnàth- 

FHOCAIL, PrOV. ÌÌÌ. 1-12. 



ghràdhuighios an Tighearna 
smachtuighidh sè è amhuil 
athair an mac ionna mbì a 
dhùil. — Seanraidhte iii. 
1-12. Irish Bible, 1830. 



Part III. 

SYNTAX. 

Syntax is that part of 
Grammar which treats of the 
construction and arrange- 
ment of words in a sentence. 

A Sentence is a series of 
words, so arranged as to 
make complete sense; as, 
John is happy. 

Sentences are either Sim- 
ple or Complex. 

A Simple sentence ex- 
presses only a simple prop- 
osition, or contains but one 
verb, either simple or com- 
pound ; as, Virtue exalts a 
man. 

A Complex sentence con- 
sists of two or more simple 
sentences connected by one 
or more conjunctions, to ex- 
press a complete proposition; 
as, Virtue exalts a man, but 
vice debases him. 

In every sentence there must 
be a Subject, or thing spolcen of, 
and a Predicate, or what is 
affirmed o/the subject. 

The name of the person or 
thing upon which a transitive 



Earran III. 
RIAILTEACHADH. 

IS è RlAILTEACHADH an 

earran sin de Ghràmar à ta 
'teagasg mu cho-'rianachadh, 
'us mu shuidheachadh fhoc- 
al ann an cìallairt. 

Is è Cìallairt sreath fhocal, 
suidhichte air achd 'us gu'n 
dean iad cìall làn ; mar, Tha 
Iain sona. 

Tha ciallairtean Singilt no 
Fìllteach. 

Airisidh cìallairt Singilt 
aon smuanoirt singilt, no cha 
ghabh è ach a-mhàin aon 
ghnìomhar singilt no measg- 
ta ; mar, Ardaichidh subh- 
ailc duine. 

Gabhaidh cìallairt Fìllt- 
each dà chìallairt singilt no 
ni's mò na dhà, co-naisgte le 
h-aon no iomadh naisgear 
gu smuanoirt làn airis ; mar, 
Ardaichidh subhailc duine, 
ach ìslichidh dubhailc è. 

Fèumaidh Cùisear, nonì mu 
'n labhrar, agus Feairt {abairt), 
no na theirear uime, a bhi anns 
gach cìallairt. 

Is è ainm an neàch no 'n nì 
air àm beil gniomhar asdach 



190 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



'verb aets in a sentence is the 
object of the verb ; as, J ohn 
loves James. James struck the 
desk. 

Syntax is divicled into two 
parcs viz. Concord and Govem- 
ment. 

Goncord is the agreeing or 
corresponding of one word with 
another in number, gender, 
case, or person. 

Government is the power 
which one part of speech has 
over a certain case or form of 
another, to determine the idea 
which the words are intended 
to express. 



RULES OP SYNTAX. 

The Rules of Syntax treat 
either of the construction or 
the arrangement of words in 
sentences. 

Construction is the forra 
which words assume in order 
to combine grammatically 
with other words in the same 
sentence. 

Arrangement is the order 
or position in which words 
stand in a sentence. 

A Clause is a part of a sen- 
tence. 

CONSTRUCTION. 
UONCORD OF WORDS. 

The Article and Noun. 
Rule 1. — The Article is pre- 
fixed to its Noun, and agrees 
with it in number, gender, 
and case ; as, 



a' gniomhachadh ann an ciall- 
airt, cuspair a' gniomhair ; mar, 
Tha Iain a' gràdhachadh Shèu- 
mais. Bhuail Sèumas an dasg. 

Tha Riailteachadh roinnte 
fo dhà phàirt, eadh. Còrdadh 
agus Spreigeadh. 

Is è Còrdadh co-aonadh, no 
co-fhreagairt aon f hocail ri fo- 
cal èile 'an àireamh, 'an gin, 
'an car, no ann am pearsa. 

Is è Spreigeadh an ceannas 
à ta aig aon fhocal thairis air 
car, no staid àraid aoin èile, 
chum suidheachadh na beachd 
a dh'-ìarrar athiris leis na focail. 



RIAILTEAN RIAILTEACHAIDH. 

Tha Riailtean Riailteach- 
aidh a'teagasg mu cho- rian- 
achadh, no suidheachadh 
fhocal ann an cìallairtibh. 

Is è Co-rianachadh an 
staid anns an cuirear focail 
gu co-nasgadh gu gràmarail 
ri focail èile 's an aon chìal- 
lairt. 

Is è Suidheachadh an t- 
òrdugh anns àn cuirear foc- 
ail ann an cìallairt. 

Is è Earran pàirt de chìall- 
airt. 

CO-'RIANACHADH. 

COEDADH FHOCAL. 

Am Pungar his Aimnear. 
Riailt I. — Cuirear am 
Pùngar roimh 'Ainmear fèin 
agus còrdaidh è ris, 'an àir- 
eamh, 'an gin 's an car; mar, 



CO-RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



191 



An tigh,* the house. Am fear, the man. Na fir, the men. A' ehìr, 
the comb. An iteag, the feather. Na h-iteagan, the feathers. An 
t-uan, the lamb. Na h-uain, the lambs. Nan làmh,+ of the hands. 
Nam ban, of the women. 

1. When an Adjective or a Nuraeral precedes the Noun, the 
Article is preflxed to the Adjective or Numeral, and agrees with 
it in every respect, like a Noun beginning a with the same letter ; 
as, 

Am mòr-chuan, the great ocean. A' mhòr- roinn, the continent. 
An t-àrd-bhuachaill, the great shepherd. Na droch dhaoine, the bad 
men. An dara rànn, the second verse. Na deich àithntean, the ten 
commandments. 

2. The Article is generally prefixed to the names of continen- 
tal and foreign kingdoms, to the names of virtues, vices,.dis- 
eases, and metals, and to a word which represents a whole 
species ; as, 

An Fhràing, La France, France. An Eudailt, Italy. A' Ghreig, 
Greece. An Eiphit, Egypt. An fhìrinn, truth. An leisg, laziness. 
An teasach, fever. An t-òr, gold. An duine, man. 

Except. — The Article is rarely prefixed to the following 
names of countries : — Africa, Alba or Albainn, America, Ara- 
bia, Asia, Australia, Austria, Breatann, Britain ; Canada, Ca- 
nàan, Eirionn, Flànras, Iudèa, Lochlann, Prussia, Russia, 
Sasunn. A few of these beginning with a and e take the article in 
thegenitive and dative; as, Taobh-deas na h-Aùica, or Africà. 
Eaglais na A-Albainn. Trìath na A-Eirinn, the hing of Ire- 
land. 

3. The Article is interposed between the Interrogatives Gò, 
Gia, Giod, and their Nouns ; as, Co am bàrd a 'rinn an t-òran 
so ? What poet made this song ? Cia 'n rathad a ghabhas mì ? 
Which road shall I take ? Ciod an tàirbhe ? What prqfit ? 

4. The Article is prefixed to Nouns combined with the De- 
monstrative Pronouns ; as, am fear so ; a' chraobh sin ; na 
fleasgaich ud; sid an earb. Is è so an t-dighre. Also to a 
Noun preceded by the Verb Is, combined with an Adjective ; 



* An is sometimes transposed into na before the dative singular of a noun gov- 
erned by a preposition ending in a vowel ; as, do na mhnaoi, for do'n mhnaoi. 
Na h-uilefear, a phrase which is sometimes used, should be a h-uile fear, because 
fear is singular. It is as ungrammatical to say na h-uilefear in Gaelic, as it is to 
say omnes vir in Latin. 

t Nam and nan, the genitive plural of the article, are sometimes, but very im- 
properly, separated by an apostrophe ; as na'm bruach for nam bruach. " Dreach 
na'n rds " for nan ròs This is confounding the genitive of the avticle with the ver- 
bal or conditional particles na'm, na'n, if,— Vide p. 83. 



192 CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



as, Is bochd an gnothach è, it is a sad business. Bu ghlan na 
gillean ìad, they were handsome lads. 

5. The Article is prefìxed to patronymics in -ach, with- 
out the christian narae; as, An Dònullach, (the) Macdonald. 
Na Dònullaich, the Macdonalds. Am Frisealach, (the) Fraser. 
Na Frisealaich, the Frasers. It is sometimes used before some 
proper names not ending in -ach ; as, Fhreagair an Dearg, 
Dargo answered. Thuirt an t- Oscar, Oscar said. Air slàint 
an t- Sèumais à ta uainn. 

6. The Article is sometimes used before the Cardinal, and al- 
ways before the Ordinal numerals ; as, a h-aon, a dhà, a trì. A' 
cheud, an dara, an treas. — See p. 68, 69. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

Translate into Gaelic — The poets, am bàrd ; the monks, ma~ 
nach; the man, firionnach ; the oxen,* damh ; the third man, 
fear; the fifth stone, clach; the branch, gèug ; the cats, cat ; 
the heroes, laoch. The cowfeeder, àrach; the Stewarts, Stiubh- 
artach; the fellow, olach ; the apostles, abstol ; the gold, òr; 
the lambs, uan. 

To the light, do solus. To the people, ris sluagh. To the 
yarn, do snàth. Under the snow, fo sneachd. O banner, sròl. 
To the ditches, do stàng. O lights, solus. The wrights, saor. 

On the sea, sàl. The foot, cas. The hand, làmh. The cup, 

cuach. The fifth horse, each. The stones, clach. The beard, 
fèusag. The clubs, camag. The grilse, bànag. The thumbs, 
òrdag. The moon's, gealach. To the breezes, ris osag. 

The nose, sròn ; the needles, snàthad ; the psalm, salm; to 
the spark, ris srad ; the sharp rock, sgòr ; the snail, seilcheag ; 
to the spear, do sleagh ; to the neatness, snasmhorachd ; the 
beetle's, daolag ; on the site, làrach ; the neighbours, nàbuidh ; 
the mischief, rosad; of the kiln-vent, surrag ; the ghost's, tan- 
nas, or tannasg ; O gentle spring, earrach caoin. 

Plurals. — The distaffs, cuigeal ; the tubs, ballan ; theleaders, 
ceannard ; the muds, clàbar ; in the months, anns mìos ; on 
the margins, air oir ; the gowns, gùn ; upon the fields, air 
raon ; to the hills, do beann ; the boats, eathar ; for the jewels, 
do usgar; practices, cleachdadh ; the fields, achadh ; the guns, 
gunna ; in the necks, anns amhach ; maids, gruagach ; the 
summits, mullach; on the dunghills, airòtrach. — See p. 43_, 44. 



* The learner is to supply the Article and Numerals before the Nouns.— See 
p. 36, 68. 



CO-<RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



193 



ON THE SPECIAL RULES. 
See page 44—50. 

The bells, clag ; the joints, alt ; the hammers, òrd; the 
boar's, torc ; the stocks, stoc ; of the stone, clach; of the 
ploughs, crànn; the horses, each; the deer's, fìa dh ; the anger, 

feàrg ; the nests, nead. The conduits, guitear ; the nations, 

cinneach ; the loaves, builionn ; the estates, òighreachd; the 
sheep-cots, crò ; the coats, còta ; the hats, ad ; the hanks, 

tarna ; the wheels, rctfA/ the times, à?w. The angels, ain- 

geal ; the wives, bean ; the cows, bò ; the bellies, bru ; the 
committees, buidkeann ; the sheep, caora / the candles, dogs, 
doors, the men, fiddles, goats, acts, forks, children, mice, eye- 
brows, barns, arrows, knives, nails, lands, the elbows, the 
apples. — See irregular nouns, p. 49. 

ON THE SECOND DECLENSION. 

The arks, àirc; the iaxis,guit; the meal, min ; the truth, 
fìrinn ; the forest, frìth ; the clod, foid; the butter, im ; on 
the street, air sràid ; the eye, sùil ; the backs, druim (jpluràl, 
dromannan, -ean) ; the astronomers, spèuradair ; the flesh, 
feòil ; the chairs, cathair ; the pease, peasair; the pack- 
saddles, srathair ; the letters, litir ; the fathers, athair ; the 
enemies, nàmhaid ; the sisters, piuthar ; the corners, cùil ; the 
beams, sail ; the pools, linne ; the hearts, cridhe. — See page 
51-54. 

Translate, — The rivers, abhainn; the pans, weddings, 
friends, sons-in-law, bones, rights, dice, men, countries, hinds, 
teeth, stirks, shoulders, beds, mornings, angles, kings, thighs. 
■ — Page 55. 

2. Thevine growsin France, 
in Spain, and in Italy. Hol- 
land is a low country. Greece 
is a peninsula. Scandinavia is 
a colder country than England. 
— The Church of Scotland. 
The language of Ireland. The 
churches of Asia. 

Sin brought death into the 
world. Truth is better than 
gold. Copper is not so precious 
as silver. Is the small-pox in 
this house ? The deer is a 
noble animal. 

N 



2. Fasaidh an fionan anns 
Fràing, anns Spàinn, agus anns 
Eudailt. Is dùich ìosal Olaind. 
Is dòirlinn Grèig. Is ì Loch- 
lann dùich a's fuaire na an 
Sasunn. — Eaglais an Albainn. 
Càinnt an Eirinn. Eaglais an 
Asia. 

Thug peacadh an bàs do sao- 
ghal. Isfeàrr fìrinnnaòr. Cha 
n'-eil copar cho luachmhor ris 
airgiod. Am beil breac anns 
tigh so ? Is flathail (4) beath- 
ach fìadh. 



194 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



Ceartaich, — An bean, an fhear, am solus, a' uair, an òr, an 
sliseag, an each, am Fràing, na eòin, do 'n sùist, air an saoghal, 
am misg, ris an sagart, a' chnoe, a' lòng, an ìm, air an sràid, a' 
cùis, na eunadairean, na èildean, a' rìgh, am tonn, a' obair, an 
osan, a' nighean, a' iùlag, an òrgan. 



NOUNS IN APPOSITION. 

Eule II. Two or more 
nouns, signifying the same 
person or thing, agree in 
case ; as, 



AINMEARAN A CO-CHORDADH. 

Riailt II. Còrdaidh dà 
ainmear no còrr, a' ciallach- 
adh an aon neàch no nì, 'san 
aon chàr ; mar, 



Rìgh Seumas, King James. Tigh Shèumais Chamaroin, James 
Cameroris house. 

1. — Mac (son) is prefìxed to a masculine proper name, and 
Nic (daughter) to a feminine ; as, Iain Mac-Thòmais, John 
Thomson. Anna Nic-Uilleim, Ann Williamson.—See p. 159. 

2. — A compound Appellative joined to a proper name requires 
the Article ; as, Alastair an ceàrd-umha, Alexander the copper- 
smith. Sèumas am muillear-càrdaidh, James the carding-miller. 

3. — A simple Appellative with a proper name, commonlyrejects 
the Article ; as, Hùistean tàillear, Hugh the tailor. Callum 
figheadair, Malcolm the weaver. 

4. — An Appellative in apposition with the name of a woman, 
is put in the Nominative when the proper name itself is governed 
in the Genitive ; as, bràthair Annd 'bhanarach, the brother of 
Ann the dairymaid. 

5. — Proper names of sovereigns and noblemen are put in the 
nominative, though in apposition with a title governed in the 
genitive ; as, Mac rìgh Sèumas, King James' son. Oghachan 
Phrionns' Teàrlach. 

Obs. — Names of cities and towns are put in the Genitive 
after Baile, &c. ; as, Baile Dhunèdin, Urbs Edinburgum, the 
city Edinburgh. Baile-Theàrlaich, Charlestown. Baile-nan- 
Caimbeulach, Campbeltown. Bail'-a'-mhuilinn, Milltown. 

6. — When an Adjective is employed with two Nouns in appo- 
sition, it is placed between the Proper Name and the Appella- 
tive with or without the Article ; as, Sèumas bàn greusaich or 
an greusaich, fair James the shoemaker. If two or more Ad- 
jectives be used, the Article is always prefixed to the Appella- 
tive; as, Anna bheag dhònn a' bhanarach, little brown- 
haired Ann the dairymaid. 

Correct,—Kmg George, Rìgh Sheòruis. The apostle Paul, 
an abstol Phbil. Charles Stewart, Teàrlach Stiùbhairt The 
epistle of the apostle Peter, litir an abstol Peadar. The son 



CO-*MANACHADH FHOCAL. 



195 



of Thomas the son of John, mac Tòmas mac lain. Norman 
M'Leod, Tormaid Nic-Leòìd. Sophia M'Cormac, Sophia Mac- 
Vormaic, Mic Racheil bean lacoib. 

Riailt III. Gabhaidh fo- 



Rule III. A term de- 
scribing a person's trade or 
profession, takes the Article 
before it after the full name 
of the person ; as, 



cal ag ainmeachadh ceàird, 
no oifig neàch, am Piingar 
roimhe, an-dèigh làn ainm 
an neach ; mar, 

Seumas Grànnd an tàiìlear, James Grant the tailor. Donnachadh 
Caimbeul an cìbear, Duncan Campbell the shepherd. 



Rule IV. A noun in ap- 
position, having the article 
or a possessive pronoun be- 
fore it, is put in the nomina- 
tive, though its correlative 
be in the genitive ; as, 



Riailt IV. Cuirear ain- 
mear a' co-chòrdadh, leis a' 
phùngar no riochdar sèilbh- 
each roimhe, 'san ainmeach, 
ged robh à cho-dhàimheach 
anns a' ghinteach ; mar, 



Each Thdmais Dhònullatch an ceannaiche (not a' cheannaiche *), 
the horse of Thomas Macdonald the merchant. 

Mac Ioseiph an s&or (not an t-saoir), the son of Joseph the car~ 
penter. 

Tigh Sheumais Oeg mo choimhearsnach (not -aich), the house of 
James Young my neighbowr. 

Obs. — Such expressions as " Each Thi'mais Dhònullaich, an ceann- 
aiche," are elliptical, and may be supplied thus : Each Thomais Dhòn- 
ullaich neach is è an ceannaiche. Tìgh Sheumais Oig is è sin ri ràdh 
mo choimhearsnach. 

* This Rule is not adirect exception to Rute II., though it may at first sight 
appear so» It is established by the universal usage of the language, and its appli- 
cation is absolutely necessary to prevent ambiguity in cases where an appellative 
preceded by the article refers to a proper name in the genitive ; as, Mac Thoma/s 
an saor, the son of Thomas (who is called) the carpenter ; the position of the words 
here, creates no obscurity, although an saor referring to Thomais, is not continued 
in the same case according to the practice of other languages. The Gaelic idiom 
retains the appellative in the nominative, to restrict and define the noun of which 
it is predicated. The Latin construction of this expression is Filius Thomae fabri. 
By following this construction in Gaelic, as Mac Thòmais an t-saoir, the sense is 
completely altered ; for Mac Thòmais an t-saoir means Ute son of the carpenter's 
Thotnas (that is, a certain Thomas belonging to the carpenter, as his son or ser- 
vant). Likewise Bean Ailein am muillear, Allan the miller's wife. But bean 
Ailem a' mhuilleù*, the wìfe ofthe miller's Allan (that is, the miller's son, servant, 
or nephew, who may be a watchmaker). 

The Latin construction, though foreign to the universal usage of the language, 
ìs generally followed in the Gaelic Scriptures, and some Gaelic scholars of emi- 
nence, while they acknowledge its non-existence or rare application in the spoken 
Gaelic, at the same time seem to recommend its adoption in Gaelic Syntax, 
because it is found in the dead languages of Greece and Rome. Such passages as 
the following are not rendered according to the pure Gaelic idiom : — " Mac Elea- 
saù- an t- sagaùt" (for an sagart), the son of Eleasar the priest, but to a Highlander's 
understanding, the son ofthe priest's Eleasar. So, " Ann an làithibh Abiataù an 
àrd shagai'rt." " Tigh Philip an t- Soisgeulaiche." — Faic Ios. xxiii. 31. Marc ii^ 
26. Gniomh. xxi. 8. 



196 CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



When the former of two plural nouns in apposition is in the 
dative, the latter is put in the nominative ; as, " D'à bhràith- 
ribh uile mic an rìgh " (not macaibh). The latter of two femi- 
nine nouns governed in the dative singular, is also put in the 
nominative; as,, " Ri Sàrai à bhean" (not d mhnaoi). — Gen. 
xii. 11. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

3. — Bender into Gaelic, — Peter Fraser the schoolmaster, 
Peadar Friseal maighstear-sgoile. Donald Ross the gardener, 
Dònull Ròs gàradair. Kenneth M ackenzie the goldsmith, Coin- 
neach Nic-Choinnich òr-cheard. Little Hugh the herd, Hùis- 
tean buachaill beag. Fair young Charles the drover, Teàrlach 
dròbhair bàn òg. 

4>. — William Bain the fox-hunter's dog, cù Uilleam Bhàin a 
bhrocair. He fell by the hand of Oscar the brave hero, thuit è 
le làimh Oscair an laoich chruadalaich. The house of Joseph 
the carpenter, tigh Ioseiph an t-saoir. The gun of Duncan the 
forester, gunna Dhonnachaidh anfhorsair. James the miller's 
plaid, breacan Shèumais a mhuilleir. — Ri Dìnah nighinn 
lacoib. 



ADJECTIVE AND NOUN. 

Rule V. An Adjectiye is 
placed after* its noun, and 
agrees with it in nuniber, 
gender, and case ; as, 



EUADHAR AOUS AINMEAR. 

Riailt V. Cuirear am 
Buadhar an-dèigh 'ainmeir 
fèin 'us còrdaich è ris 'an 
àireamh, 'an gin, 's 'an car ; 
mar, 



Duine math, a good rnan. Bean ghlic, a wise woman. Na clachan 
beaga, the small stones. Srìan an eich dhuibh, the black horsè's bridle. 
Ubh na circe deirge, the red hen's egg. 

1. — Surnames are construed with Proper Names like Adjec- 
tives; as, Teàrlach Dònullach,f Charles Macdonald or Donald- 
son. Anna D^ònullach, Ann Donaldson. Sèumas Camaron, 
James Cameron. Ceit CAamaron. 



* For the construction of Adjectives placed before their nouns, see p. 180, 
No. viii. 

t There are very few Patronymics in -ach joined to the Christian names of 
persons ; the surname in -ach is chiefiy used with and without the article when an 
individual or a number of a clan or name is spoken of ; as, Stiùbhartach, a Stewart 
or a ìnan ofthename of Stewart. Na Stiùbhartaich, the Stewarts. Frisealach, 
a Fraser. We cannot say, Tearlach Stiùbhartach, Iain Frìsealach, but Tearlach 
Stiùbhart, Iain Frìseal. When a woman is spcken of as an individual of a clan, 
the word ban is prefixed ; as, Ban-Stiùbhartach. A'Bhan-Stiùbhartach. Na Ban- 
Stiìibliartaich. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



197 



2. — The Past or Perfect participle in -te or -ta is construed 
with nouns like Adjectives ; as, dorus dùinte, a closed door. 
Cas bAriste, a brohen leg. Daimh b/iìadhta, fed or fatted oxen. 
Tighean gealaichte, white-washed houses. — See p. 50. 



Rule VI. An Adjective 
combined with a plural case 
of a noun, formed like the 
genitive singular, is always 
aspirated; as, 



Riailt VI. Sèidichear do- 
ghnà Buadhar co-naisgte ri 
car iomadh ainmeir deante 
cosmhail ris a' ghinteach 
aonar 5 mar, 



Eich g&eala, white horses. Na daimh dAonna, the hrown oxen. 
Eòin bAeaga, little birds. Na h-òglaich dAìleas, thefaithful servants. 

1. — An Adjective qualifying a plural noun ending in -an, 
-a, -e, -ibh, or the genitive plural like the nominative singular, 
is always plain : as, bkràdn or bàrda beag«, little poets : bàrd- 
aibh beaga, a bhàrda beaga, nam bàrd beaga, but bàerd bAeaga. 

2. — Compound Nouns, of which the first term governs the 
second in the genitive singuìar, follow the construction of Ad- 
jectives in the aspirations of the second term ; as, a' chearc- 
thomain, the partridge. Na circe-tomain, of the partridge. 
Na cearcan-tomain. Ceann-suidhe, a president ; a' chìnn- 
sAuidhe, ofthe president. Na eìnn-sAuidhe, nan ceann-suidhe. 
— See p. 62, No. XI. 

Obs. — If the first term of a Compound forms its genitive 
singular by adding -e and the second begins with a vowel or fh 
pure, the fìrst term drops the final -e of the genitive ; as, slat- 
ìasgaich, a fishing-rod ; Gen. na slait-ìasgaich (not slaite). 
Tigh-òsda, an inn ; Gen. an tigh-òsda (not tighe). Tigh- 
fuinne, a bahehouse ; Gen. an tigh-fhuinne (not tighe). 

3. — An Adjective beginning with d- preceded by a noun mas- 
culine or feminine ending in -n, or -t, is always plain in both num- 
bers ; as, An nighean c?ònn, the brown-haired girl. Na coin 
<?ubha, ilie black dogs. Qe.it doxm. 

4 — An Adjective referring to two or more nouns, takes the 
gender of the noun next it ; as, làr agus each bàn, a white mare 
and white liorse. Each agus làr bhàn. 

5. — The collective nouns clann, muinntear, òigridh, &c, have 
sometimes a plural adjective in the nominative ; as, clànn 
bheag^ ; muinntear oga. But in the other cases, their adjective 
is in the singular ; as. " cluith na cloinne bige." 



198 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



Rule VII. An Adjective | Riailt VII. Cha teàrnar 
prefixed to its noun, or Buadhar'nuair chuirear è roi 
qualifying the action or 'ainmear no 'nuajr a tha è 
state of a Verb, is indeclin- 'deasachadh gniomha no 
able ; as, staid' a' Ghnìomhair ; mar, 

Gòrm shùil, a blue eye. Na caol shràidean, the narrow streets. Is 
dearg a' chlach sin, that stone is red. Tha na clachan sin dearg, these 
stones are red. Dean an sgian gèur (gèuraich an sgìan), make the 
knife sharp, sharpen the knife. — See Arrangement, Rule III. 

The noun placed after its adjective is aspirated ; as, sàr cAean- 
nard. Only adjectives of one syllable are prefixed to their 
nouns, such as, — àrd, bàn, bìnn, bog, buan, beò, blàth, caol, 
ciùin, caomh, cas, cìar, cìan, deadh, dearg, droch, dubh, daor, 
dàll, dlùth, fliuch, frith, feall, fuar, fad, fàs, fìonn, fior, fir, 
garg, gasd, gèur, glas, gòrm, geal, grìnn, lag, làn, las, leisg, liath, 
lòm, mear, mion, mean, mòr, òg^ sàr, trdm, tlàth, teann, ùr, 
&c.-— See p. 180, No. viii. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

Render into Gaelie, 6. — A small eup, the small cup, small 
cups, an cuach beag. The big man, the big men, anfear mòr. 
To the black beetle, do an daolag dubh. The long beard, an 
fèusag fad. The red gowns, an gùn dearg. On the busy bee, 
air an seillean saothrach. The good fellows, an hlach math. 
The lean cows, an bò caol. In the lonely tents, anns an bùth 
cìanail. Under the gray oak, fò an darag glas. O red flag, 
bratach dearg. The new coats, an còta ùr. Big heads, ceann 
mòr. Valiant heroes, gaisgeach trèun. 

The clear conscience, an eogais glan. The carnal mind, an 
ìnntinn feòlmhor. The dark corners, an cùil dorch. The long 
staves, an batafad. O worthy men, duine còir. The fat pork, 
an muiceil reamhar. The dusky roek, an carraig cìar. The 
hoary giants, an famliair lìath. Needful purges, purgaid 
fèumail. The broad rivers, an abhainn leathan. To the liberal 
hosts, do an òsdair fìalaidh. O joyful Christmas, Nollaig 
sùnntach. For the amiable women, do an boirionnach ceanalta. 
Sharp pins, prìne gèur. The blue waves, an tònn gòrm. 

2. — The musicians, an fear-ciùil. Of the rutting-pools, an- 
pòlUbùiridh. The fairy-women, an bean-shìth. The stumbling- 
blocks, an ceap-tuislidh. The moor-hens, an cearc-fhraoich. 
To the honey-combs, an cìr-meala. 7. — The early morning, an 
òg maduinn. The large boars, an mòr torc. The great cham- 
pion, an sàr curaidh. The gray mist, an liath mùig. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



199 



NUMERALS. 

Rule VIII. Numerals are 
placed before their nouns, 
and agree with them in 
nurnber :* as. 



CUNNTAICH. 

Riailt VIII. Cuirear cùnnt- 
aich roimh àn ainmearàn 
agus còrdaidh ìad riù 'an 
àireamh; mar, 



Deich crùinn, ten ploughs. An t-ochdamh rànn, the eighth verse. 
Ochd fir dheug, eighteen men. Seachd tasdain deug, seventeen 
shillings. Ceithir pùinnd thar f hichead or ceithir pùinnd fhichead, 
twenty-four pounds. 

The Noun is always in the singular number after dà 

ficheadj ceud, mìle, muillean or muillion, whether these be 
alone or combined with other numerals ; as, 

Dà cheann, two heads, dà mhnaoi, two wives. Ceud bo, a 
hundred cows. Fichead fear, twenty men. Mìle craobh, a thousand 
trees. Trì fichead uan 's a cdig, sixiy-five lambs — See p. 181, No. X. 

1. — Though dà takes its noun in the singular, it takes its ad- 
jective in the plural ; as, " dà ìasg bheaga," two small fishes. 

2. — The nouns là or latka, bliadhna, bolla, sgillinn, ceud, and 
mìle, <SfC.j are commonly used in the singular, with numerals re- 
quiring the plural ; as, seachd là, cuig bliadhna, sea sgillinn, 
ochd ceud, deich mìle ; but the plural of là is joined with trì, 
naoi, and deich. 

3 — In counting measure or extent, the preposition Air is pre- 
fixed to the word denoting dimension ; as, " Tha an tigh deich 
troidhean air àirde, dà throidh dheug air leud agus dà f hichead 
troidh air fad, the house is ten feet high (on height), twelvefeet 
broad, and forty feet long. — For the different kinds of Numer- 
als, see p. 68, 69, 70. — Exercises on p. 71. 



PSONOUNS. 

Rule IX. Personal and 
possessive Pronouns agree 
in number, gender, and per- 
son, with their correlatives, 
or the nouns for which they 
stand: as. 



RIOCHDAEAN. 

Riailt IX. Còrdaidh 
Riochdaràn pearsantail 'us 
seilbheach, 'an àireamh 'an 
gin 's 'am pearsa ri 'n co- 
dhàimhich no na h-ainm- 
earàn à 'riochdaichear leò ; 
mar, 

'Rinn Ealasaid airgiod agus chuir ì anns a' bhanc è. Eliza made 
money and she put it in the bank. 'Sgriobh Seumas trì litrichean 

* ln the Hebrew language, ' ' above ten the name of the thing numbered may be 
either in the singular or plural ; as, D"l s "THK (ahed oser yum), eleven day, 
i. e. days."— Hurwitz' Hebrbw Grammar. 



200 CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 

agus chuir è anns a' Phost-ofais ìad, James wrote three letters and he 
put them into the Post-qffice. Chiùrr Iain d chas, John hurt his foot. 

Obs.— The Compound Pronouns àsam, fodham, are often spelt aisde 
for aiste ; fuidhe for fòipe, in the third person feminine. Uaithe and 
uatha are also written uaith and uapa. The third person fodha, is 
used adverbially ; as, chaidh a' ghrian fodha, the sun went down, — 
set,— See p. 78 and 179, note. 

Rule X. A Pronoun i Riailt X. Cuirear Riochd- 
standing for a sentence, or ar a' seasamh an àite cìal- 
L lairte no pàirt de chìallairt 
anns an treas pears' aonar 
fearanta; mar, 

Ged bha mo spòran falamh cha d'-aithnich càch è. Though 
mypurse was emptj/, others did not hiow it. 

A collective noun requires a pronoun in the third person 
plural ; as, " Chuala Iosua tòirm an t-sluaigh, an uair a c rinn 
ìad gàir/' Joshua heard the noise of the people when they 
shouted. 

A noun combined with gach, iomadh, a h-uile, is always in 
the singular number, and sometimes referred to by a pronoun in 
the plural ; as, " chaidh gach duine gu 'n (àn) aite," eàch man 
went to their place. — M'Int. 



clause of a sentence, is put 
in the third person singular 



masculine; as, 



Rule XI. The Interroga- 
tives(7ò, cia, ciod, areused be- 
fore nouns and personal pro- 
nouns, and before preposi- 
tions whìch governthem; as, 



Riailt XI. Cuirear na 
Ceistich Cò, cia, ciod, roimh 
ainmearàn 'us 'riochdaràn 
pearsantail, agus roi 'roimh- 
earàn à spreigeas ìad ; mar, 



Cò am fear a bha sid ? What man was yon ? Co ìad na fir ud ? 
Who (are*) ihey yon fellows ? C'ainm a th' ort ? What (is) your 
name ? Cò thu % Who are you ? Cia an taobh ? Which side ? Ciod 
an rathad ? Which way ? Ciod ì or Ciod èf a' cheud àithn ? Which 
(is) the first commandment ? — Co air a thuit a' chlach ? On whom did 
the stone fall ? Ciod ris an robh thu ? At what were you ? 

The relative a always precedes the verb by which the question 
is put ; as, Cò am fear à bhris am botul ? What man brolce the 
bottle ? literally What man who brohe the bottle ? Còa rinn sin, 
or Cò 'rinn sin ? Who did that ? Cia 'n rathad à chaidh è ? 



* For the Interrogatives without the Substantive Verbs Bi, Is, see p. 126, 74. 

t The word nì or rud appears to be understood in such questions as these ; as, 
Ciod è a' cheud àithn, i. e. Ciod è (an ni sin ris an abrar) a' cheud àithn ? Ciod è 
uchd-mhacachd, i. e. Ciod è (an nì sin de 'n goirear) uchd-mhacachd ? In that case 
Ciod è is applicable to nouns feminine as well as masculine. There are instances 
in which " ni " is supplied; as, " Ciod è an rà a chaidh slbh a-mach do'n fhàsach 
a dh-fhaicinn ? An ì cuilc air à crathadh le gaoith ?"— John xi. 7. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



201 



WMcìi way did he go ? Ciod a rinn thu àir ? What have 
you done to him ? Cò air a chuir sìbh a' chlach ? On whom or 
what didyouput the stone ? 

1 . — Cò is indiscriminately applied to persons, inferior animals, 
and inanimate objects. But in strict propriety, Cò should be 
applied to persons only, and Cia to inferior animals and things. 

2. — Ciod is applied to inanimate objects only ; as, Ciod è do 
ghnothach-sa ? What (is) your htsiness? It is also used in 
inquiring about the character or nature of Kving objects ; as, 
Ciod è 'n duine 'tha sin ? What kind of man is that ? Ciod 
an cù 'tha so ? What kind of dog is this ? Ciod is frequently 
corrupted into Gu de and de. — See p. 7 4, note. 

Ciod is combined with the compound pronoun chuige or huige, 
tohim, to it ; as, Ciod huige, commonly contracted gotuige, gut- 
uige, and duige ? Why, wherefore? 

Creud is obsoletein the spoken language, but it is found in good 
books ; as, " Creud è Dia, no creud è 'ainm." — D. Buchanan. 

3. — Cò, cia, ciod, are sometimes employed in the middle or 
end of a sentence, not as interrogatives, but as distributives or 
compound relatives; as, tha fios agam cò thu, Ihiow who thou 
art. Cha b' aithne dhomh cia an rathad a rachainn, Ihnew not 
which road I should go. Innis dhomh ciod (an nì) à bha thu 
'deanamh, tell me w h at you were doing. 

4. — C'è, c'ì, cìad, from cia or cò, and the pronouns è, ì, ìad, sig- 
nify to give, hand, show, reach ; these combinations are used 
only in an imperative sense. C'è is applied to masculines, and 
C'ì to feminines ; as, C'è 'n leanabh, give me the child, let me see the 
child. C'è sin, show me that, give me that. C'e dhomh an 
gunna, give me the gun. C'ì do làmh, give me thy hand. C'ì 
a-nàll a' ghlaine, hand over the glass. C'ìad sin, show me these. 
C'ìad na clachan sin, hand me these stoìies, let me see these 
stones. 

5 — Co or cia contracted c, with the words air-son, àite, ùine, 
or ùin, uime, forms the adverbs c'arson, c"àite, c'uin, c uime. 
C'aite is often abridged ca ; as, Ca bheil è ? Where is he or 
it?— See Adverbs, p. 138-144. 

6. — Cia, prefìxed to an adjective oran adverb, signifies how ; 
as, Cia mòr, how great : Cia minic, how often. 

7. — Nach. Negative interrogations implying a strong afrirma- 
tion of pleasure, admiration, or displeasure, are often put by the 
word nach ; as, Nach breagh an là sin ? is this not a fine day, 
i. e. this is a fine day. Nach math a shearmonaicheas è ? does 
he not preach well, he preaches well. Nach gnàd' a' bhìast è ? 
is it not an ugly beast ? i. e. it is an ugly beast. 



202 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



Rule XII. The Demon- Bjailt XII. Gabhaidh 

stratives So, Sin, Sid, Sud, na Dearbhaich So, Sin, Sid, 
£7<i,require theArticlebefore Sud, Ud, am Pùngar roimh 



Am baile so, this city. A' chlach sin, that stone. So an t-òighre, 
this (is) the heir. Na cuilleagan sin, these fties. An ldng ud, yon 
ship. Sid an earb, yonder is the roe.— See page 182, No. XII. 



Render into Gaelic, 8. — Ten hammers, two wives, nineteen 
windows, twenty-seven otters, forty-fìve miles, one hundred 
eyes, the eighth verse, the eighteenth year, the fortieth day, the 
fourth month, the nineteenth ship, a thousand soldiers. A fleld 
{raon) ninety-six yards long and sixty-four yards broad. 

9. — That is a tall wife, is àrd an bean m'i sin. I gave her 
your pen, thug m\ domh mopeann. The boys damaged that tree, 
mhìll an balachan craobh sin. Did they take the bark of it, an 
tug è an rùsg diom ? Tell their conduct to the forester, innis 
mo giùlan do anforsair. We told it to him, dh'-innis mi domh 
mì. What did he say to them, ciod a thubhaìrt mì rium^ 
That he will punish them, gu'm peanasaich m\ è. Though 
they received the money and the keys they did not tell it to 
me, ged fhuair m\ an airgiod agus an iuchair cha d' innis mi 
domh tad. The children came in, give them their dinner, 
tliainig an clann a-stigh thoir domh mo dinneir. 

1 1 . — Who is he ? Who is she ? Who are they ? Who did 
this ? Which side ? Who struck you ? What man was yon ? 
Who gave you the nut ? What is justification ? fireanachadh. 
— 2. What kind of tree is that ? What kind of man was yon ? 
What kind of bird is this ? — 4. Give me the knife, c \ an sgian. 
Show me your hand. Give me the tongs (clobha). Hand me 
the spoon. Show me the money. Let me see the well. 

12. — This house, tigh so. These barns, sabhal so. Those 
woods, coille sin. These nails, tarrang so. This shivering, 
gr\s so. Yon fields, raon ud. This spring, earrach so. Yonder 
(is) the spotted elk, sid os ballach. These plains, locar sin. 
Those tables. Yon windows. On these carpets. 

SUBJECT AND VERB. CÌlISEAR AGUS GNIOMHAR. 

Kule XIII. A verb is Riailt XIII. Cuirear 
placed before its nominative, gnìomhar roimh 'ainmeach 
and agrees with it in num- fein agus cbrdaidh è ris 'an 



their nouns ; as, 



àn ainmearàn ; mar, 



exercises. 



CLEACHDADH. 



ber and person ; as ; 



àireamh 's 'am pearsa ; mar, 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



203 



Deanadh e,let him do. Bhuail Iain, John struck. Dh'-ìocadh ìad, 
they would pay. Cha do dhiùlt sìnn, we did not reficse. An do* 
bhriseadh a' chìach, has the stone been broken ? 

1. — There is no Nominative expressed after those parts of the 
verb which have personal or pronominal terminations ; as, 
Bitheam, let me be. Tòisicheamaid, let us begin. Fosglaibh or 
fosglaibh-se, open ye. Dh'-ìarrainn or dh'-ìarainn-sa, I would 
ask. Ged thogamaid, though we should lift. 

2. — A question is always answered by the verb and tense 
which ask it, with and without the nominative expressed in the 
answer ; as, Am beil d' athair a-stigh ? Tha, or tha è,t is 
your father within ? Yes, or he is. An do bhris am 
balachan a' chlach ? Bhris or bhris è, did the boy break the 
stone ? Yes, or he broke. Am faca tu sid ? Chunnaic or chun- 
naic mì. 

3. — When a question is asked by the Past Tense of the Sub- 
junctive Mood, the answer is returned by the speaker in the 
second person of the same tense ; as, An deanadh tu sin, would 
you do that? Dheanadh (not dheanamw), Yes, Iwould (do). 
Cha deanadh, no, I would not. An òladh sìbh fìon, would you 
drink wine ? Dh'-òladh (not dh'-òlamaid), Yes. Cha n-òladh, 
No. 

4. — Sometimes a noun and its pronoun are used as a nomina- 
tive to the same verb ; as, " Thainig ìad òirnne na reubail" they 
came on us the rebels D. Macint. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

I strike, buail. He spilt, dòirt. We called, gairm. We 
shall speak, labhair. I cannot stand, seas. They may refuse, 
diùlt. I would see, faic. Let him fall, tuit. Confess ye, 
aidich. Let them go, rach. Let him not say, abair. I can 
read, leugh, I was baptized, baist. They will be exalted, 
àrdaich. They may be destroyed, mìll. It would be broken, 
bris. Let us be raised, tog. Be ye not condemned, dìt. I 
mentioned, ainmich. They would ask, ìarr. I cannot drink, 
òl. We will get, faigh. He was wounded, lot. I have been 
praised, mol. They had been abused, mìll. Leading, treòraich. 
Lost, càill. Stretched, s\n. 

Let me be, bi. Be ye wise, bi glic. Let us drink, òl. Shut 
ye the door, dùn dorus. They swept, m\ sguab. She will knit, 
mì figh. The chartists must flee, cairteach teich. The eggs 



* An do is often contracted na ; as, " na thuit è?" did hefall? " Na bhuail 
thu c?"— See page 83, note. 

t The pronoun or nominative is always expressed when emphasis is required. 



204 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



were not eaten, ubh ith. The house was built, tigh tog. The 
hair will not be burnt, loisg falt. He could notbend, m\ lùb. 
They will not kill, m\ marbh. If the field will not be dried, 
mur achadh tiormaich. Will you not explain, mi mìnich. The 
letter might be written, litir sgrìobh. Will they not come, mi 
thig % You could not kindle, mi las. The price ought to be 
lessened, prìs lughdaich. 

The house is a-building,* tog tigh. The corn was a-reaping, 
buain arbhar. We are being killed, mì marbh. The sheep wiil 
be a shearing, rùsg caora. The taxes may be a-raising, tog cis. 
Thepeats wi!l be a-casting or in being cast, mòine buain or geàrr. 
Could the stone not be cut by him, geàrr clach leam ? If the 
organ will be seen by them,/<^'c òrgan leam. If we should not 
have met them, tachair mì rium. I would keep that for you, 
glèidh mi sin domh. Though they were not paid, pàidh mi. 
You are teaching them, teagaisgmi mo. We were feeding thee, 
biadh mi mo. They will be choosing us, tagh mì mo. The 
sheriff was met by the oftìcers, coinnich siorradh le maor. 

Ceartaich, — Tog Iain an clach. Marbh mì seillean. Briseam 
mì an còrd sin. Fàgamaidsinn am baile. Fosglaibh sìbhse an 
dorus. Fuin Ealag an aran. Ol an cat an bainne. Cha bha 
Iseabal slàn an-dè. Bitheas am post an-so aig còig uairean. Ma 
bhuailim tu an each preabar è thu. Ged nach chunnaic sinn an 
grian ag èirigh, èirich è aig còig. Ghearrteadh è an craobh ann 
an dà mhionaid. Tilgeas mì fiadh. Dh'-òlamaidsinn deoch as 
am fuaran. 



Rule XIV. Present ac- 
tion is expressed by the 
Future Tense when it is of 
a customary nature ; as, 



Riailt XIV. Ainmichear 
gnìomh Làthair leis an Tìm 
Teacail, 'nuair a tha è de 
nàdur gnàthach ; mar, 



Esan à ghràdhaicheas fòghlum gràdhaichidh è eòlas ; He who 
loveth instruction loveth knowledge. Aithnichear gach eraobh air 
à toradh, every tree is known by its fruit.—(See Future, p. 111.) 

The Future of the Subjunctive is used after the relative a ; 
as, Am fear à ruitheas, the man that runs. — See Fut., page 97. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

The righteous is saved from Saor an f ìrean o tèinn. Tru- 

trouble. Evil communications aill droch comhluadar deagh 

corruptgoodmanners. Simple- bèus. Creid baothair a h-uile 

tons believe every thing, but nì, ach lean duine cìallach an 



* For the Progressive Passive Form of the Verb, see p. 109, 91. 



CO-'MANACHADH FHOCAL. 



205 



prudent men follow the truth. 
Who can say, I have purified 
my heart, I am pure from my 
sin. 

They that forsake the law 
praise the wicked, but they that 
keep thelawcontend with them. 
Train up a child in the way he 
should go, and when he is old 
he will not depart from it. The 
rich ruleth over the poor ; and 
he that taketh on loan is a ser- 
vant to him that lendeth. He 
that soweth iniquity shall reap 
vanity, and the rod of his anger 
shall be consumed. He that 
hath a bountiful eye shall be 
blessed, for he giveth of his 
bread to the poor. 



fìrinn. Co abair, glan mì mo 
cridhe bi mì glan o mo peac- 
adh. 

U Mol mì a trèig an lagh an 
aingidh, ach dean mì a gleidh 
an lagh strì rium. Teagaisg 
leanabh anns (or a-thaobh) an 
sligh air a còir domh ìmich, 
agus an uair a bi mì sean, cha 
trèig mì mì. Riaghail an bear- 
tach os-ceann an bochd ; agus 
bì an ti a gabh ann coingheall 
ann a seirbhiseach domh-sa a 
thoir an coingheall. An tì a sìol- 
cuir èuceart, buain mì dìomh- 
anas, agus caith slat mo fearg. 
Beannaich mise aig a bi sùil 
f ìal, oir thoir mì de mo aran do 
an bochd. 



The verbs Is, Bi, or Tlia, To be, with the Preposition 
Ann and the Possessive Pronouns. 

Rule XV. The Verb 7s* expresses the absolute or 
independent existence of an object, and Tha with Ann ex- 
presses the relative or specific existence, state, profession, 
or quality of an object ; as, 

Is òr so, this is goìd. Is duine mise, J am a man. Is tu mo bhrà- 
thair, thou art my brother. Is mise Peadar, / am Peter. Cha n-aol 
sin, that is not lime. Bu ghual sid, yon was coal. 

Tha with Ann. 

The verb Tha cannot be employed in such expressions as the 
preceding examples ; but the verb Is may be used for Tha, or 
Tha ànn, in any expression of Present or Past time ; thus, 

Tha mi 'n am'f' shaor, ('tì am for ann mo), | Is saor mì or mise, 
/ am a carpenter. \lama carpenter. 

Bha thu 'n ad chlachair, Cn ad for ann do), Bu chlachair thu, 
Thou wast a mason. \ Thou wast a mason. 



* Is expresses the existence of the genus; as, Is duine mì, 1 am a man ; Is 
craobh so, this is a tree. We cannot say Tka mi daine, Tha so craobh. 

t Often 'am shaor and a' m' shaor. Ann is always contracted 'n before the pos- 
sessive pronouns. For the constructions of Ann with the possessives, see p. 151, 
note +. For Ann, see p. 146, Obs. 



206 CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



An robh è 'n à phìobair ? (ann d) 

Was he a piper 1 

Tha sìnn 'n ar coigrich an-so, 

We are strangers here. 

Am beil sibh 'n ur ceannaichean % 

Mur robh ìad 'n àn gealtairean. 

Tha Iain 'n à sgoilear maith, 
John is a good scholar. 
Bha Ceit 'n à caileig ghrìnn, 
Catherine was afine girl. 
Tha è so 'n à là fuar, 
This day is cold. 



Am bu phìobair è \ 
Was he a piper ? 
Is coigrich an-so sìnn, 
We are strangers here. 
An ceannaichean sìbh ? 
Mur bu ghealtairean ìad. 

Is sgoilear maith Iain, 
John is a good scholar. 
Bu chaileag ghrìnn Ceit, 
Catherine was a fine girl. 
Is là fuar è so, 
This is a cold day. 



1. — When the Adjective is in the predicate, or forming 
a part of the Verb, Ann and the Possessive Pronouns are 
not used with Tha, and in this case the Adjective is in- 
declinable with both Verbs, whether the norainative be 
masculine or feminine ; as, 



Tha 'n là sofuar. 
Tha a' ghaoth/war à Tuath, 
The wind is cold from the North. 
Nach robh do làmh goirt % 
Tha na h-eòin sin bòidheach. 



Is fuar an là so. 

Is fuar a' ghaoth à Tuath, 

Cold is the windfrom the North. 

Nach bu ghoirt do làmh % 

Is bòidheach na h-eòin sin. 



2. — Ann is used with Is, and followed by de, when individuals 
are spoken of as belonging to a place, society, or party ; as, 'S 
ànn de na Sgiathanaich am fearud,^ow man is ofthe Skye-men, 
i. e. he belongs to the Isle of 8Tcye. B' ànn de na Phairisich ìad, 
tkey were of the Pharisees. — John i. 24. The verb Bi appears 
to be understood in these phrases ; as, Is ànn de na Sgiathanaich 
a tha ara fear ud. B' ànn de na Phairisich a bha ìad. — See 
p. 125, 126. 

Translate, — I am Alpha and Omega. I am that I am, Ti. 
Thou art the man. This is brass, umha. That is not money. 
This was our house. We are Scotchmen. Art thou James ? 
Ye are my friends. Those fowls were not eagles. This is not 
an elephant, elephant. Was that your knife. 

I am a shepherd. Were you long a farmer. He will be a 
sailor. If they were not fools. We are not Jews, Iùdhach. 
Is James a good tailor. That stone is white. This ground is 
soft. The night was dark. The bushes are green, gbrm. That 
is a wise woman. Your eyes are very red. 

Ceartaich, — Tha mì duine. Tha thu mo bhràthair. Tha ì 
mo phiuthar a's òige. Bha Tdmas mo charaid. Tha è so do 
ghunna. Tha so daoimean. Cha n-'eil è sin do chòta. Bha 
sid bhur tigh. Tha so cnò. An Ròmanach thu ? Cha n-'eiU 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



207 



Tha am fear ud Eirionnach. Cha n-'eil Sasunnach an gille Gàiì- 
da. Tha thu Gàel glan. Tha mì. Tha thu Sgiobair ri là gail- 
iinn. Tha mi maighstear-sgoile. Am heil thu breabadair ? An 
robh na gaisgich sin saighdearàn. Ged bha è dròbhair faodaidh 
è bhì fatbast diùc. Tha Seònaid deadh bean-tighe agus tha 
Se'ine banaltrum cùramach. Tha Sgiathanach an òigear ud? 
Cha n-'eil. Tar le mì gur beil è Abrach. 



GOYERNtfENT OF NOUNS. 

Rule XYI. One Noun 
govems another in the Geni- 
tive case ; or, 

When two nouns are used 
to denote the possessor and 
the thing possessed, the 
name of the possessor is 
govemed in the Genitive ; 
as, 



SPEEIGEADH ATNMEAEAN. 

Riailt XVI. Spreigidh 
aon ainmear fear eile, anns 
a' GMnteach ; no, 

'Xuair a ghabhar dà ain- 
mear a dh-ainmeachadh an 
t-sealbhadairus an nì air àm 
beil seilbh aige, sprèigear 
ainm an t-sealbhadair anns 
a' Ghinteach ; mar, 



Cas circe, a hen'sfoot. Cleòc namna ; the wife's cloak. Tigh 
an i-sagaert, the priest's house. Mac Theàrlaich, Charles" son. 
Tumas an £-saoàr, the carpenter's Thomas. Cìrean a' choilich 
dhuibh, the black cock's crest. Claidheamh nan gaisgeach, the 
sword ofthe heroes. 

1. — The name of the owner is always put last except in ex- 
pressions beginning with i^<zrand Bean, as exemplified on page 
158. 

2. — Though both nouns be limited in their signification, the 
article is prefixed only to the Xoun governed in the genitive ; 
and a possessive Pronoun excludes the article from both ; as, 
Taobh na mara (not an taobh), the side ofthe sea. Alac an 
rìgh- (not am mac), the son ofthe Mng. Falt mo chìnn (not 
am falt mo chìnn), the hair of my head. 

3. — Ownership is denoted by the position of the words, when 
the Xoun in the genitive is indeclinable or has no genitive form 
different from the Nominative; as, Tuireadh Ieremiàh, the 



* This is also the case in the Hebrew ; the sueceeding noun always defines the 
one which precedes it ; as, -jbnìl p (Ben he melek), (the) son ofthe king. It is 
also remarkable that in the Hebrew language, the name of the owner is determined 
by the position of the nouns, like indeclinable nouns in the Gaelic, without any 
precise form of a genitive case. — See Hurwitz' Hebrew Grammar, p. 34. 



208 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



lamentation of Jeremiah. Pàidheadh là. Tigh diùc. Mac rìgh. 
Luach òighreàchd. Sgìathan ìolairean. — See p. 179, No. VI. 

4. — Ownership or possession is often expressed by the Prepo- 
sitions Aig, Do, Le, prefìxed to the name of the Possessor, or 
compounded with the Pronouns ; as, 

Am peànn aig Iain, John's pen. Mac do* Thòmas, ason to Thomas, 
or Thomas' son. Achadk le Bòas, a field belonging to Boaz, or 
Boaz's field. — A' phìob agam-sa, my pipe. Is caraid dhuinn-ne an 
gille sin, that lad is a friend of ours. Is Zeam-sa fear mo ghràidh 
agus is le fear mo ghràidh mise, my beloved is mine and I am his. Co 
leis an ad so \ Whose is this hat ì Leam-sa, Mine. 

Obs. — The noun before aig requires the article ; as, an t-sùil 
agam, my eye. Na h-eich aig Tòmas, Thomas' horses. 

5. — When the Noun governed in the genitive is descriptive or 
characteristic of the Noun which governs it, or when the com- 
mon signifìcation of the preceding Noun is limited by the Noun 
in the genitive, the two words are united by a hyphen,t and 
form one complex term called a Compound Noun, of which the 
former term undergoes all the variations of declension, and the 
latter is construed like an adjective ; as, Fear-ciùil, a man of 
music, a musician. Ceann-tighe, head of a family or house, 
a chieftain. Cearc-f hraoich, a moor-hen.% In this class of nouns, 
the article is prefìxed to the governing noun whetherit be in the 
nominative or governed in the genitive by another, or in the 
dative by a preposition ; as, am fear-ciùil. Nead na circe- 
fraoich. Do 'n chirc-fhraoich. — See page 62. 

Obs. — When the hyphen is removed from such nouns as 
ceann-tighe and others of this class, the sense is quite different ; 



* Possession is expressed in Hebrew after this manner ; as, iVllZWbSTINI, 
(vath kel asher li) , and every thing which ivas to him, — lohich hehad, agus gach ni 
a bh' aige. jvbj? bxb ^H'D (ken lal Oliun), priest to the most high God.— Gen. 
xii. 20, xiv. 18. In the Latin also, a similar form of expression is employed in 
using the dative for the genitive ; as, Mihi frigidus horror membra quatit. — Virg. 
Mn. iii. 29. Cui corpus porrigitur, Tha 'n corp aige sìnte. — Id. Mn. vi. 596. 

t The use of the hyphen here is chiefiy to prevent the first term from usurping the 
whole accent, which always happens when the terms of a compound word are in- 
corporated into one compact word ; as, gàrbh'lach, an'shocair, from garbh'-chlach' 
and an'-shoc'air. — See p. 180, note. 

% Many local Proper Names are formed according to this construction, some of 
which are composed of two nouns only, some of two nouns with the article prefixed 
to the second term, and others of three nouns, and these, when used in English, are 
generally incorporated into one word ; as, Ionar-nis, Inverness. Ceann-tìre, 
head-land: Kintyre. Tom-a-chaisteil, Tomcastle, Castle-hill. Port-nan-Gàel, tìie 
Celts' harbour ; Portugal. Lòn-nam-manach, vulgarly called Leòr-nam-manach, 
the meadow ofthe monhs ; a fertile district in Inverness-shire, where the viUage of 
Beauly and a prioryare situated. Gleann-srath-farair, the vale of the strath òfthe 
river Farar, Glenstrathfarar. 



CO- : RIAXACHADH FHOCAL. 



209 



BS, ceann tighe, the end ofa house Soitheach faìa. a vessel cr 
dishofblood: but soitheach-fala. a blood-vessel. Cuilean leò- 
mhafn, a lioris ichelp or pug. Cuilean-leòmhai'n, a Uon-whelp 
or young Uon. So, eun circe and eun-circe. 

6. — tVhen two or more nouns are under the regimen of a pre- 
ceding Xoun, the last only is generally put in the genitive case ; 
as, " meas craobhan a' gtiàraidh" (not c/^raobhan), thefruit of 
the trees ofthe garden. 

7. — When the Xoun in the genitive signifies a person, it may 
be taken, as in Latin, either in an active or a passive sense ; as. 
gràdh Dhe', amor Dei. the love ofGod, either means the love of 
God towards us or our love towards Hira. Gràdh athar, carìtas 
patris, the atTection of a father to his children, or theirs to him. 
Moladh Mòraig, the praise given to or bj/ Sarah. 

8. — A Proper name mascuìine is aspirated in the genitive : as, 
Sgìan S^èuma?s, James' lcnife. Proper names of places are aspir- 
ated whether they be masculine or feminine ; as. Sagart M^idia/n, 
the priest of Midian. Mùinntear Gh!inn-sìth, the people ofGIen- 
shee. Tigh Dhail-na-ceàrdaich. the house of Dalnacardoch. 

Except. — A Proper name beginning with D or T, governed by 
a noun ending in N } is commonly plain ; as^ Xighean Donnach- 
aidh, sometimes Xighean Dhonnachaidh, Duncaris daughter. 
So, Uan De'; but we always say Mac Dhia or Mac Dhe'. 

Obs. — Baile, Ceann, Coire, Cnoc, Dùti, Gleann, Mac, are 
used as prefixes of many proper names, and generally as- 
pirated when governed by another word ; as, Fear B^aile-chaol- 
ais. Muinntear Chinn-tìre. Cumha Choire-cheathaich. Fear 
Chnuic-Fhìnn. Tigh Mhic-Shimidh. Mhìc is sometimes con- 
tracted 'Ic ; as, Mac 'Ic- Alasdair. 

9. — The titles SSr, Diùc, Morair, Maighstear, are aspirated, 
but the personal names which folkw them are plain and 
terminate Hke the nominative ; as Tigh SAir Teàrlach, Sir 
Charles' house. Oighreachd D//iùc Gòrdan, the Duke of 
Gordoris property. Clànn Mhorair Sìm, Lord Lovat's child- 
ren. Tigh Mhaighstir Friseal, Mr Fraser's house.* — Vide 
Rule II., Xo. 5. 

10. — Feminine proper names are generally plain; as, Gàn 
Seònaid, Janet's goicn. Moladh Mòra/g. 

When an adjective, such as bàn, dubh, dònn, beag, mòr, 
ruadh, &c. is construed with the proper narae of woman, the 



* Fear preftxed to the names of places is both plain and aspirated in the genitive ; 
as. Tigh Fir-Ghàthain. or FTiir-Ghàthain. Bcan or Ban suffers no inflection when 
thus eombined ; as, Tigh Bean-Chomair. Thubhairt >~aomi r' à ban-chliamhuin . 
— Ruth ii. 20.— See p. 158. 

O 



210 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



adjective retains its nominative form, when the name is governed 
in the genitive ; as, Mac Seònaid Bhàn (not Seonaid ba,me), 
Janet Bain, or Fair Janet's son. 

Obs. — Proper names of females are in many instances as- 
pirated ; as, Cille-MAòraig. Tobar-MAoire. In many places 
they are used in both ways ; as, tigh Ceit mhòr or Cheit mhòr. 



EXERCISES. 

The horse's halter. The 
bird's wing. A hare's skin. 
Side of the burn. Calf of the 
white cow. Top of the stack. 
The price of fish. W ell of the 
heads. Wing of the black hen. 
The stream of sounds. Beams 
of the moon. Top of the heath. 
Light of the sun. Day of 
wrath. Brink of the river. 
The sheep's cot. Key of the 
little door. Ossian's poems. 
People of the land. End of 
the reed. The House of Lords. 
Tbe fair maid's gloves. A 
wedge of gold. The black 
wheìp's ear. The wild goat's 
milk. The frugal wife's wisdom. 

2. — The pen of the young 
clerk. Under the shade of the 
green oak. The days of the 
storms. The end of the world. 
The spoil of the foes. The king 
of the brave Fingalians? My 
sister's son. Your grandfather's 
house. The apple of her eye. 
The tops of their heads. The 
fruitfulness of our flelds. 

3. — Job'ssons. Thehingesof 
the long box. The tip of his 
tongue. The speaking of the 
Gaelic, English, and French. 
The law of this kingdom. The 



CLE ACHDADH. 

Taod an each. Sgìath an 
eun. Bìan maigheach. Taobh 
an àllt. Laogh an bò bàn. 
Mullach an cruach. Prìs an 
ìasg. Tobar an ceann. Sgìath 
an cearc dubh. Sruth an fuaim. 
Gath an gealach. Bàrr an 
fraoch. Solus an grìan. Là 
an feàrg. Bruach an abhainn. 
Crò an caora. Iuchair an do- 
rus beag. Dàn Oisean. Sluagh 
an tìr. Ceann an cuilc. Tigh 
an Morair. Làmhainn an òigh 
bàn. Gèinn òr. Cluas an cuil- 
ean dubh. Bainne an gobhar 
fìadhaich. Gliocas an bean 
gleidhteach. 

2. — An peann an cleireach òg. 
Fo sgàil an darag gòrm. An là 
an faoilteach. 1 An deireadh an 
saoghal. An faobh an nàmhaid. 
An righ an Feinn cruadalach 
(p. 183). An mac mo piuthar. 
An tigh mo seanair. An ubhal 
mo sùil. An mullach mo ceann. 
An sìolmhorachd mo achadh. 

3. — Mac Iob. An bànntach 
an bocsa fada. An bàrr mo 
teanga. Labhairt an Gàelig, an 
Beurla agus an Fràngais. Lagh 
rìoghachd so. An uisg an loch. 



1 Faoilteach, sometimes faoileach, ivorafaol, a wolf, and teachd, coming; stormy 
weather. Na faoiltich, the last fortnight of winter and the first fortnight of spring ; 
probably so called because these days being generally very cold, ravaging wolves 
were compelled to leave their retreats and approach the dwellings of men. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



211 



water of the lake. The depth 
of the notch. The buttons of 
thy coat. 

4. — I have good raeal. That 
youth is a son of mine. Peter's 
bonnet. These lambs are ours. 
That ring belongs to Mary. 
Whose are these beads ? Ours. 
There was a man before this (of 
old) whose name was Gorla-nan- 
tred, who had three sons and one 
daughter whose name was the 
beauty of the golden hair and 
the silver-comb. 

5. — The moorhen's nest. The 
maids of the sheeling-booth. 
The noise of the mill-stone. The 
ears of the milk-pail. The top 
of the wind-mill. The taste of 
the sea-tangles. The fìshing- 
rod's wheel. The sun of early 
rnorn. 



An doimhne an eag. An putan 
mo còta. 

4. — Bi min math aig mì. Bi 
mac do mi òganach sin. An 
boineid agam Peadar. Isleam 
uan so. Is leam Màiri fàinne 
sin. Co ta le grìgeag sin ? 
Leam-sa. Bì duine ànn roimhe 
so do à is ainm Gorla-nan-trèud 
aig à bi triùir mac, agus aon 
nighean do a is ainm àilleagan 
an falt òr agus an cìr airgiod.— 
See p. 73.— Obs. 3. 

5. — Nead an cearc-fhraoich. 
An maighdean an bothan-àiridh. 
An fuaim an clach-mhuilinn. 
An cluas an cuinneag-bhainne. 
An mullach an muileann- 
gaoithe. An blas an slat-mhara. 
An cùibhle slat-iasgaich. An 

l grìan òg madainn. 

Ceartaich 'us eadar-theangaich. — 6. Moladh Beinne Dòrain. 
Cleachdadh cloinne nan daoine. Bràthair mna an t-saoir. 
Ceòl nighinn na h-àiridh. luchair doruis an tighe. Ainm 
mo chinn Cinnidh. Deoch-slàinte Agais-Fear. Bàs Comair- 
Bean. 8. — Dàn Solazmh. Deoch-slàinte Donnachaadh Bàn nan 
òran. Mac Fmn. Gu Slìabh Siozn. Bean Cailein dhuinn. 
Tighearn Gleann-garazdh. Iompair Prusia. Mnathan Cnoc- 
a-mhòid. 9. — Nigliean Sir Thòmais, Frìth Morair Shì.n. 
10. — Tigh Mhàiri bàine. Cearc Ealasaid bige. Bò Cheite mòire. 



GOVERNMENT OF ADJECTIVES. 

RuleXVII. AnAdjec- 
tive prefixed to a Noun, a 
Verb, or another Adjective, 
aspirates that Noun, Verb, 
or Adjective ; as, 



SPREIGEADH BHUADHAEAN. 

Riailt XVII. Sèidichidh 
Buadhar roimh Ainmear, 
gnìomhar no Buadhar eile, 
an t-ainmear an gnìomhar 
no 'm buadhar sin ; mar, 



Og bAean, a young wife. Grad-gAluais, move quickly. Cù 
dubh-d/iònn, a dark-brown dog. 

A noun begìnning with d, s, or t, is plain after seann or sean, 
old, and aon, one ; as, seann d uine, seann soc ; seann tigh ; 



212 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORBS. 



aon dòm; aonsuil; aon toll. A noun with c, or g, is com- 
monly plain after droch ; as, droch càinnt ; droch Gàelig. 

Rule XVIII. The Adjectives làn t buidheach, sgìth, 
and mòran, beagan, tuilleadh or tuille, govern the genitive 
without the article ; as, 

Làn òir, full of gold. Buidheach beidh, satisfied with 
food. Sgìth òi\, tired of drinhing. Mòran bruidhne, much 
tallcing. Beagan cadazl, little sleep. Tuilleadh gliocazV, more 
wisdom. 

Obs. — When the article is prefixed to the noun, these adjec- 
tives require the preposition de after them, which puts the noun 
in the dative ; as, làn de 'n òr,fidl ofthe gold, or of gold. 

Adjectives of scarcity, such as gànn, falamh, lòm, beag, 
require the preposition De ; as, gànn de stòras, scarce of 
wealth. — See de under Rule XXX. 

Rule XIX. Adjectives of Volition or Readiness, such 
as toileach, ullamh, deònach, fyc, and their opposites, govern 
the Infinitive without its sign a or a dh-, when it has no 
object, and when its object is a Possessive Pronoun ; as, 

Toileach ionnsachadh, willing to learn. Ullamh gu do 
bhualadh, ready to strihe thee. Tha mì deònach falbh leat, / 
am willing to go with thee. 

Obs. — When the object is a noun, or an emphatic personal 
pronoun, the infinitive after these adjectives takes its sign A, if 
its fìrst letter be a consonant ; as, Toiìeach a' chlach a òMseadrn 
Ullamh gus a' chraobhaghea.rra.dh. Deònach ìadsan a ^eagasg. 
— See p. 184, No. XV. 

Rule XX. Adjectives Riailt XX. Gabbaidh 
signifying an offection of the Buadharàn a' cìallachadh 
raind, Profit, Likeness, Prox- staidmntinn,Buannàchd,Col- 
imity, &c, and their oppo- | tais, Faisgeid, &c, 's àm 
sites, require the preposi- j focail-aghaidh,naroimhear- 
tìonsAig,air,do,orri,&c.;8iS, j àn Aig, air, do no ri ; mar, 

Mìannach air urram, fond of honour. Math air sgrìobhadh, good 
at writing. Math air sealg an fhèidh, goodinhunting the deer. Math 
aig an ràmh, active at the oar. Fagus do 'n tigh, near (to) the house. 
Fagusdwibh-se, nearyou. Coltachnd'athair,7iA;(??/owr/a^er. Trom 
air an òl,— air an t-snaoisean, (heavy on the),—addicted to drinking 
®nd snuff. Mi-fhìalaidh ri coigrich, unhospitable to strangers. 



CO- RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



213 



Adjectives signifying good and bad affections of the mind ; 
skill and activity of body or mind. With aig, — math, sgileil, 
scòlta, tapaidh, teòma, &c. With air, — cronail, càimhneach, 
dearmadach, deònach, diombach, dèigheil, easgaidh feàrgach, 
eòlach, fiosrach, ìarrtach, math or maith, mìannach, sànntach 
togarach, toileach. With ri and some with do, — bàigheil, 
blàth, brosgulach, càirdeil, caomh, caomhail, caoimhneil, cealg- 
ach, cìallach, dàimheil, fàbharach (do), fiàghantach, iochdail, 
màirneach, nàimhdeil, seirceil, socrach(do), socharach, sodalach, 
tlusal, &c. Of Profit, Advantage, or Disadvantage with air, — 
airidh, beag, cruaidh, daor, dearmadach, fiadhaich, gànn, math, 
mòr, olc, suarach, teànn, toilltinneach, tròm, &c. With do, — 
buailteach, ceart, cìnnteach, cothromach, dìleas, dualach, duilich, 
dligheach,fèumail,freagarrach, math, olc, tàmailteach, tàrbhach, 
torach. Of Likeness, with ri, — cosmhail, coslach, coltach, ionan, 
co-ionann, coimeas. Of Proximity, with DO,—fagus, faisg, 
fogus, dlàth, or dlà. 

Math or maith, with the verb Is, without a noun, is used ad- 
verbially, meaning well, nicely; as, Is math a c rinn thu sin, you 
didthat well. Is maith a gheibhear §ùìh,you are found well, 
doing well. An expression of approbation in approaching a 
person at any good work. Its opposite is, <f is olc a gheibhear 
sìbh." " Is maith a 'rinn Isàiah fàidheadaireachd mu bhur 
timchioll," well did Isaiah prophesy concerning you. — Bib. 



OOVERNMENT OF NUMERALS. 

Rule XXI. Dà governs 
its Noun in the dative sin- 
gular, and the nine nunierals 
dithis, triàir, ceathrar, &c., 
require the genitive plnral ; 
as, 



SPREIGEADH CHÙNNTACH. 

Riailt XXI. Spreigidh 
Dà an t-ainmear aige, 's an 
doirtach aonar, agus gabh- 
aidh na naoidh cùnntaicli 
dithis, triùir, &c. an ginteach 
iomadh ; mar, 



Dà làg'mh, two liands. Dà mhnaoi, two wives. Tha do dhà 
chzch mar dhà mheànn earba, thy two breasts are lihe two young 
roes — Cant. vii. 3. Dithis m/iac, two sons. Triùir dhaoine. 
Ceathrar bhan. — See p. 70. 

1. — An adjective combined with a masculineor feminine noun, 
after Dà, is put in the nominative singular ferainine ; as, Dà 
bhonnach b/ieag, two small bannocks. Dà chraoibh c/àanail, 
two solitary trees. — Oss. After a preposition governing the 
noun in the dative, the adjective is put in the dative case, as Do 
dhà mhnaoi òig, to two young wives. Anns an dà chuazch 
bhz'g, in ihe two smallcups. Tne noun combined with dà is put 



214 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



in the genitive singular when governed by another noun ; as, 
bùinn ino dhà ohoise, the soles ofmy twofeet. Prìs an dà osain, 
the price of the two hose, — of a pair of hose. Clànn na dà 
pheathar, the children of the two sisters. 

2. — The Numerals aon, dà, a'cheud or an ceud, aspirate their 
nouns ; as, aon p/aìob, onepipe. Dà cAois, twofeet. K' cheud 
c^eist, the first question. 

3. — Deug, ten, combined with Dà, andafter plural nouns not 
ending in -an, -a, or -e, is aspirated ; as, An dà fhear dAeug, 
the twehe. Bha aig Sìba cuig mic dAeug òga. — Bible. 

Except. — After some polysyllables deug is sometimes plain ; 
as, ceithir ginealaech deug. Cuig secezl deug. — Id. 

Deug is plain after plurals in -in, -an, -a, -e ; as, ceithir uaiw 
deug, 14 lambs. Dh'-fan mì maille ris cuig làitheaw Jeug. Sè 
nigheana cfeug. — Id. 



EXERCISES. 

1 7. — A good boy. The true 
believers. Many people. A 
young man. Narrow street, 
Black gruel. The high priest. 
Old wives. Highly extol. Ex- 
ceedingly good. Loudly sing. 
Last long. Old house. One 
ton. 18.— Full of flesh. A 
boat full of fìsh. Satisfied with 
meat. More speech. Little 
sense. Tired of him. Much 
knowledge. Scarce of money. 
Empty of water. 19. — I am 
willing to write. It is right to 
pray. I wish to hear you. I 
am ready to count the money. 



CLEACHDADH. 

1 7 — Deagh giull an. An fi or 
creideach. Mòr sluagh. Og 
fear. Caol sràid. Dubh bro- 
chan. An àrd sagart. Seann 
bean. Ard-mol. Sàr math. 
Ard-sèinn. Buan-mair. Seann 
thigh. Aonthùnna. 18. — Làn 
feòl. Bàtalàn ìasg. Buidh- 
each bìadh. Tuilleadh sean- 
achas. Beagan cìall. Sgìth 
diom. Mòran eòlas. Gànn 
an airgiod. Falamh an uisg. 
19. — Bi mì deònach sgrìobh. 
Is còir ùrnuigh dean. Bi mì 
toileach do clùinn. Bi mì 
| ullamh gus an airgiod cùnnt. 



20. — The clerk is very expert at the pen, bi an clèireach math 
peann. Was he not good at the fishing ? bi mi math ìasgach ? 
No, but he was very clever at counting the money, cha bì, ach 
bi tapaidh cùnntadh an airgiod. The men are mindful of their 
business, bi an duine cùimhneach mo gnothach. The master 
was displeased with me, maighstear diombach mi. That porter 
is too fond of drinking, bi portair sin dèigheil òl. I am not 
acquainted with the provost of this city, cha bi eòlach prothaist 
baile so. How keen the cat is for the mouse, cia mìannach cat 
luch. Though the factor was kind to me, I shall not flatter him 
(not be flattering to him),factair caoimhncil chabhì mìbrosgul- 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



215 



ach è. Be ye respectful to gentlemen and charitable to the poor, 
bì modhail or mùirneach uasal 'us seirceil bochd. Is that smart 
sailor not worthy of praise, sebladair smìorail airidh cliù ? He 
is, for he rescued the boy from being drowned, oir teasairg rrìì 
o bàth. It was good for the youth that he was near him, is math 
an òganach gun bi mi teann è. It was natural fbr him to be 
fearless, is dualach è bì neo-sgàthach. Is he not very like his 
father? coltach, He is. Where is his house? It is near the sea, 
fagus or dlùth. 

Correct. — Sgìath an eun dhearg. Cas an cearc. Sròn an 
torc chìar. Cùl mo ceann. Sùil na cìoich-mhuilinn. Dorus a' 
mhuilinn-gaoithe. Cas na spàine-adhairc. Sàr curaidh. Baile 
Daibhidh. Sgoilean-dhànnsa. Eich-cogaidh. Maith ris an 
ràmh. Aon theaghlach. — Dà uinneagan : dà chas : dà chuileag 
beag : dà bhòrd mòr : air an dà duilleag beag : pris an dà each : 
eisdeachd do dhà chluas. — Seachdnar mac. Ceìthir balg deug : 
òchd eun deug. Cuig tasdain dheug. Naoi cearcan dheug. 
Sè cip deug, dà fhichead greusaichean, 's a trì dheug minidh. 



COMPARISON OF OBJECTS. 

Rule XXII. The Com- 
parative or Superlative de- 
gree expressed by the Verb 
Bij requires Na 's* or Ni 's 
before the adjective and Na 
after it : expressed by the 
Verb Is, Na alone is placed 
between the two nouns com- 
pared; as, 



COIMEASACHADH CHUSPAIR. 

Riailt XXII. 'Nuair a 
dh-ainmichear an Coimeas- 
ach no 'n t-Anardach leis a' 
ghnìomliar B\ cuirear Na's 
no Ni 's roi 'n bhuadhar 'us 
Na 'n à dheigh : ainmichte 
le Js, cuirear Na leis-fèin 
eadar an dà ainmear choim- 
easaichte; mar, 



Tha mo làmh-sa na 's gile na do làmh-sa, or Is gile mo làmh- 
,sa na do làmh-sa, my hand is whiter than your hand. 



* Na's appeavs to be clevived frora ànn in ; a, who or which, and the Verb Is ; 
as, ann a is gile, in which is whiter, i. e. whiter ; and contracting ann and is, as 
is usually done, we have 'n a's or na's gile. There can be no doubt that Is 
l'orms the second part of na's, as it drops the 's before Bu the past of Is ; as, 
Bha è na bu ghHe, Bha è na b' àirde. Na's is written nios in the Irish ; as, 
" tha à cheann nios gile na sneachda." Nios of the Irish and ni's of the Scot- 
tish Gaelic, are derived fvom nì, a thing, and the Verb Is,- as, tha 'n duine so 
ni's glice na fear dhiùbh, this man is wiser than any of them, literally, this maìi 
is a wiser thing than any of them. This example brings out the impropriety 
of using ni's instead of na's— See p. 66. Comparison is sometimes expressed in 
the Irish by adding -tir to the comparative degree of the adjective ; as, " tha 
à cheann gile tir nasneachda, Iiis head is whiter than snoiv."—lRisH Grammab, 
1841. 



216 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



Bha è na b' àirde na 'n sluagh uile; b' àird' è na 'n sluagh 
uile, he was higher than all thepeople. — See p. 66. 

Obs — The particles ro, fior, are prefixed to the comparative 
to give it more intensity ; as, ainm an Tighearn a's ro àirde, tke 
name ofthe Lord most high. Psalm vii. 17. Am fear a's fior 
fheàrr, the best or the very best one. 

1. — Wlien a selection is made, and when more than two objects 
are compared, the adjective with a's or bu before it, is followed 
by de. of and often by ànn, aig, am-measg, &c. ; as, 

Is è Peadar a's sine de 'n dithis, Peter is the elder of the two. 
Is ì Mòrag a's bòidhche dhinhh uile, Sarah is the prettiest op 
them all. Is è Solamh duine bu ghlice 'bh' ànn rìamh, Solomon 
was the wisest man that ever existed. 

2. — When a selection is expressrd by the verb Bi, one of the 
words aon, fear, or tè is used before de or aig ; as, Tha 'chlach 
so na's truime na aon diùbh sin, — na te' dhiùbh sin. Or by Is ; 
as, is tniime 'chlach so na aon diùbh sin, this stone is heavier 
than any ofthese. Tha è na's treise na fear aca, he is stronger 
than any ofthem, he is the strongest ofthem all. 

3. — A property or quality of an object is put in the Superla- 
tive degree by a's or bu, and the fìrst Comparative placed be- 
tween the two nouns, and their relation is expressed in English 
by ofor whose ; as, ' f Rìgh a's guirme sm\," king of the bluest 
eye, or whose eye is most blue. " Oigh mhìn bu ghile làmh," 
gentle virgin of the fairest liand, or whose hand was fairest. — 
Oss.— See page 181, No. IX. 

The Positive is sometimes used after Bu ; as, gunna bu mhath 
glèus, a gun of a good lock, having a good lock. Greidhean bu 
gìieal cèir, herds of white buttock. — D. Macint. — See page 181, 
No. IX. 

4. — The second Comparative follows the Verb Is, Bu ; as, Is 
àexrgid am bòrd an còt' ud, the table is redder for yon coat (of 
paint). Is fheàirrd an leanabh à gharadh, the child is the better 
ofhis warming, ofbeing ivarmed. 

The third Comparative preceded by an (for ann an) follows 
the verbs Cuir, Èach, and often Is ann air ; as, Cuir a' phrìs 
an ìughad, put the price into smallness, diminish or lower the 
price. Tha Peadar a' dol am feothas,* Peter is getting better, 



* Alsofeabhas,feobha$,fearras; as, Is dìomhanas gaeh duine d' à fheàbhas, 
every man is vanity at his best state. Ps. xxxix. 5. Feothas is commonly used in 
conversation, and signifies improvement or advancement in health ; superiority or 
goodness in action ; as, " Tha è 'dol amfeothas," getting into better health. " Air 
taobh anfheothais," on the side of getting better, convakscent. Air fheothas d' an 



CCVRIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



217 



improving, becoming convalescent. Tha do shùil dearg, your 
eye is red. Is ànn air à deirgmc?, it is red, i. e. itpossesses red- 
ness or a degree of redness. " An deirgead, an grinnead, am 
mìnead 's an tinnead," in redness, in niceness, in smoothness, and 
tightness. — A. M'Donald. — See page 67. 

Obs. — Since there is but one form of the Adjective for both the Com- 
parative and Superlative degrees of the quality expressed by the Posi- 
tive, the degree of comparison must be determined by the number of 
objects compared. If there be only two objects compared, the Adjec- 
tive expresses the Comparative degree of the quality ; if three or more 
objects be compared, the Adjective expresses the Superlative degree 
of the quality ; as, " a' charraig a's àirde na mi-fèin," the rock that ìs 
higher than I. Here the Adjective àirde denotes the Comparative 
degree, because there are only two objects compared, namely, a' 
charraig and ml-fèiìi. " Am meangan à b' àirde de 'n t-sèudar," the 
highest branch of the cedar. Here àirde denotes the greatest or 
Superlative degree of the quality, because meangan is put in compari- 
son with more than one branch, with manganàn or all the other 
branches of the cedar.* 

Bender into Gaelic, — Whiter than the snow, geal sneachd, 
Sweeter than honey, milis mil. Heavier than lead, tròm luaidh. 
Thy cheek is redder than the rose, bi mo gruaidh dearg ròs. 
The words of his mouth were smoother than butter, and his con- 
versation was softer than oil, is mhifocal mo bèul hn agus is bog 
mo còmhradh oladh. (The) tenantry is stronger than (the) 
laird, is làidir tuath tighearn. Sarah is the wisest of them, 
is \ Mòrag glic de ìad. Who is the greatest in the kingdom ? 
co is ìnòr anns an rìoghachd ? O thou fairest among women, 
thusa àillidh am-measg bean. Tlie highest seats in the syna- 
gogues, an cathair àrd anns an sionagog. He gave me the best 



coisich thu, gabhaidh tu trì uairean a ruigsinn an àite sin, however well you walk, 
you will take three honrs to reach that place. 

The learned Dr Armstrong appears to have mistaken the proper construction 
of the third comparative, when he says, " a dol ain feàirrd, growing better, ad- 
vancing in betterness ," which should be a' dol amfeothas. Feàirrd and the second 
comparative of other adjectives always follow the Verb Is, but no part of the Verb 
Rach; as, is f heàirrd mì sin, / am the better for that. Bu ghih'o! an t-aodach an 
glanadh ud, the clothes was whiterfor yon tvashing. " Is bigid or is lughaid ì sid ars' 
an dreadhan 'nuair a thug è làn à ghuib às a' mhuir," it is the less for yon, said 
the wren, when he took a mouthful out ofthe sea. — Gaelic l'rov. — See Armstkong's 
Gaelic Grammar, p. 61. 

* There is some analogy between the Hebrew and Gaelic adjectives in their mode 
of expressing comparison. The Hebrew adjective undergoes no variety of termina- 
tion to denote degrees of comparison ; it effects this process by prefi.xing syllables 
corresponding to the words as, fkom, among, by repeating the adjective, or annei- 
ingthe pluralofthe noun compared ; as, D s rTft bllD (gadol mea-yam) , great from 
the sea, i. e. greater than the sea, na's mò na 'n fJiàirge. CtyjN^ bTTDiT (aggadol 
ba-na-shim), the great amongmen, i. e. the greatest among men; D" s Db?2 "jba 
( melek melàkim) , king of kings, i. e. the greatest of kings. These Hebrew words are 
read with the vowel points. 



218 CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 

harp and kept the worst one to himself, thoir mi domh an cruit 
math agus cum mì an tè olc domh-fèin. The tiger is large, the 
lion is larger, but the eìephant is the largest and strongest of the 
three, tigear mòr, leòmhan, elephant làidir . 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

Eule XXIII. Mo,do, and 
à aspirate their noun; but 
after ar, bhur, am, an, à, the 
noun is plain ; as, 



RIOCHDARAN SEILBHEACH. 

Eiailt XXIII. Sèidichidh 
Mo, do, à, àn ainmear ; ach 
an-dèigh ar, bhur, am, an, à, 
tha 'n t-ainmear lòm ; mar, 



Mo sAìiil, my eye. Do c/ias, thy foot. A p/^eann, his pen. Ar ca- 
raid, our frìend. Bhur tigh or ur tigh, your house. Am fuil, their 
blood. An gaol, their love. A ceann, her head or its head. — For the 
elisions of mo, do, a, see page 74. 

1 — Cuid,* some or part, is often used between the possessives 
and their nouns, when more than one object is spoken of, and 
the plain form of the genitive plural of the noun is generally 
annexed ; as, Mo chuid mzc, my sons. Do chuid mac : à chuid 
mac : à cuid mac : ar cuid mac, &c. Mo chuid bròg, my shoes. 
Do chuid bròg : à chuid bròg, &c. Mo chuid daoine, &c. 
Prionnsa Teàrlach 's à chuid Fràngach, Prince Gharles and 
his Frenchmen. — D. Macint. If the noun be of a collective 
nature, its genitive singular is annexed ; as, mo chuid aodas'ch, 
my clothes. Do chuid aodaach, &c. Mo chuid fuilt, my hair, 
&c. 

2. — A (his) is elided before a vowel, orfh pure, and its place is 
supplied with an apostrophe ; as, 'athair (for d athair), his fa- 
ther ; 'fhuil (for d fhuil), his blood.See fh, p. 10. 

3. — Ar and bhur, ur, take n-, and à (her) takes h- before 
words beginning with a vowel ; as, ar n-athair, our father ; 
bhur w-onoir, your honour ; à h-èideadh, her dress. 

Geartaich. — Mo meur : mo òrdag : do cluas : à pìob : à ghùn : 
ar bhaile : bhur chreideamh : an cheum. His horse, à each : 
à f hèileadh : ar obair : ur ùrnuigh. 



VERB AND ITS OBJECT. 

Rule XXIV. A transi- 
tive Verb governs its object 
after it in the accusative ; 
as, 



GNIOMHAR S A CHUSPAIR. 

Riailt XXIV. Spreigidh 
Gnìomhar asdach à chuspair 
'n à dhèigh anns a' chuspa- 
rach; mar, 



* Akin to tlie Latin aliquid, quidam, some. 



CO-'RIAXACHADH FHOCAL. 



219 



Sgrìobh mì litir, I wrote a letter. Bhuail Iain A3i bòrd, 
John struck the tahle. Cha do bhris ìad na clachan, they did 
not break the stones. 

1. — Only the Simple Tenses of a Verb, namely, the Impera- 
tive, Past, and Future govern the object placed after the Verb 
in the Accusative ; as, briseam a' chlach ; bhris mì a' chlach ; 
brisidh mì a' chlach ; bhrisinn a' chlach. 

2. — Some Neuter Verbs take a kindred Noun for their object ; 
as, 'Ruith mì mo rèis, I ran my race. 

3. — Àlany Active and Neuter Verbs require a Preposition after 
them to make their sense complete; as, leig as mo làmh, let go 
my hand. Tog ort, lìft on thee; prepare thyself. Tog dheth, 
leace offit, desist. Gabh air a' chù, beat the dog. Buail air an 
obair, or èirich air an obair, begin the worTc. Chaidh è fcdha, 
'san uisge, he went below it in the water, i. e. he sunìc in the 
water. Eisd ris an duine, listen to the man, hear the man. 

4. — The Prepositions air, de. le, ri, &c. simple or com- 
pounded, are used with several verbs ; as, 

With air, — beir, blais, buail, cuir, dean, fairtlich, feith, fuas- 
gail. furtaich, guidh, ìarr, labhair, leig, mag, oibrìch, tog, &e. 

With de. — cuir, dean, gabh, leig, ta, thoir, tog, &c. 

With le, — aontaich, cuidich, cuir, èirich, faibh, rach. soir- 
bhich. tar, thig, tog, &c. 

"With ri, — abair, cuir, dìrich, fan, freasdail, feith, fuirich, 
gabh, labhair, tog, &c. 

5. — The Verbs Cuir, to put, Gabh, to tahe, and Thoir, to 
give, combined with Nouns, Pronouns, or Prepositions, form 
many important phrases which are generally rendered by one 
English Verb bearing the meaning of the Tvord annexed ; as, 

Cuir 'an clò, put in type, to print. Cuir an aghaidh, put in 
theface; to oppose. Cuir an neo-bhrigh, to male ofnone effect. 
Cuir an cèill, to declare ; — air cùl, to abrogate ; — cùl ri, to 
forsake; — an sùim, to esteem ; — air chois, institute ; — as, 
to extinguish ; — air, to precail ; — as mo leth, &c. to accuse 
or impeach me, &c. ; — air aghart, topromote ; — amharus, to sus- 
pect, doubt ; — crìoch, tofinish ; — dòchas, to hope ; — duil- 
ghios, togrieve; — bogha air lagh, to bend a bow; — drùidheachd, 
tobewitch ; — dràgh air, to trouble or molest; — dàil, to delay ; — 
fo sgaoil, to release ; — fàilt, to salute ; — fo mhionnaibh, to bind 
or adjure by oath ; — gu buil, to employ to purpose; — ìm- 
pidh, to constrain ; — leam, leat, &c. to support me, thee, &c. ; 
— ort, &c. to put on thee } &c. ; — d'ordag fo mo chrios, put thy 
thumb under my belt, to submit ; — rèis, to run a race ; — sà- 
radh, to arrest (in law) ; — smugaid, to spit ; — suarach, to 



220 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



despise ; -ri or ris, to add to, to apply ; — romham, romhad, 
&c. to purpose or resohe ; -ùmhladh, to fine ; — air gnothach, to 
send a message ; — ànn, to further ; — air leth, to separate ; 

— sneachd, to snow ; — sìol, to sow seed.* 

Gabh ; as, gabh agam, &c. to engage with me, &c. ; — air, 
orm, to beat or punish; — air aghaidh, adhart, to advance ; 

— a-nall, to come over ; — a-null, to go over ; — a-nios, to 
come in or up ; a-nuas, to come down ; ghabh è air, or air fèin, 
he pretended, feigned ; — eagal, to fear; — fois, to rest ; 

— fradharc, to vieio; — gnothach ri, to meddle with ; — iongari- 
tas, to wonder ; — le, leam, to side with ; — oilbheum, to be 
offended ; — òran, crònan, duanag, tosing a song; — ri, rium, 
to acknowledge, receive kindly ; — romhad, &c. to go thy way ; 

— seachad air, to pass by ; — sìos, to go down; — 'san arra, 
san t-saighdearachd, airgiod an rìgh, to enlist in the army ; 

— teicheadh, to flee ; — uarahas. to be terrified; -uam, begone ; 

— umam, &c. to see to me, to take care ofme. 

Thoir ; as, thoir as ; — thu fèin as, to run away hastily, be- 
gone ; -às a chèile, to disjoin, separate ; — a-bhos, to reach or 
fetch here ; — an aire, to take care ; — air ais, to bring back, 
withdraw; — air aghaidh, to advance ; — air fàlbh, to take 
away ; — breith, tojudge ; — car as, to cheat ; — comas, to en~ 
able ; — dùbhlan, to challenge ; — eigh, glaodh, to cry ; — fain- 
ear, to observe ; — fianuis, to witness, to depone ; — fèum as, 
to make use of; — fios, to acquaint; — geàll, to pledge, pawn, 
mortgage; — gèill, to surrender, obey ; — gu crìch, to finish ; 

— luaidh, to mention ; — mionnan, to swear; — oidhirp, to en- 
deavour; — orm, ort, air, oirre, &c. to compel or induce me, 
thee, him, her, &c. — sgai, sgread, toscream ; — thairis, to give 
over. — See Thoir, page 118. 

Rule XXV. Verbs of giving, declaring, or taking away, 
govern the accusative, and take a preposition of like mean- 
ing, (as, air, de, do, o) before the receiver of the action ; as, 

Thug mì crùn air an leabhar so, I gave a crown for this book. 
Dh'-innis è sgèul dhomh-sa, he told me a story. 
Thug sìbh uam-sa mo chlànn, you have taken from me my 
children. 

Transitive verbs which require a preposition after them 

* Many classical phrases are formed in Gaelic by the verbs Cuir, Dean, Thoir, 
&c. similar to those formed in the Latin by the verbs Facio, Do, Fe.ro, &c. ; as, 
Facere moram, to delay ; cuir dàil. Dare operam, to endeavour j thoir oidhirp. 
Ferre lsetitiam, to rejoice,- dean gàirdeachas.— See page 130. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



221 



in the active voice, require the same preposition in the 
passive ; as, Thugadh crùn air an leabhar so. 

I. — The active and passive forms of verbs are often followed by 
le simple or compounded, expressive of the agent or instru- 
ment ; as, Brisidh tu ìad le slait iaruinn, thou slialt break 
them with a rod of iron. Thomhaiseadh le Dìarmad an torc, 
the boar was measured by Dermid. Shocruicheadh leis an 
cruinne-cè, the globe was established by Him. 

2 — Impersonal verbs take Le, and intransitive verbs used im- 
personally take Do after them : as, cluinnear feam fuaim na 
gaoithe, / hear the noise of the wind. Thachair do 'n f heasgar 
a bhith fliuch, it happened to be a wet evening. Thuit dhomh 
tighinn a-stigh, 1 happened to come in. — See page 128. 

Riailt XXVI. Sèidich- 
idh Bu (an seachad aig Is), 
connrag dlù ris, ach d-, t-, 
agus tilgear ù roi fhuaim- 
raig nofh; mar, 

he was a great man. 
red was her cheek. 
it was a weighty stone. 
she was a tàll woman. 
it was a cold day. — See p. 125. 



Rule XXVI. Bu (the 
past of Is\ aspirates the 
consonant next it, except 

and it elides u before a 
vowel orfh ; as, 

Bu mhòv an duin' è, 
Bu dearg à gruaidh, 
Bu tròm a' chlaeli ì, 
B' àrd a' bhean ì, 
B' f huar an là è, 



F is always aspirated after Bu, but Bu retains the u before 
words begin.ning with fl.,fr-; as, bu f/deasgach grìnn è, hewas 
a fine young man. Bu fArionasach an crèutair ì, she was a 
fretful body. 



EXERCISES. 

24. — The boys broke the 
stones. Did he cut the tree? 
We have prepared our lesson. 
The hunters will kill the deer. 
The horse will not strike them. 
Though he shouìd not lift the 
tables. They would not buy 
the padlocks. If you will fill 
your glasses, they will drink 
the toast. We would open the 
door, but he would not eat 
bread. — You cannot move that 
stone. She may cover the table. 
Could he not bend the rod ? 
You must explain the matter 
to us. They might order us. 
They ought to confess that. 



CLEACHDADH. 

24. — An balachan bris an 
clach. Geàrr an craobh mì ? 
Leasan ullaich mì. An sealgair 
an fìadh marbh. Cha mì buail 
an each. Ged an bòrd nach tog 
mì. Cha an glas-chrochaidh 
ceannaich mì. Ma an glaine 
lìon mì, òl mì an tòasd or deoch- 
slàinte. Fosgail an dorus mì, 
ach cha ith aran mì. — Mì 
gluais clach sin. Mì an bòrd 
còmhdaich. Nach mì an slat 
lùb? Mì an cùis mìnich 
domh. Mìmoòrduich. Iscòir 
domh aidich sin. 



222 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



4. — Air, — Taste the orange, blais òraisd. Will you not begin 
the work ? buail obair ? Put on your hat, cuir ad. The 
children beat the monkey, clànn gabh apag. We asked them to 
come in, tarr thig a-stigh. They were not mocking us, cha 
mag. — De, — The house is reeking, (sendingoff smoke,) tigh cuir 
smùid. What did you make of it, ciod dean. Give up (let 
from you) your nonsense, leig or tog bòilich. — Lb, — they will 
consent to me, aontaich. It did not succeed with us, cha èirich 
or soìrbhich. Did the iads go with them, gille racli. — Ri, — 
Tell her to put fuel to the pot, abair teine cuirpoit. They were 
ascending the knoll, dìrich cnoc. Will you wait for them ? 
fuirich. Speak to these men, labhair. If they will hear thee, 
receive them hospitably, èisd, gabh gu-ftal. 

5. — I declared to them, cuir, S$c. He extinguished the light, 
solus. They were accusing us of lies, brèug. We fìnished the 
work, now do not trouble us. Make good use of your money. 
Though they arrested my clothes, I did not despise them. I 
am resolving to depart, for it is snowing. — Gabh, — do not beat 
them. Come over and have nothing to do with them. He fled 
and was terrifìed. — Thoir, — Take care that you will bring back 
the box. Observe what I said to you ; do not judge rashly of 
any body. 1 know that she pawned the table. 



25. — I gave a shilling to Peter. 
Did he thank you? Tell me 
your news. My father pro- 
mised me a pair of shoes. Teli 
Thomas to begin his work. 
The fìshermen took my hooks 
from me ; but they will give 
them to you again. I happened 
to meet them. 26. — Yon was 
a large ship. Little was his 
need of more drink. It was a 
loftier tree. The day was wet. 
Dark was the night. Was he 
not a brave man ? It was a 
cold morning. 

GOVERNMENT OF THE INFINI- 
TIVE. 

Rule XXVII. One verb 
governs another in the In- 
finitive mood ; as, 



25. — Thoir mi tasdan Peadar. 
Thoir mì taing sìbh ? Innis mì 
mo naigheachd. Geall mo 
athair mì paidhir bròg. Abair 
Tdmas tòisich mo obair. Thoir 
iasgair mo cuid dhubhan mì : 
ach thoir mì mì thu a-rìst. 
Tachair mì mo coinnich. 26. 
— Is mòr an lòng mì sud. Is 
beag mo feum air tuilleadh 
deoch. Is àrd an craobh mì. 
Is fliuch an là. Is dorch 
an didhche. Nach is trèun an 
duine mì ? Is fuar an maduinn 
mì. 

SPKEIGEADH AN FHEAIKTICH. 

Riailt XXVII. Spreig- 
idh aon ghnìomhar fear eile 
anns an Fheairteach ; mar, 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



223 



Tha sìnn a' dol a òhualadh, we are going to strihe. Thainig 
ìad a c?/*-ionnsachadh, they came to learn. 

L — Auxiliary verbs, and verbs requiring a preposition after 
them, govern the Infinitive without anobject, in its plain form ; 
as, Fèumaidh mì èualadh, / must strike. Abair ri Tòmas 
òualadh. 

2. — When the Infinitive has a noun or an emphatic personal 
pronoun for its object, it is aspirated with its sign before it ; as, 
Fèumar an t-aodach a ^Aasgadh. Is urrainn * è mis' a cAiùr- 
radh, he can hurt me. Chaidh ìad a JA-ìarraidh na sprèidhe, 
they went to seek the cattle. 

3, — Brath,f Chum, Gu, Gus, Los, Air ti, are used before the 
Infinitive, to express purpose, design, or intention. ' An comh- 
air, or 'an coinneamh, 'an impis, before the Infinitive, denote 
nearness of action or effect ; as, 

Am beil thu brath faibh ? do you intend to depart ? 

Chum furtachd a dhe&namh òrm, in order to help me. 

Claidheamh gèur gu sgoltadh cheànn, a sharp sword (for) 
to cleave heads. — S. D. 

Dol 'n àn èideadh los na rèubalaich a thilleadh, putting on 
their armour (in order) to turn back the rebels. — D. M'Int. 

Tha è air tì am marbhadh, he designs to kill them. 

Tha 'n ròp 'an comhair or 'an coinneamh briseadh, the rope is 
like to break, nearly broken. 

Bha è '» impis sgàineadh, it was like to burst, — nearly burst- 




* Lamh, a hand, is often used instead of the auxiliary is urrainn, in manj' parts 
of the JNorth, and pronounced short ; as, cha làmli mì sgrìobhadh, / cannot write, 
i. e. I am not a liand to write. Lamhaidh è do phàidheadh, he can pay you. 
Lamhainn a' chlach a thogail, I could lìft the stone. In this sense, lamh has all 
the inflections oifaodaklh or fèumaidh. — See page 122. 

f The Intìnitive in Latin and English is also governed by nouns and adjectives ; 
as, " tempus sohere co\\à."—Virg. " Cupiens cognosce?-e." " A time to kill and 
a time to heal." — Bib. " Desirous to learn." The Gaelic Infinitive preceded by 
Brath, chum, &c. is dependent on these words, and governed by them as it is by 
a single verb ; as, a' brath mo bhualadh, intending to strike me. (Jhum àm marbh- 
adh, to kill them. Chum an sluagh a mharbhadh, to kill the people. But when 
the Infinitive expresses no objective or transitive action, and is employed simply 
as a substantive noun denoting the act or etìect of its verb, it falls under the or- 
dinary government of nouns and prepositions ; as, àm lèughatàh, tempus legendi, 
time of reading. Mar chaoraich chum marbhatdh, sicut ovcs occisionis, as sheep 
for the slaughter. — Rom. viii. 36. Dr Stewart and the learned Editor of the 
transcript of his grammar prefixed to the Highland Society's Dictionarium 
Scoto-Cjelticum, must have either overlooked or mistaken the government of the 
Infinitive as a noun, when they state that " the Infinitive is not put in the genitive 
when it is preceded by a possessive pronoun," but this is not the case ; as, " chum 
mo phòsai'dh or a dh-ionnsuidh mo phòsad'dh," to my marriage. ' ' Eirich chum mo 
chuideachai'dhj stand upfor mine help."—Ps. xxxv. 2.— Vkle p. 107. 



224 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



THE INFINITIVE AND ITS 
OBJECT. 

Rule XXVIII. The irc- 
finitive governs its object, 
placed before it, in the ac- 
cusative, and after it in tlie 
genitive ; as, 



AM FEAIRTEACH S A CHUS- 
PAIR. 

Eiailt XXVIII. Spreig- 
idh am Feairteach à chus- 
pair suidhichte roimìie, anns 
a' chusparach 'us 'n à dhèigh 
anns a' ghinteach; mar, 



An t-aodach a phasgadh; a phasgadh an aoda^ch, to fold 
the clothes. 

When the object of the Infinitive is expressed by a pronoun, 
the Possessives and the emphatic Personals are always used be- 
fore it, and both are translated into English by the correspond- 
ing personal pronoun ; as, Is urrainn lain do phàidheadh, John 
can payvou. Thainig è g' ar cuideachadh, he came to assist us. 
Fèumaidh Iain mise 'phàidheadh, John must pay me. 



SPREIGEADH A PHAIRTEIR. 

Riailt XXIX. Spreig- 
idh am Pàirtear Làthair 
deante le Ag, d, 'ainmear 
anns a' ghinteach ; mar, 



GOVERNMENT OF THE PARTI- 
CIPLE. 

Rule XXIX. The Pre- 
sent Participle formed by 
Ag, a\ governs its noun in 
the genitive ; as, 

A' casgadh fèirge, restraining wrath. A' togail na cìse, raising 
the tax. A' rùsgadh nan craobh, peeling the trees. Ag ìarraidh 
dèirce, seehing alms. Ag òl meala. 

1. — The Present Participle governsits object in the accusative 
when that object governs another noun in the genitive ; as, Ag 
gearradh falt mo chinn (not fuilt), cutting the hair of my head. 
Ag òl deoch an dorms, (not dibhe), drinking the stirrup-glass, 
or parting drinh ; literally, the door's drink. 

2. — Ag elides the a before the Possessive pronounsplacedbe- 
fore the Infinitive ; as, Tha è 'g am'* mholadh, he ispraising me 



mholadh, 'g à moladh, 'g ar } 'g ur, 'g am, 



g ad mholadh, g 
moladh. 

Ag is transposed before Mo, do, bhur ; as, u Tha è ga mo 
threòrachadh," he is leading me. " Tha mise ga do bhaisteadh, 
Ibaptize thee. Bhaìad ga bhur seòladh, or ga 'r seòladh, they 
were directing you. 



* Am and ad are inverted forms of mo and do, changing o into a. — See p. 
103, 152, notes. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



225 



EXERCISES. 

27. — We are going to write. 
They came to tell. You could 
not break. We shall strive to 
learn. TellJohn to come over. 
I must rebuke these fellows. 
Could you not advise them ? 
They did not go to drink wine. 
You ought to shun the society 
of drunkards. Are the deer 
going to rise ? I may lift that 
flag. They might save us. 
These branches must be burnt. 
Could the tallow not be weigh- 
ed ? You might be directed. 
The ship is to sail on Monday. 

28. — The farmer came to buy 
seed, but could not get a grain 
without ready money. Gold 
cannot change nature. We 
went to hear the discourse, but 
could not get a seat in the hall. 
You must help me, as I am 
going to lift these large stones, 
and to break them for my new 
house, for the masons are ready 
to lay the foundation-stone. 

29. — Eliza is winding the 
thread, and Jane is kindling the 
fire. Is Janet not milking the 
goats, and Ann turning the 
sheep ? Were they not reaping 
the corn? The woodmen will be 
cutting the trees. The gardeners 
were pruning the bushes. The 
beadle is ringing the church bell. 

POSITION OF ADVERBS. 

Rule XXX. Adverbs are 
generally placed after the 
subject of the Verb ;* as, 



CLEACHDADH. 

2 7 . — Rach m ì sgrìobh. Thig 
mììnnis. Chamìbris. Oidhir- 
pich mì ionnsaich. Abair lain 
thig a-nàll. Cronaich mì an 
fleasgach sin. Nach mì mo 
comhairlich ? Cha rach mi òl 
fìon. Is còir domh comunn an 
misgear seachain. An fìadh 
rach èirich ? Tog mì an leac 
sin. Teasairgmì mo. An gèug 
sin loisg. Nach an geir cothrom- 
aich? Sìbh treòraich. Bi an 
ldng seòl air Di-luan. 



28. — Tuathanch thig ceann- 
aich sìol, ach cha mì faigh 
graine dh-easbhuidh airgiod 
ullamh. Or cha atharraich na- 
dùr. Mì rach èisd an searmon 
ach suidheachan cha faigh anns 
an talla. Mì cuidich mì o'n 
rach tog an clach mòr so agus 
mo bris air-son mo tigh ùr, 
oir bi an clachair ullamh gu an 
clach-bhùinn suidhich. 

29. — Ealasaid tachrais an 
snàth agus Sèine beothaich 
anteine. Nach Seònaidbleogh- 
ainn an gobhar agus Anna 
till an caora. Nach mì buaiu 
an arbhar? An coillear geàrr 
an craobh. An gàradair meang 
an preas. An beadal (or maor- 
eaglais) buail glag an eaglais. 

AIT NAN CO-GHNÌOMHAR. 

Riailt XXX. Cuirear Co- 
ghnìomhar mar a's trice an- 
dèigh chisear a' ghnìomhair; 
mar, 



* No general rule can be given for the various positions of Adverbs. Their 
placing depends, in many cases, upon the taste and ear of the speaker. Some sen- 



226 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



Thainig iad a-nis, they have come now. Cha robh mì riabh 
's an Fhràing, I have never been in France. 

The adverb is placed immediately after a simple passive tense, 
and after the infinitive in compound tenses ; as, ghearradh sìos 
ì, it was cut down. Cuirear a-mach na h-uain, the lambs will be 
put out. Theid ac tilgeil a-mach. 

1. — The simple Adverbs, Cha, do,fior, fir, gle, ro, ni, nior or 
nar, precede and aspirate the words which they modify ; as, Cha 
bhuail mì ; do bhriseadh leisy fior cheart; gle bheag ; ro mhòr ; 
nior thuig ar sìnnsear. 

2. — Cha seldom aspirates d or t ; as, cha dean è ; cha tig mì. 

3. — Cha requires n- before a vowel or /aspirated ; as, cha n- 
òl: cha n-fhiach è. — Ni takes h- before a vowel, m before a 
labial, and n before a lingual ; as, ni h-eagal leam 's ni 'n càs. 
Ni 'm beil. 

4. — Adverbs formed from adjectives by prefìxing gu, are 
generally placed after the subject of the verb and sometimes be- 
tween the subject and object ; as, 'Labhair è gu-math, he spoke 
well. 'Rinn thu gu-glan e,you clid it nicely. 

5. — Gu is expressed only before the first of two or more ad- 
jectives, except when a conjunction intervenes; as, 'Nuair 
dheàrsas à gnùis bhaois^eil gu-fìal, flathail, fiamh, geal, caoimh- 
neil òinm, when his (the sun's) dazzling countenance shines boun- 
tìixxMy, nohly, awfu!^, c\ea,xly, ìtindly on us. — D. M'Int. Gu- 
slàn 's gu-fallain, well and soundly ; in health and soundness. 
Gu-math no gu-dona, well or ill. 

6. — Adverbs formed by gu are sometimes placed before the verb 
or infinitive ; as, 'S gach doinionn gu-teann 'g ar lèireadh, and 
every storm keemly pursuing us. — S. D. 

7. — Adjectivi s are sometimes used as adverbs without the par- 
ticle gu ; as, Dà chirc a' sùgradh bòidheach ris, (for gu-bòidh- 
each), two hens sporting beautiful/j/ with him. — D. M'Int. 

Fuileak or Uilear (uile leòr) too much, is combined with 
the adverb cha; as, cha n-uilear dhà sin, that is not too much 
for him, or heneeds that. Cha n-uilear forms a composite verb 
denoting need, necessity ; as, cha n-uilear dhà pùnnd eile, he 
will need another pound. Cha n-uilear dhùibh a bhi cìnn- 
teach à sin, you must be sure of that. Cha n-uilear dhì tas- 
dan air an tunnaig, she will require a shilling for the ducL Is 
uilear dhì, she will not, or it is too much for her. Cha b' uilear 
dhùibh falbh 's a' mhadainn, you would need to start in the 



tences or phrases are composed of an adverb and a pronoun or noun ; as, suas è, up 
with it. Mach ìad, out witk them. Mu n-cuairt an dram, round with the dram or 
glass. The verb cuir is understood in these phrases ; as, cuir suas è. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



227 



morning. Uìlear is used sarcastically ; as, Cha b' uilear Ieam 
gu dearbh ach brògan sìoda dhuit, / would certainly need silk 
shoes for you. 

EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH. 

Ceartaich agus eadar-theangaich. 1. — Cha ciùrr è thu. Cha 
raòr sin. Cha do bris sìnn an uinneag. An do togadh an clach. 
Cha chaidh Iain a sealg. Tha so fìor roath. Bha an là glè 
fuar. Tha an eun-brigh ro teth. Am beii an anart ro daor ? 

2. — Cha dhaor leam idir è. Cha thig mo bràthair an-diugh. 

3. — Cha abair mì smid. Cha faod è falbh. Cha ith agus cha 
òl è. Cha èudar do sàrachadh. Cha fèum thu an craobh sin a 
gearradh. Ni faic mì iad gu-bràth. 4. — Gu-luath thigibh. 
Gu-fiadhaich 'labhair è. Gu-gàrg na cronaich mi. 'Rinn gu- 
cùramach è à gnothach. 

5. — Bàrr cluigeanach, sìnteach gòrm-bhileach ; 
Gu dosach, gu garach, gu h-uain-neulach, 
Gu cluthar, gu cluaineach, gu tolmagach ; 
'S am mil 'n à fùdar gruaige dhà, 
'G à chumail suas 'an spòrsalachd. — M'Int. 



GOVERNMENT OF PREPOSI- 
TIONS. 

Rule XXXI. The Simple 



SPREIGEADH ROIMHEARAN. 

Riailt XXXI. Spreig- 
Prepositions A, ds, aig, air, idh na Roimhearàn singilt 
ànn, &c. govern the dative 1 A, às, aig, air, &c. car doirt- 
case of nouns ; as, | ach nan ainmear ; mar, 

A tigh na daorsa, out of the house ofbondage. Aig mo chois, 
at myfoot. Air cluaine'M glasa, on green pastures. — See p. 144. 

When the noun governed by the preposition governs another 
noun in the genitive, the first is put in the accusative ; as, am 
fasgadan aig bean Thòma^s (not mnaoi), Thomas' wife's um- 
brella. Air làmh d' athar 's do sheanar è. Do bhean an tighe. 

1. — Gus 3LX\dmar govern a noun with the article in the accu- 
sative, and without the article in the dative ; as, gus a chrìoch, 
to the end. Mar a' ghrìan, lihe the sun. 

2. —Eadar seach, gu-ruig always govern the accusative ; 
as, eadar fear agus bean, between man and wife. Na rach 
seach an uinneag, do not go farther than the window, beyond 
the window. Is mòr thusa seach Ceiteag, you are big in 
comparison ofKatie. Gu-ruig a' mhuir, as far as the sea. In 
a few instances gu-ruig takes the dative ; as gu-ruig an abhainn 
mhòer. — Psalm lxxx. 11. 



228 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



3. — De, do,fo, mar, mu, o, bho, roi, roimh, tre, troi, troimh,— 
aspirate a noun singular, defìnite, or indefinite, except a de- 
^inite noun beginning with D, S, or T as, 



De cheò, ofmist. 

Do cAìll, to a grave. 

Fo b/aòrd, under a tabìe. 

Mar c/ixaoibh, like a tree. 

Mu pMirt, about a part. 

O mhòd, from a court. 

Roi g/mnna, before a gun. 

Troi t/fcìr, through a land. 

Fo dAòrn, under a fist. 

Do sAùil, £o <m £#0. 



De 'n cheò, ofthe rnist. 
Do 'n chìll, to the grave. 
Fo 'n b/fcòrd, under the table. 
Mar a' c&raobh, like the tree. 
Mn 'n p/iàirt, about the part. 
O 'n mhòà, from the court. 
Roi 'n gAunna, before the gun. 
Troi 'n tìr, through the land. 
Fo 'n dòrn, under the fist. 
Do 'n t-sùil, to the eye. 



Air sometimes aspirates its noun without the article ; as, air 
bharraibh nan tdnn, on the tops of the waves. Air tAaìamh. 

4. — Eadar, signifying both, aspirates the word following it ; 
as, eadar bAeag 'us m^òr, both small and great. 

5. — Fa and gun aspirate a noun without the article ; as, fa 
dAeireadh, at last. Gun cAeann, without a head. After gun, 
d, t, s are plain ; as, gun dreach ; gun teine ; gun sùil. 

6. — De and do take dh-, before a vowel or fh pure ; as, mìr 
de dh-arsLYi, a piece of bread. Do dh-l&m, to John. Pùnnd 
de dh-f hùdar, a pound of powder. 

7. — De and do are often converted into a, to soften the sound ; 
as, e Rinn ìad còtaicbean, a dh-sxìaxt grìnn, a e^-obair fhighte 
air-son Aaroin, ihey made coats of fine linen of woven worJcfor 
Aaron. — Ex. xxxix. 27. Dol a dh-America, going to America. 
A and dh- are often elided after a vowel ; as, chaidh è dh- 
lonar-nis, he went to Inverness. Theid mì 'Dhunèdean, Ishall 
go to Edinburgh. 

8. — Trìd is often incorporated with tbe pronouns tusa and 
esan ; as, trìd-sa, through thee. Trìd-san, through him. 

9. — A, gu, le, ri, are used before consonants, axxàas, gus, leìs, 
ris, are used before the article, the relatives, and possessives ; as, 
à Tuath, from the north. Gu bàs, to death. Le peànn, with a 
pen. Ri bualadh, thrashing. — As an rathad, out of the way. 
Gus an t-sràid, to the street. An taobh leis am beile è, the side 
with which he is. Rud ris n'acìi 'eil è coltach^ a thing to whicli 
it is not like, or which it does not resemble. — As mo shealladh, 
out ofmy sight. Gu and le take h- before a vowel ; as, gu h~ 
òrdail, orderly. Le h-òr. — Ri generally elides the i before a pos- 
sessive beginning with a vowel; as, r'à cheann, to his head. 
R' à guth, to her voice. 

10. — Ann becomes Ann5 before the article and the relatives ; 
as, anns a! mhaduinn, in the morning. Anns na coilltibb, in 



CO-RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



229 



the woods. An staid anns an robh mì, the state in which Iwas. 
Bha cìall anns na thubhairt è, there was sense in what he said. 
Fear anns nàch 'eil cealg, a man in whom there is no guile. 

Anns is often contracted into 's before the article, and some- 
times into a's ; the latter form requires t- before a vowel or / 
pure ; as, 's an tìr (for anns an tìr), in the land. 'S a' mhachair, 
in the field. 'S na h-àìtibh sin, in these places. A's t-earrach, 
in the spring. A's t-fhoghar, in autumn. 

11. — The euphonic particles An, Am, are placed between Ann 
and a noun singular or plural, without the article; as, Ann an 
tòll, ìn a hole. Ann am monadh, in a hill. Ann an creagan, 
in rochs. Ann am bailtibh, in towns. 

Ann is frequently elided, and an or am remains before the 
noun ; as, 'an tigh na daorsà (for ann an tigh), in the house of 
bondage. 'Am baile Theàrlaich, in Charlestown. 

Obs. — As an, am, may be mistaken in this ellipsis for the 
article, the sign of contraction ('), which is often omitted^ should 
be always written over them ; as, 'an, 'am. 

Ann is contracted 'n before the possessive pronouns ; as, Tha 
mì 'n am shaor, / am carpenter. Tha è 'n à ghreusaich. — 
See p. 205. 

Rule XXXII. The Prep- \ Riailt XXXII. Spreig- 
ositions Bhàrr, chum* &c. idh na Roiinhearàn Bliàrr, 
govern the genitive case of clium* &c. car ginteach nan 
nouns; as, ainmearàn; mar, 

Thuit an coron bhàrr ar cìnn, the crown has fallen from our 
head. Chum nam breitheamh, chum an dorm's, to the judges, 
to the door. — Biblb. 

Thar governs the genitive plural ; as, thar chuaintean, over 
seas — See page 144. 



Rule XXXIII. Com- 
pound Prepositions govern 
the genitive case of nouns ; 



Riailt XXXIII. Spreig- 
idh Roimhearàn measgte 
car ginteach nan ainmear; 



as, ! mar, 

A dh-easbhaidh eòla«s,f without Jcnowledge. An aghaidh 
nan dealg, against the prichs. A-rèir m' ionracais à ta annain, 
according to mine integrity that is in me. 

Obs. — The first syllable of a compound preposition is sometimes 
* Chum is generally pronounced X,6m in the North. 

t The genitiveis governed by compound prepositions according to Rule XVI., 
because these prepositions are, for the most part, composed of nouns.— See p. 149. 



230 



CONSTRUCTION OF WORDS. 



elided, yet the preposition governs the same case as before ; as, chum 
an doruis or a chum an doruis. A dh-ionnsaidh na dùcha or dh-ionn- 
saìdh na dùcha. This elision commonly takes place after a yowel. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 



he 



Rulb XXXIV. 
Conjunctions agus, 'ws, 's ; 
ach, no, neo, &c. connect like 
cases and forms of nouns, 
and like moods and tenses 
of verbs ; as, 



NAISGEARAN. 

Riailt XXXIV. Naisg- 
idh na Naisgearàn agus, 
'us * 's ; ach, no, neo, caràn 
agus staidean co-ionann àin- 
mearàn, agus mhodhan 'us 
thìmean ghnìomharàn; mar, 

Fìon agus bainne, wine and milJc. A' dìreadh nan cnoc 's nan 
slìabh, ascending the hiolls and hills. Bagair ach na buail, 
threaten but strike not. 

Cho — ri, ris, as — as. Cho — agus, 'us or as, so — as. 

1. — Cho or co expressing a cornparison requires Ri or Ris 
after the adjective ; as, cho marbh ri sgadan, as dead as a 
herring. Cho dubh ris an f hitheach, as black as the raven. 

2. — Cho signifying so, requires agus or 'us ; as, bith cho math 
agus deoch a thoirt domh, be so good as to give me a drink. 
Agus or his is here sometimes written as. 

3. — The adjective after cho is plain, after co it is aspirated ; 
as, cha robh mì cho brònach 's chot dàlì, / was not so mournful 
and so blind. — Oss. — Co b/iìnn ris an uiseig, as melodious as the 
larh 



EXERCISES. 

31. — At the window. To 
the little wife. On my right 
ear. To the fair girl. Off my 
thumb. At times. Under the 
gray hen. In the big stack. 
With a smart breeze. About 
thy brown wig. To smooth 
hands. Like white wool. 

1. — Like the moon in the 
clouds. To the end of my 



| CLEACHDADH. 

31. — Aig an uinneag. Do 
an bean beag. Air mo chuas 
deas. Ri an caileag bàn. De mo 
òrdag. Air uair. Fo an cearc 
glas. Anns an cruach mòr. 
Le osag geur. Mu mo gruag 
ddnn. Gu làmh mìn. Mar 
olainn geal. 

1. — Mar an gealach anns 
an neul. Gu crìoch mo saogh- 



* The proper contractions of Agus are 'Us or 'S, but a's, is, and as, are fre- 
quently used; the latter, however, are scarcely allowable, because theyare other 
three different parts of speech,— a relative pronoun, a verb, and a preposition ; as, 
/* è Sèumas a's òige, James is the youngest. As a' bhùth, from the shop. " The 
custom of writing is instead of 'us or 's, has been persisted in from time immemorial, 
though evidently improper." — Dictionarium Scoto-Celticum. 

t Sometimes the adjective is aspirated after Cho, and plain after Co ; as, " Cho 
chlnnteach ris a' bhàs," as sure as death. Co trèun. Cho is preferable to Co, as it 
can be more easily distinguished from co, who, and co, together. 



CO-'RIANACHADH FHOCAL. 



231 



time. 3. — From a shepherd. 
Under a red shoe. From the 
door. Through the fires. Like 
a sea. From wave to wave. A 
part of the straw. A grain of 
mustard. To the cup on the 
bank. 5. — Without head and 
feet. Withoutbeautyandorder. 
6. — Apartofgold. Giveabook 
to Ann. A pound of fresh flesh. 
Apenny's worthof bread. 7. — 
1 am going to Inverness. They 
went to Glasgow. Will you go 
to Tain ? Did he go to lreland ? 
9 — Out of the rìeld. A year ago 
(to this time). Cut down the 
trees with the axe. Speak to the 
wife. That is the man with 
whom my business is. 1 0. — My 
beloved son in whom I am well 
pleased. In the cities. 11. — In 
a foreign land. In a mountain. 
In high walls. In the warm 
recesses of the rocks. 

32. — She weaned the child 
(put it ofF the bieast). For a 
sweet savour before the Lord. 
Oil for the light, spices for 
anointing-oil, and for sweet in- 
cense. I am going to the sea. 
Throughout the land. About 
the table. Over the glens of 
rushes and hard-pass of the 
hinds. 

33. — Throughout the earth. 
According to the truth. With- 
out the sweet drink. With re- 
spect to that matter. He sent 
letters into all the king's provin- 
ces, into every province accord- 
ing to the writing thereof, and to 



al. 3. — Bho cìbear. Fo 
brog dearg. De an dorus. 
Troimh an teine. Mar muir. 
O tdnn gu tdnn. Part de an 
fodar. Gràine de mustard. 
Do an cuach air an bruach. 
5. — Gun ceann, gun* cas. Gun 
maise, gun seòl. 6. — Cuid de 
òr. Thoir leabhar do Anna. 
Pùnnd de feòil ùr. Luach sgil- 
linn de aran. 7. — Rach mì do 
lonar-nis. Rach mìdoGlascho. 
An rach mì do Baile-ghuth- 
aich ? An Rach mì do Eirinn ? 
9. — A an machair. An bliadhna 
gu an àm so. Geàrr sìos an 
craobh le an tuath. Labhair 
ri an bean. Sin an fear ri 
a beil mo gnothach. 10. — Mo 
mac gràdhach ann à bi mo mòr 
tlachd. Ann an baile. 11. 
— Ann tìr ce'in. Ann bèinn. 
Ann balla àrd. Ann còs blàth 
an creag. 

32. — Cuir mì an leanabh 
bhàrr an cìoch. Chum fàile 
cùbhraidh an làthair an Tigh- 
earn. Oladh chum solus, spìos- 
radh chum oladh-ùngadh agus 
a chum tùis deadh-boladh. 
Rach mì thun an muir. Feadh 
an tìr. Timchioll an bòrd. Thar 
gleann an luchair 's cruaidh an 
èilid. 

33. — Air feadh an talamh. 
A rèir an firinn. A rìh-eas- 
bhaidh an deoch milis. A 
thaobh an cùis sin. Cuir mì litir 
a dh-ionnsuidh uile mòr-'ròinn 
an rìgh, dh-ionnsuidh gach 
mòr-'ròinna-rèirmo sgrìobhadh 



* Rule. — A simple preposition is generally repeated before each noun with and 
without a conjunction ; as, "ri òl 's ri ceòl." " Gun àille, gun dreach." 



232 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



every people after their lan- | 
guage, that every man should 
be a ruler in his own house, 
and that it should be published 
according to the language of 
every people. 

To come unto the work to do 
it. Among the long bushes. 
There are low rocks below the 
large forest. Against the strong 
wind. After their death. For | 
the honest wives and men. | 
Mary went for the cattle, and 
she saw the fox among the 
young lambs. For (opposite) 
the children. Opposite to the 
church. Above the red door. I j 
am going to meet my father. 

34. — The side of the burns 
and of the banks. Men and 
brethren. To the thrush and 
the linnet. The child was born 
and baptised (on) this week. 
His blood is pouring and sur- 
rounding the hero's side. 1. — 
As old as the hills and as hard 
as the iron. 2. — Be so good as 
to shut the door. 



agus a dh-ionnsuidh gachsluagh 
a rèir mo cànain, gu'm bi gach 
fearuachdaran ann mo tigh fèin 
agus gu'm foillsich so a-rèir 
cànain gach sluagh. 

Gu thig a chum an obair gu 
mo dean. Am-measg an preas 
fad. Bi creag iosal am bun an 
frìth mòr. An aghaidh an gaoth 
làidir. An-dèigh mo bàs. Air- 
son an bean agus an duine còir. 
Rach Màiri air tòir an crodh 
agus faic mì an sionnach am- 
measg an uan òg. Fa chomhair 
an clànn. Mu choinneamh an 
eaglais. Os-ceann an dorus 
dearg. Rach mì an coinneamh 
mo athair. 

34. — Taobh an àllt agus 
an bruach. Fheara agus bràith- 
ribh. Do an smeòrach agus 
an buidheag. Beir agus baist 
an naoidhean air seachduin so- 
Bi mo fuil taom agus ìadh mu 
taobh an laoch. 1. — Cho sean 
an cnoc agus cho cruaidh an 
iarunn. 2. — Bi cho math an 
dorus dùn. 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 

The words of a sentence 
may be arranged either in 
Conventional or Rìietorical 
order. 

The Conventional order 
is the arrangement in which 
the words of a sentence are 
usually placed in speaking 
and writing. 

The Rhetorical order is 
that arrangement of the 



SUIDHEACHADH FHOCAL. 

Faodar focail cìallairt' a 
shuidheachadh an dara cuid 
'an òrdugh Cèrdail, no Or- 
chainnteach. 

Is è 'n t-òrdugh Còrdail 
an suidheachadh anns an 
cuirear focail cìallairte gu 
cumanta ann an labhairt 
agus ann an sgrìobhadh. 

Is è 'n t-òrdugh Or- 
chainnteach suidheachadh 



SUIDHEACHADH FHOCAL. 



233 



words in which the emphati- 
cal word or part of a sen- 
tence is placed first. 



sin nam focal, 's àn cuirear 
am focal, no 'n earran neart- 
ail de chìallairt air toiseach. 



The Conventional or grammatical arrangement seems chiefly 
adapted to simple explanation and narration. The Bhetorical 
or emphatical arrangement is chiefly used in Poetry and 
pathetic prose.* 

POSITION OF THE ARTICLE. AIT a' PHUNGAIR. 

Rule I. — The Article is always placed before its noun ; as, 

An righ : am bòrd : a' ghlas : na cìnn : nan tònn.t 

When an Adjective or a Numeral precedes the noun, the Ar- 

ticle is placed before the Adjective or Numeral ; as, an seann 

duine: an deicheamh rànn, — See p. 191, No. 1. 

POSITION OF THE APJECTIVE. ÀlT a' BHUADHAIR. 

Rule II. — The Adjective is generally placed after the noun 
which it qualifies ; as^ » 

Bòrd mòr : craobh hhbidheach: gillean òga. (Fionnghal) 
nam beum uasal, (Fingal) of the noble strokes or deeds. 

Rule III. — The Adjective when it qualifìes the action or 
state of a verb, is indeclinable,^ and separated from thenoun and 
along with the verb, it forms the predicate of the noun ; as, 

Is geal do ghnùis, fair is thy countenance. 

Tha do ghnùis geal, thy countenance is fair. 

Dean an sgìan gèur, or maketheknifesharp,orsharpen 
gèuraich an sgìan, the knife. — See p. 180. 



* The Rhetorical seems tobe the more natural of these two kinds of arrangement, 
as it is more calculated to operate on the mind of the speaker and to fix the at- 
tention of the hearer, and also more lively and attractive in animated speech. It 
is the same in all languages, whereas the conventional mode of arrangement is dif- 
ferent in different languages. 

t The nominative singular of a noun annexed to the genitive plural of the 
article, forms the genitive plural definite of a noun ; as, " tir nan gleann 's nan 
gaisgeach," the land o/glens and ofheroes. The nominative singular of nouns of 
the First Declension in the German language, is also joined to the plural article ; 
as, nom. sing. messer, a knife: pl. die messer, the knives. — See Wendeborn's 
German Grammar. 

t This is also the case in the German language, " When the German adjective 
refersto a substantiveas its predicate, it is indeclinable ;" as, " der Mann istgut," 
tha 'n duine math : "die Frau ist gut," tha a' bhean math.— Wendeborn's 
German Grammau. 



234 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



POSITION OF PRONOUNS. 



ÀlT NAN RIOCHDAR. 



Rule IV. — The Relatives A, Nach, Na, whether used as the 
subject or object of a verb, are always placed before their 
verbs ; as, 



Phàidh Iain na cheannaich è, John paid vihat he bought. 
Obs.— The want of inflection in the relative* renders it at times 
difficult to determine whether the relative refers to the subject or 
object of a verb, for an t-each à bhuail mì, may either signify the 
horse which Istruck, or the horse which struck me. Such ambiguity, 
however, may be easily prevented by using the verb Dean as an aux- 
iliary with the infinitive of the other verb ; thus, an t-each d 'rinn mì 
bhualadh, the horse which / struck. An t-each a 'rinn mo bhualadh, 
the horse which struck me.— The meaning is invariably ambiguous when 
the antecedent and the object are rational beings. If the subject be a 
rational bemg and the object au inferior animal or thing, the reference 
is more readily determined. In either case the meaniug can be easily 
known from the context, or scope of the sentence. — See page 73. 

A h-uile, gach, iomad, iomadh, are placed before nouns in 
the singular number ; as, a h-uile sgillinn, every penny. Gach 
duine, each man. B' iomad òigh 'san là sin dubhach, many a 
maiden was on thatday sad. — S. D. Iomadh precedes the noun 
àireamh. Leithid is combinf d with the possessive pronouns : 
as, mo leithid, my like, or the like of me ; do leithid, d r leithid, à 
leithid, ar leithid, &c, the like ofthee, him, her, us, 6;c. 

SUBJECT AND VERB. cÙlSEAR *US GNÌOMHAR. 

Rule V. — In conventional sentences the subject is placed 
immediately after the verb ; as, Tha mì. Thuit a chraobh. 

Rule VI. — In compound verbs the subject is placed between 
the auxiliary and the verb ; as, Tha mi 'pasgadh. Bha na 
sgoilearàn a' sgrìobhadh. Faodaidh sìnne sgrìobhadh. 

Rule VII In poetry or rhetorical sentences the subject is 

sometimes placed before the verb ; as, " Doimhneachd na tal- 
mhainn ta 'n à làimh," the depth of the earth is in his hand. 

The verb Is stands always bef'ore its subject ; as, is è, it is 
he. Is còir a' bhean i, she is ajust wife — See p. 205. 

VERB AND ITS OBJECT. GNIOMHAR 's A CHUSPAIR. 

Rule VIII. — In conventional sentences the object is placed 

* The Hebrew Relative "Ml/X (Asher), who, which, what, is also indeclinable, 
and applied to nouns of both nunibers and genders. 



Am fear d 'labhair rium, 
An t-each d bhuail mi, 
An lòng q bhriseadh, 
An tìgh d thog mì, 
Fear ndch trèig mì, 



the man who spoke to me. 
tlie horse wliich struck me. 
the ship which was wrecked. 
the house which I built. 
a man who will not forsake me. 



SUIDHEACHADH FHOCAL. 



235 



next after the nominative of a transitive verb ; as, chunnaic mì 
thu. Bhuail è ani bòrd. Thilg an sealgair/zae?A. 

Rule IX. — In rhetorical sentences the object, when it is an 
emphatic word, is sometimes placed before the verb ; as, 

An t- each agus à mharcach thiig he 's an f hàirge, the horse 
and his rider, has he cast into the sea. 

'S iomadh farspag 'rinn thu mharbhadh 'us sulair garbh a 
'rug thu air, many sea-gull hast thou killed, and (many) a large 
gannet thou hast seized upon. — Stew. 

For the Position of the object before and after the Infinitive, 
see Rule XXVIII. For the Position of Adverbs, see Rule 
XXX. 

PROMISCUOUS EXERCISES. CLEACHDADH MEASGTE. 

Correct, — Chaidh an grìan glòrmhor gu clos 1 ann an ìar : tha 
drùchd an anmoch ag braonadh gu làr : dh'-f hàs an àile theth, 
fìonnar : tha an duilleag rìomhach 'g à chruinneachadh fèin suas 
agus a' paisg à ceann air à cas maoth. 

Gradan 2 a' geamhradh a lagaich gu-teann sìnn 
'Nuair a chàill sìnn ar ceannard nach robh à sàmhladh 'measg 
Ghàidheil. 

Cha cluinnear srànn na seillean mu an còinleag/ no am-measg 
na blàithean milis, crìochnaich ìad a obair agus tha ìad ann a 
làidhe gu-dlù ann seòmraichibh cèire. 

An dean an tuath uaill an- aghaidh an fear a ta 'gearradh leis ? 
An àrdaich an tuireasg 4 i-fèin an-aghaidh am fear a ta 'g a iom- 
airt? mar gu'n sìneadh an slat è-fèin an-aghaidh an neach a 
ta 'g à thogail. 

Agus eadar an bealaichean air a d'-ìarr Ionatan dol thairis a 
dh-ionnsuidh freiceadan nam Philistich, bha creag gèur air 
aon taobh agus creag £,èur airan taobh eile agus bu è ainm creag 
dhiùbh Boses agus ainm an creag eile Seneh. 

Gabh misneach 'san uaigh, oir èiridh tu suas, 
'Nuair cluinneas tu fuaim an stuic {ofthe trumpet), 
'S do truailleachd gu-lèir shìos fàgaidh tu d' dhèigh, 
Aig durragaibh bhrèun an sloc. 

Ghlac Hèrod Eòin agus tilg è 'am prìosan ì air-son Herodiais, 
bean Philip à bràthair fèinj oir thubhairt Eòin ris, cha ta è 
dligheach dhuit ì bi agad. 

Agus ithidh tu am fìanuis an Tighearn do Dia anns an àit à 



1 m. Rest. 2 m. Rigour, coldness. 3 /. A stalk, bud. * m. A saw. 



236 



ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS. 



taghas è chum à ainm a chur an-sin, deachamh d'arbhair, do 
fìon agus do oladh, agus ceud-gin do crodh agus do caoraich. 

'S an t-seann sheanachas bha Gàeil ainmeil 
'Measg daoine b'ainmig à leithid ànn. 
Tha an dream bha gòrach nis 'g ìarraidh eòlas 
Is è an èigh an-còmhnuidh nach tig sìbh nàll 
A theagasg eòlas do Chaledonia (Highlands), 
Nach bi sìnn dòruinneach aig a' cheann.* 

Do clànn Simeon a rèir an teaghlaichean, a rèir tigh an aith- 
richean ìadsan a chaidh àireamh deth, a rèir àireamh nan ain- 
mean, a rèir an cìnn, gach fìrionnach o fìchead bliadhna de aois 
agus os à ceann, gach aon a bu urrainn a dol a-mach gu cogadh. 
O a spiorad buadhar nan gràis treòraich sìnn chum an carraig 
a's àrd na sinn-fèin. 

Bu grìanach àillidh an maduinn air a do chruinnich sìnn air 
slìabh Druim-clog a dheanamh aoradh do Dia. Bha sìnn fada 
o buaireas nam bailtean mòr : shuidh sinn air an fraoch badan- 
ach, cha do cuir sìnn sgàth air beò-crèutair sam-bith ach air an 
feadag guanach agus air an coileach-fraoich. Thug sìnn leis ar 
n-airm, oir bha daoine gàrg a' siubhal na crioch agus a' cogadh 
an-aghaidh creideamh na dùthaich. 

Mar dhà chraobh òg araon fo blàth, 

'An iomall fàsaich blàth, 's ìad gòrm, 

Drùchd Earraich a' sileadh o à bàrr, 

'S a' gaoth 'n à laidhe thàll 's an òrd (a conic hill). 

IMPROPER PHRASES TO BE CORRECTED. 

A chuile fear, na h-uile fear — a h-uile ; every man, every one, each. 

Air learu — thar; it came with me, I thought, methought. 

Am fear ceudainn — cèudna ; the same man, the same one. 

Am faigh mi sèng nod uait ? — mùth noid, iomlaid noid, muth pùinnd 

Shasunnaich; will you change me a pound note ? 
An f hear ud — am fear ; yonfellow, that man. 
An d' àin è — an d' thainig ? has he come, or arrived ? 
An gabh thu, five pound ten+ air an each ? — cuig pùinnd 's a deich ? 

will you take £5, lQs.for the horse ? 

* The author of these lines, is the Rev. Mr Grant, whose Gaehc poetry is alto- 
gether beautiful, and such as we would cordially recommend for the perusal of the 
Highland people ; but we deeply regret to find the language of these spiritual poems 
written, in too many instances, contrary to the established orthography and con- 
struction of the language. Had the author been as good a Gaelic grammarian as 
he is a Gaelic poet, he would not have committed such solecisms as " Bha naoidh- 
eanaibh Bhetlehem. Dhiarr Ioseiph a's Maois. An t- aonn ni Feumail. Aonachd 
anspiorad. Strì ann Zion. Tiomchail Juggernaut. A theagasg eòlas ,-" which 
should be Bha naoidheanan Bhetlehem. Dh'-ìarr loseph 'us Maois. An t-aon 
nì Fèumail. Aonachd an Spioraid. Strì ann an Sion. Timchioll Juggernaut. 
A theagasg fiòMs.— Vide P. Grant's Dàin Spìoradail, edit. 1827, passim. 

t The disgraceful practice of using an English word in Gaelic speaking, when 
the Gaelic itself contains the word which should be employed, cannot be too much 
condemned. This practice prevails only among the ignorant. Some people speak 



SUIDHEACHADH FHOCAL. 237 

Bàlleibh— ciod è b' àill leibh; sir or rnadam. What is your willì 
Bha è searmonachduinn— searmonachadh; he was preaching. 
Bhrist è a chas— bhris; he broke his leg. 

Ca bheil— c'àit am beil e % where is hèl Ca 'n robh— c'àit or càit ? 
Char è nùll air an àth— chaidh; he went over the ford, crossed. 
Dar a thìg è — 'nuair; when he will come, when he comes. 
De mar tha sìbh ? — ciod è ; how are ye ? how do you do ? 
De tha thu ag ràdh 1— ciod è; what do you sayl 
Dùnaibh sibh-se an dorus— dùnaibh-se ; shut ye the door. 
Is de'irg è sin — deirgid; it is the redder of that. 
Is glìnn an gill' è — grìnn ; he is a handsome lad, a fine lad. 
Mar an cìonnda— mar an cèudna ; also, in the same manner. 
Na h-uile là— a h-uile là ; every day, daily. 
Pìob ombac— pìob tombaca ; tobacco pipe, a smoking pipe. 
Tha è mìneachdainn an leasain — mìneachadh ; * he is explaining the 
lesson. 

Tha nar n-ùrnuigh rut— ar n-ùrnuigh ; we pray thee. 

Tha è umhailte dhomh— umhal ; he is obedient to me. 

Theirubh iad sin— theireadh ; + they would say so, they say so. 

Tha e 'dependigag ort— ag earbsadh, riut, a' cur earbs' annad, 'an 

crochadh riut-sa ; he depends on you, is trusting in you, or he is 

dependent on you. 
Thoir leis an t-each— leat; take with you the horse,fetch. 
Throg sinn am bòrd— thog, we lifted the table. 
Thug mi leis an t-òrd — leam ; / took with me the hammer. 
Thoiribh leis na h-eich — leibh ; take with you the horses, fetch. 
Thug sinn leis na h-ùird— leinn; we took with us the hammers. 
Thug iad leis am bàta — leò; they took ivith them the boat. 
Togadh sinn ar cinn — togamaid ; let us lift our heads. 



PUNCTUATION. 

Punctuation is the art of 
marking pauses or stops in 
sentences ; that the mean- 
ing may be clearly under- 
stood by the reader. 



PUNGACHADH. 

Is è Pùngachadh alt comh- 
arrachaidh ànailean, no 
stadàn ann an ciallairtibh 
gus an tuigear an seadh gu- 
soilleir leis an lèughadair. 



with a mixture of English and Gaelic, from ignorance of the vocables of the lan- 
guage ; others again, from vanity, are fond of using " long-nebbed " English words 
to show their learning; but the practice shows gross ignorance, for in speaking any 
language the greatest learning can be exhibited by employing the words of that 
language alone. The use of English words in Gaelic speech is hurtful to both lan- 
guages, as it produces a kind of mongrel language which is neither Gaelic nor 
English. 

In cases, however, where the Gaelic does not furnish a term fìt to express an 
idea, it is quite right to borrow the word used to convey that idea in another lan- 
guage. This practice has ever been followed by all the nations of the earth, and 
the eminent men who translated the Holy Scriptures into Gaelic, availed themselves 
of it, in some instances, as we see in the words epftod, abstol, sionagog, &c. 

* Ardachdainn, cruinneachdainn, cinneachdaìnn, ceasnachdainn, fireanach- 
dainn, naomhachdainn, and the like, are improperly used by vulgar speakers, for 
àrdachadft, cruinneachatfVi, cinneachadft, &c. 

t The erroneous practice of pronouncing -adh or -eadh like ùbh, 'uv, or u, pre- 
vails to a great extent in Ross and Sutherland shire ; as, bheirwWe, chuirwWe, chittt, 
rachtt, theira, for hheiveadh, chuireadh, chiteadh, vnchadh, theiveadh. 



238 PUNCTUATION. 

The names and nature of 
the points are as follows : — 

The Comma ( , ) denotes the 
shortest pause, and is inserted 
between those parts of a sen- 
tence which are closely con- 
nected in sense. 

The Semicolon ( ; ) marks a 
pause longer than the comma, 
and is inserted between cLuses 
somewhatdifferentin sense, but 
dependent on one another. 

The Colon (: ) marks a pause 
longer than the semicolon, and 
it is inserted between clauses 
differing in sense. 

The Period, or fullstop ( . ), 
is inserted at the end of a sen- 
tence, to show that it is com- 
pleted. 

MARKS USED IN BOOKS AND WRIT- COMHARRAI DHEAN CLEACHTE 'AN 
ING. LEABHRAICHIBH 'S AN SGRIOBHADH. 

Admiration ( ! ) longantach.—CuÌYe&Y è so an dèigh focail no seol- 
lairte a' ciallachadh grad ghluasaid-inntinn ; mar, Och ! Gabh 
truas rium-sa! Mar shamhladh culaidh-iongantais, faodar 'airis 
mar so, ! ! ! , 

Apostrophe ( ' ) Ascair,— Cuirear è so an àit litreach a dh'-fhàgar 
a- mach à focal ; mar, fa'near air-son fainear. 

The Brace ( ) A' Bhànn.— Gabhar ì so a dh-aonadh trìdain, no 
'cho-nasgadh cùisean chùnntasàn agus nithe èile. 

The Caret (^) Easbhaidh.— Gabhar ì so a 'leigeil ris far an suidh- 
ichear aon no iomadh litir a dh'-f hagadh a-mach le tuiteamas ; mar, 
thuit è agus bhris f na bùird. 

The Crochets or Brackets ( [ ] ) Na Cromagan. — Gabhar ìad so a 
chuairteachadh comharraidh, focail, no cinn-mhìneachaidh ann am 
meadhon cìallairte. 

The Circumflex ( • ) A' Chuairtlub.—Ga.hh.ax ì so a 'nochdadh 
fuaim làn fuaimraige no car a' ghintich; mar, stor ; leth là. 

The Dash ( — ) An Spealt no Sìnean.— Gabhar è so, a 'nochdadh 
graide, — stad fèumail— smid fhada — tcnn trom a' ghuth' air na focail 
à leanas, no aonadh eadar earranaibh, mar tba an so fèin. 

Diaeresis (•• ) Dàsmid. — Cuirear so thairis air an dara fuaimraig 
ann an dòraig, a dh'-innseadh gu 'm beil gach aon a' deanamh suas 
smid', no fuaimichte leatha fèin ; mar, O'iche (o-i-A;e). 

The Ellipsis ( ** *or ) A' Bheàru— Gabharì so a'nochdadh gu 

'n d' fhàgadh a-mach litrichean ; mar,A h air-son Rìgh. Feuchaidh 



PUNGACHADH. 

Tha Ainmean agus nàdur 
nam pùng mar a leanas : — 

Tha 'n Sgnagan{, ) a' comh- 
arrachadh an stad' a's giorra, 
agus suidhichear è eadar na 
bùill sin de chìallairt à ta dlù- 
cheangailte 'an seadh. 

Tha 'n Lesgoiltean ( ;) a' comh- 
arrachadh stada na 's faide na 
'n snagan, agus cuirear è eadar 
earranaibh leth-char sgoilte 'an 
seadh, ach an eisimeil a chèile. 

Tha 'n Sgoiltean (:) a' comh- 
arrachadh stada na's faide na'n 
lesgoiltean, 'us cuirear è eadar 
earranaibh sgoilt' 'an seadh. 

Suidhichear an Cuairtean, 
no stad làn ( . ) an-dèigh cìal- 
lairte, a 'nochdadh gu'm beil e 
làn no coilionta. 



ABBREVIATIONS. GIORRACHADH. 239 

dhà no tri 'reultagan'gu 'n d' fhàgadh a-mach focal no labhairt bhòrb, 
no mi-bhe'usach. 

The Index ( ) An Comharraiche. — Gabhar è so a 'nochdadh 
rud-eigin sònruichte. 

The Interrogative ( ? ) An Ceisteach. — Cuirear è so an-deigh fo- 
cail, no cìallairte à ta faighneachd cèiste; raar, An tig sibh? Co thusa? 

The Hyphen ( - ) An Tàthan — Cuirear è so aig ceann sreath', a 
'nochdadh gu'm beil aon no tuilleadh smidean de 'n fhocal à ta 'dùn- 
adh na sreatha sin, aig toiseach na h-ath aoin. Naisgidh è fòs focail 
mheasgte ; mar, Fein-ghràdh. 

Parenthesis ( ) Iadhan. — Gabhar è so dh-iom-dhùnadh earrain a 
thilgear le cabhaig am measg cìallairte. 

The Paragraph ( % ) An Cean rcùr.— Gheibhear è so anns a' Bhìob- 
ull, aig toiseach cuiseir no cìnn-theagaisg ùir. 

The Quotation Points ( " " ) Na Puing-dheàrbhaidh, — gabhar 
ìad so a chomharrachadh earrain' a bheirear o ùghdair no fear-labhairt 
eile 'n à bhriathran fèin ; mar, — " Thig, Earraich chiùin," ars' am 
bàrd. 

The Section ( § ). — An sgoiltear gabhar è so, a chomharrachadh nan 
roinnean a 's lugha de leabhar no de chaibdeil. 

Asterisk(*) — Rèultag. Obelisk (f)— Crois> Double Dagger 
( + )— Dagar Dùbailt. Parallel ( || ). — Casanach,— buinidh ìad so 
uile do nòdaibh no do lèughadh air oir, no aig ìochdar na duilleige. 
Gabhar litrichean agus fìgearàu beaga air-son a' ghnothaich chèudna ; 
mar, a, è, c, &c. ; 1, 2, 3, &c. 



ABBREVIATIONS AND INITIALS. 

A. for Answer, 

Acct. a/c- Account, 

Bart. Baronet, 

Bp. Bishop, 

Capt. Captain, 

Co.or Co y Company (ofmerchants), 

Col. Colonel (pr. kurnel), 

Cr. Creditor, 

Dr. Debtor, 

Dr Doctor, 

Do.Ditto,The same, 

Esq. Esquire, 

F.E.I.S. FellowoftheEducational 

Institute of Scotland, 
Knt. Knight, 
J.P. Justice of the Peace, 
K.C.B. Knight Commander of 

the Bath, 
K.G. Knight of the Garter, 
K.C. Knight of the Crescent, 
K.B. Knightofthe Bath, 
K.P. Knight of St Patrick, 
K.T. Knightof the Thistle, 
L.C.J. Lord Chief Justice, 



GIORRACHADH 'US TÙSAGAN. 

F. air-son Freagair 

Cuns. Cùnntas 

Bar. Baran, Ridir 

Easb. Easbuig 

Caipt Caiptean 

Cuid. Cuideachd (de cheann- 

aichean) 
Còir. Còirneal 
Cr. Creidear 
Fr. Fìachair, no fèichear 
Olh. Ollamh, Doctair 
Ion. Io. Ionann 
Esc. Escuire 
F.R.O.A. Fear de'Reachd Oilean- 

ail na h-Albainn 
Ridr. Ridir 
M.S. Maor na Sìthe 

R.F. Ridir Feadhnach 

R.G. Ridir a' Ghartain 

R.G.U. Ridir na Gealaich Uir 

R.F. Ridir Feadhnach 

R.P. Ridir Naoimh Pàdruig 

R.C. Ridir a' Chluarain 

A.T.C. Ard Thighearn Ceartais 



240 ABBREVIATIONS. 



GIORRACHADH. 



MS. 


Manuscript (hand-writ- 


LS. 


Làmh-sgrìobhaidh 


MSS. 


ing), 
Manuscripts, 




LSN. 


Làmh-sgrìobhaidhean 


N.S. 


New Style, 


c.u. 


Cùnntadh Ur 


o.s. 


Old Style, 


s.c. 


Seann Chùnntadh 


Q. 


Question, 


c. 


Ceist 


R.N. 


Royal Navy, 


C.R. 


Cabhlach Rìoghail 


St. 


Saint (before a name), 


Nh. 


Naomh 


Mr 


Master (Magister), 


Mr 


Maighstear 

'Nuair a labhrar ri na 


Messrs 


When more than one is Mrn 




addressed, 




mò na h-aon 


Mrs 


Mistress, 


Bmr 


Bana-mhaighstear 


Curt* 


Current, running, 
Instant, standing. 




A' ruith 


Inst* 




A' seasamh 



The Initials of the following Latin words are used alike in 
both English and Gaelic : — 



Latin. 

Ante Christura, A.C. 

Anno Domini, A.D. 

Anno Mundi, A.M. 

Anno Urbis A.U.C. 
Conditae, 

Ante Meridiem, A.M. 
ArtiumBaccalaureus,A.B. 
Artium Magister, A.M. 

[tatis, 

Baccalaureus Divini- B.D. 
CustosPrivatiSigilli,C.P.S. 

Custos Sigilli, C.S. 
Doctor Divinitatis, D.D. 
Et caetera, &c. 



e.g. 
G.R. 



id. 



Exempli gratia, 
Georgius Rex, 
Id est, 
Idem, 
Jesus Hominum 

Salvàtor, I.H.S. 

Legum Doctor, LL.D. 

Medicinas Doctor, M.D. 

Memoriae Sacrum, M.S. 



Messieurs (Fr.) 
Nemine contra- 

dicente, nem. con. 
Nota Bene, N.B. 

Ossianicae Societàtis 

Socius, O.S.S. 
Post Meridiem, P.M. 



English 
Before Christ, (b.c), 
In the year of our Lord, 
In the year of the world, 
In the year after the 

building of the city 

Rome, 
In the forenoon, 
Bachelor of Arts, (b.a.) 
Master of Arts, 

Bachelor of Divinity, 
Keeper of the Privy Seal, 

Keeper of the Seal, 
Doctor of Divinity, 
And the rest ; and so 

forth, 
For example, 
George the King, 
That is, 
The same, 

Jesus, the Saviour of 

men, 
Doctor of Laws, 
Doctor of Medicine, 
Sacred to the Memory, 

(or S.M.) 
Gentlemen, Sirs, 

None objecting, 

Note vvell, observe, take 

notice, 
Fellow of the Ossianic 

Society, 
In the afternoon, 



Gaelic. 
Roimh Chriosd. 
'Ambliadhnaar Tighearna. 
'Am bliadhn'an t-saoghail. 
Anns a' bhliadhna an 

-dèigh leigeil bunaite na 

Roimhe. 
Roimh mheadhon làthà. 
Sgoilear Ealaidhean. 
Maighstear nan Ealaidh- 

ean. 

Sgoilear ri Diadhachd. 
Fear-gleidhidh na Sèula 

Diomhair. 
Fear-gleidhidh na Sèula. 
Ollamh ri Diadhachd. 
Agus a' chuid eile, mar sin 

sios, (§c. or Sfce.) 
Air-son samplair. 
Righ Seòrus. 
Is è sin ri ràdhfj (*'•£•) 
Ni cèudna. 

Iosa Slànuighear Dhaoine. 

Ollamh 1 Laghàn. 
Ollamh Leigheis. 
Deachdte do Chùimhne. 

Maighstearàn, Fir uasal. 

Gun aon ag obadh. 
Thoir deagh àire, faic, 

cùimhnich. 
Fearf de'n Chomunn Ois- 

eanach. [làtha. 
An-dèigh a' Mheadhoin 



* Either of these after a figure denotes the present month ; as, 4th curt. 8th inst. 
i.e. the fourth and eighth day of this month. As there are no corresponding single 
words of this sense in Gaelic, vve say, An ceathramh là de'n mhios so, or An 4-mh 
de 'n mhios so, the Ath day, or the Ath ofthis month. 

t Or Bàll,- as, Bàll Urramach no Onarach, Honorary Member. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



GIORRACHADH. 



241 



Post Mortem, 
Per annum, 
Per centum, or 

per cent. 
Post Scriptum, 



P.M. 



P.C. 
P.S. 



Regiae Societatis 

Socius, R.S.S. 
Rigiae Societatis 

Antiquariorum 

Socius, R.S.A.S. 

TJItimo, Ult. 

Vide, V. 

Videlicet, Viz. 

Versus, V. 



After death, 
During the year, 

By the hundred, 
Postscript, some piece 
of writing added, 
% 

Fellow of the Royal So- 

cìety, 

Fellow of the Royal So- 
ciety of Antiquaries, 

Last (month), 
See, 

To wit, namely, 
Against, towards, 



An-dèigh bàis. 
Rè na bliadhna. 

Aira'cheud, (100). 
Fo-sgrìobhadh. Ath- 

sgriobhadh. Leasach- 

adh sgrìobhaidh. 
Fear de 'n Chomunn 

Rìoghail. 
Fear de Chomunn Riogh- 

ail nan Arsairean. 

Am mìos so' chaidh. 
Faic, Seall. 
Badhon. eadh. 
An aghaidh. 



SIZES op BOOKS. 

Lib. Liber, a book. 
Fol. Folio, halfasheet. 
4to. Quarto, fourth part of a sheet. 
8vo. Octavo, eiglith part of do. 
12mo. Duodecimo, twelfth part of do. 
18mo. Octodecimo, eighteenth part do. 
24nio. Quarto vigesimo, 24th part of 
a sheet. 

A sheet of paper used for this book is 
pages. It is therefore called 16mo. 



MEUD 'LEABHRAICHEAN. 

Lr. Leabhar. 
Leths. Leth siot 
4-mh. Ceathramh pàirt de shiot. 
8-mh. An t-Ochdamh pàirt de shiot. 
12-eug. An dara pàirt deug de shiot._ 
18-eug. An t-8-amh pàirt deug de shiot. 
24-ad. An 4-mh pàirt thar fhichead d 
shiot. 

folded into 16 leaves, each sheet making 3 



NAMES OF THE MONTHS. 

An ceudmhios, January. 

An daramìos, or Faoilteach February. 

An treasmios, Màrt,* March.* 

An ceathramios,t Giblin, April. 

An còigamios, Màigh, May. 

An sèathamios, Og-mhios, June. 



AINMEAN NAM MIOSAN. 



An seachdamios, or Iul, 
An t-ochdamios, 
An naoimios, 
An deicheamios, 
An t-aonmios-deug, 
An daramios-deug, 



July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

JDecember. 



DIRECTIONS FOR ADDRESSING PERSONS OP EVERY RANK AND STATION. 
SEOLAIDHEAN GU COMHRADH RI MUINNTEAR ANNS GACH INBHE 'US OIFIG, 



1. Title,— 2. Address,— 3. Su- 
perscription. 

ROYAL FAMILY. 

1. The King.— 2. Sire, or Sir ; 
Most Gracious Sovereign ; May 
it Please your Majesty. 3. To 
the King's Most Exceileut Maj- 
esty. 



1. Tiodal,— 2. Co-'labhairt,— 3. 
Cùl-sgrìobhadh. 

AN TEAGHLACH RIOGHAIL. 

1. A n RÌgh.— 2. A Shir ; A Righ 
Ro Ghràsmhoir ; Gu ma Toil le 
do Mhòrachd. 3. Do Mhòrachd 
Fior Oirdheirc an Righ. 



* March was originally the first month of the Roman year, so called, according 
to tradition, by Romulus, in honour of his father Mars. Hence the names Sep- 
teniber, Oclober, November, Becember, meaning, according to their derivation, the 
7th, 8th, 9th, and ÌOth month from March. In Gaelicdating, the numerical month 
of the year or season is comnionly used ; as, An 6-mh Mios de'n bhliadhna, the sixtìi 
month of thc year, Jvne. Mìos meadhonach an t-Sàmhraidh, or Dara Mios an 
t-Sàmhraidh, thc middle or second nwnth ofsummer, June. This is a very ancient 
mode of computing time by months. It is followed by the Chinese, and other 
nations. 

t Or An ceathramh Mìos ; in uniting thetwo words, the -mh may be elided for the 
sake of brevity. 



242 TITLES. 

1. The Queen.— 2. Madam ; 
Most Gracious Sovereign ; May it 
Please your Majesty. 3. To the 
Queen's most Excellent Majesty. 
Conclude a petition or speech to 
either, thus :— Your Majesty's 
most loyal and dutiful Subject. 



Prince. — 2. Sir ; May it Please 
your Royal Highness. 3. To his 
Royal Highness the Prince of 
Wales. After the same manner, 
address other members of the 
Royal family. 

NOBILITY. 

Duke. — My Lord ; May it 
Please your Grace. To his Grace 
the Duke of Montrose. 

Marquis. — My Lord ; May it 
Please your Lordship. To the 
Most Noble the Marquis of B. 

Earl. — My Lord ; May it Please 
your Lordship. To the Right 
Honourable the Earl of L. 

Viscount and Baron, similar 
to Earl. 

Noblemen's Ladies have the 
same titles with their husbands ; 
and a Nobleman's Wjdow has the 
word Dowager along with her 
other title. 

The titles of Lord and Right 
Honourable are given to the Sons 
of Dukes and Marquises, and to 
the Eldest Sons of Earls ; and 
Lady and Right Honourable to 
all their Daughters. 

The Younger Sons of Earls, 
and the Sons and Daughters of 
Yiscounts and Barons, are styled 
Honourable. 

Baronet, Knight. Sir. 

The title Sir is prefixed to the 
Christian name of a Baronet or 
Knight ; as, Sir George M'Kenzie, 
Bart. 

A Baronet or Knight's Wife 
is addressed Lady ; as, Lady 
M'Kenzie. 

GENTRY. 

Gentlemen of property or in- 



TIODALAN. 

1. A Bhan-Rìgh.— 2. A Bhain- 
Tighearna ; A Bhan-Rìgh Ro 
Grasmhor ; Gu ma Toil le Do 
Mhòrachd. 3. Do Mhòrachd 
Fior Oirdheirc na Ban-Rìgh. Co- 
dhùn iarrtas, no òraid gu h-aon 
diùbh ; mar so,— Is Mise ìochdar- 
an Ro umhal agus dleasannach do 
Mhòràchd. 

Prionnsa 2. A Shir ; Gu ma 

Toil le d'Airde Rìoghail. 3. Do 
Airde Rìoghail Prionnsa na 
Cuimrich. Air an dòigh cheudna, 
co-'labhair ri bùill èile de'n Teagh- 
lach Rìoghail. 

ARD-UAISLEAN. 

Diùc.— A Thighearn ; Gu ma 
Toil le do Mhaise. D' A Mhaise, 
Diùc Mhontròis. 

Marcus. — A Thighearn ; Gu 
ma Toil le do Thighearnas. Do 
'n Ard-Uasal, Marcus Bh. 

Iarla. — A Thighearn ; Gu ma 
Toil le do Thighearnas. Do 'n 
Ion Urramach Iarla L. 

Biocas agus Baran co-ionann ri 
Iarla. 

Gheibh Bain-tighearnan Ard- 
uaislean na h-aon tiodalàn ri 'n 
cèilean ; agus tha 'm focal Ban- 
dubhairiche aig Bantrach Fir àrd- 
uasail 'an cois à tiodail eile. 

Bheirear na tiodalàn, Tighearn 
'us Ion Urramach do Mhic Dhiù- 
càn, us Mharcusàn, agus do na 
Mic a's sine aig Iarlachan ; agus 
Bain-tighearn 's Ion Urramach 
d'an Nigheanaibh gu-leir. 

Bheirear Urramach do na Mic 
a's Oige aig Iarlaibh, agus do 
Mhic 'us do Nigheanaibh Bhioc- 
asàn 'us Bharanàn. 

Ridir. Sir. 

Cuirear an tiodal Sir roimh 
ainm baiste Ridire ; mar, Sir 
Seòrus M'Choinnich, Bar. 

Theirear Bain-tighearn ri Bean 
Ridire; mar, Bain-tighearn Nic- 
Choinnich. 

uaislean. 
Bheirear Escuire do dh-Uais- 



TITLES. 



TIODALAN. 



243 



dependent fortune are styled 
Esquire,* and their wives Mrs ; 
as, John Sim, Esq. of B— n. 

Persons in business get Sir on 
the left-hand corner inside of a 
letter, and Mr on the outside : 
when more than one is addressed, 
Gentlemen, or Sirs, and Messrs on 
the outside. 

OFFICIAL TITLES. 

The titles of Lord, Right Hon- 
ourable, or Esquire, &c. are due to 
Gentlemen in virtue of their offi- 
cial stations ; such as Members of 
Her Majesty's Privy Council, 
Judges,Mayors, Provosts, Sheriffs, 
&c. ; a Justice of the Peace gets 
Esquire. 

THE CLERGY. 

Archbishop.— My Lord ; May 
it please your Grace. To his Grace 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, or, 
To the Most Reverend Father in 
God, Charles, Lord Archbishop of 
Canterbury. 

Bishop.— My Lord ; May it 
please your Lordship. To the 
Right Reverend Father in God, 
John, Lord Bishop of Oxford. 

Dean.— My Lord ; May it please 
your Lordship. To the Rev. Dr 
Isaac Milner, Dean of C — 

Doctors in Divinity. — Rev- 
erend Doctor. To the Rev. Doctor 
Muir. 

The Principal of the University 
of Edinburgh. — Rev. Dr. To ttie 
Very Rev. Dr Lee, &c. The other 
Professors thus :— To Dr T— , Pro- 
fessor of — . If a Clergyman, To 
the Rev. Dr R— , Professor of — . 
Professors who are not doctors, 
are styled Esquires. 



libh sèilbhe, no mòr fhortain 
agus (Mrs) Bmr. do 'm mnàthaibh ; 
mar, Iain Sim Esc. air B— n. 

Gheibh Fir gnothaich Sir, f air 
oisinn na làimhe clithe air taobh 
stigh litreach ; Mr air an taobh 
mach: 'an co-labhairt ri na 's mò 
na h-aon, A Dhamn' uaisle no Shir- 
ean } 'us Mrn. air an taobh mach. 

TIODALAN OIFEAGACH. 

Buinidh na tiodalàn Morair, 
Ion Urramach, no Escuire do 
Dhaoinibh uasal an lòrg àn inbhean 
oifeagach ; mar tha buill Comh- 
airle Dìomhair à Mhòrachd, 
Breithamhàn, Ardmhaoir, Proth- 
aistean, Siorradhàn, &c, Gheibh 
Maor-sìthe Escuire. 

a' chleir. 

Àrd-easbuig.— A Thighearn ; 
Gu ma Toil le do Mhaise. D'a 
Mhaise, Ard-easbuig Chanterburi ; 
no Do 'n Athair Ro Urramach 'an 
Dia, Tearlach, Tighearn Ard-eas- 
buig Chanterburi. 

Easbuig. — A Thighearn ; Gu ma 
Toil le do Tighearnas. Do 'n 
Athair Ard Urramach 'an Dia, 
Iain, Tighearn Easbuig Ocsfoird. 

Deadhan.— A Thighearn ; Gu 
ma Toil le do Thighearnas. Do 'n 
Urramach an t-Olh. Isaac Milner, 
Deadhan Ch — 

Ollamhan ri Diadhachd.— Olh. 
Urramaich. Do'n Urramach, an 
t-Olh, Muir. 

Ceannard CollaisteX Dhunèdin, 
— Olh. Urramaich. Do 'n Ro Ur- 
ramach, an t-Olh. Lee, &c. Na 
Profesearàn eile mar so : — Do 'n 
Olh. T— , Profesear§ ri— . Ma 's 
ann de 'n chlèir e. Do 'n Urra- 
mach an t-Olh. R — , Profesear ri 
— . Gheibh Profesearàn nach 'eil 
'nan ollamhàn Escuirean. 



* Courtesy has now-a-days extended the limits of this order beyond what is 
here assigned to it. 

f Or Uasail,- as, TJasail Ionmhuinn, Bear Sir. $ Oil-thigh. 

§ Fear-aidmheil or Aidmheilear may be used by any person who objects to Pro- 
fesear. 



244 



MODELS OF LETTERS, ACCOUNTS, &c. 



Clergymen who have no hon- 
orary title are always styled Rev- 
erend; thus, — Rev. Sir. To the 
Rev. J. S. or To the Rev. Mr* J. 
S., &c. 



Theirear Urramach, a-ghnà rx 
Ministearaibh aig nach 'eil tiodal 
onorach ; mar so,— Shir Urh. Do 
'n Urh. I. S. no Do 'n Urh. Mr I, 
S., &c. 



PARLIAMENT. 

House op Peers.— My Lords ; May it please your Lordships. To 
the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, in Parlia- 
ment assembled. 

a' pharlamaid. 

Tigh nam MOBAiREAN. — A Thighearnàn no Mhorairean ; Gu ma Toil 
le bhur Tighearnasaibh. Do na Tighearnaibh Ion Urramach Spiorad- 
ail agus Tìmeil co-chruinnichte anns a' Phàrlamaid. 

House of Commons. — May it please your Honourable House. To 
the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdoms of Great Brit- 
ain and Ireland. 

Tigh nan ( umantan. — Gu ma Toil le bhur Tigh Urramach. Do 
Chumantaibh Urramach 'Rioghachdan Ceangailte Bhreatainn Mhòir. 



Models of Letters, Accounts, 
<SfC. 

FROM A SON TO HIS FATHER. 



Samhuiltean' Litrichean, Chùnnt- 
asàn, S$c. 

O MHAC GU 'ATHAIR. 



Glascho, an 10-mli de'n Daramios 1848. 

Athair Ionmhuinn, 

Ràinig mì am baile mòr so, air feasgar Di- 
màirt. Bha mo thurus, gu-dearbh, fior thaitneach fad na slighe. 
Fhuair mì gach làmh air bòrd gle chaoimhneil. Is mise 'bha air mo 
lìonadh le gach sealladh ùr agus àillidh à bhàtar a' nochdadh dhomh 
mar bha sìnn a' seòladh suas air caolas Chluaith. Ach Athair, 's 
ànn a bha mise air mo shlugadh suas le h-iongantas 'us uamhas 'nuair 
a ghabh mì stigh do'n bhaile so, a' faicinn nan tighean àrda 's nan 
s'ràidean dealrach, lan sluaigh 'us charbadàh a' ruith a-nùll 's a-nalh 
Innsidh mì tuilleadh dhùibh mu 'n aite so 's an ath 'litir. Dh'-fhàilt- 
ich mo mhaighstear mì gu-h-aoidheil. Is ì mo bharail gur duine còir, 
ceart è. Feuchaidh mise a-nis ri gach^ nì 'dheanamh ag«s mì-fèin a 
ghiùlan gu-glic, seòlta, ann an eagal Dè, mar theagaisg sìbhse dhomh 
gu-tric 's gu càirdeil, am feadh a bha mì aig bhur glùin. Le mo bhean- 
nachd dhùibh-fèin 's do mo Mhàthair chaoimh, do mo bhràithribh 's 
do mo pheathraichean.— Is mise le mòr ghràdh 'us urram, 
Athair lonmhuinn, 

Bhur mae fìor dhleasannach-sa, 

IAIN GRàNND. 



Cuillodair, an 15-ug de 'n Mhàigh 1848. 

A Shir, 

Am bi sibh cho math agus fios a leigeil h-ugam cuin a 
ìbhitheas cùirt nam Moràirean dearga 'an lonar-nis ì Bu mhath leam 



* The propriety of adding Mr to Rev. seems to be questioned by some, but upon 
no reasonable grounds. Why not say Rev. Mr as well as Rev. Dr ? and, besides;, 
one may not know or recollect whethe'r the clergyman's name is Daniel or James. 



SAMHUILTEÀN, 'LITRICHEAN, CHUNNTASÀN, &c. 245 

fios fhaotuinn, cuideachd, ma's è bhur toil è, ciod a' phrìs a tha 
'nihin, an coirc, an t-eòrna agus na muilt a' deanamh 's a' bhaile,, 
aig an àm so. — Is Mise, 

'Shir, 

Bhur seirbhiseach umhal, 

Cailean Dònn. 

Gu Mr Sìm Friseal, 
Ceannaiche 'an Ionar-nis. 

Obs. — As the aspirated form or vocative case of Sir does not sound 
very agreeably, the words Uasail, or A dhuirì uasail, pl. Uaislean, A 
dhaoirì uaisle, are frequently used. In addressing a friend or a famil- 
iar acquaintance, we say Fhir, or A Shir lonmhuinn, or Urramaich. 
Fhir mo chridhe. Concluding the letter with such phrases, as, Gu- 
dìleas. Bhur, or Do charaid dìleas, or An là 'chì 's nach fhaic, Is Mise 
Bhur caraid Jìor dhìleas. 

An Account.—In every account there must be two parties, viz. the 
Creditor, Creidear, Cr., or the person who sells, and the Debtor, Dr.„ 
Fèichear, Fr., or person who receives the goods ; as, 

1848. Mr Seumas Friseal, Fr. Do Sheòrus M'Thomas. 

Màigh 12. Do 2 blio reamhar, air £10, lOs. £21 

,, Do 12 mhult reamhar, air £1, 5s. 15 

,, 16. Do 40 clach shaoidh, air 8d. 16 8 

,, ,, Do 4 bolla mhin-choirc, air 18s. 3 12 

,, ,, Do 1 sac flùir, air 56s. 2 16 

„ ,, Do 6 cl. ime, air 18s. 6d. 5 11 

,, 20. Do 2 cl. chàise, air6s.6d. 13 



Cft. £49 18 8 

Og-mhios 14. Le Airgiod gu-làn, 49 18 8 

Seòrus M'Thomais. ■ 

A Receipt, Raset, is a written acknowledgment of having received a certain sum 
of money or goods. AU sums above £5 must be written on stamped paper, to 
make the receipt valid in law. 

Cille-Cliuimein, 20-mh de'n Mhàigh 1848. 
Fhuair mì bho Mhr Sèumas Barran, Deich pùinnd fhichead, dà thasdan dèug 
Sasunnach agus sèa sgillinn agus id. mar phàidheadh air-son Ochd cuartaràn 
fictiead de choirc. 

£30, 12s. 6|d. A. Friseal. 



Part IV. Earran IV» 

PROSODY* RANNACIIADH* 

Prosody is tliat part of Is è Rannachadh an earran 

grammar which treats of sin de ghràmar à theagaisg- 



* Prosody strictly denotes only that agreeable tone or melody which is in speech, 
but grammarians attach a wider signification to the term. Also its correspondent, 
Eannachadh, meaning the art of making verses, is here adopted, in the absence of 
a more comprehensive word, to embrace all the points treated of in the fourth 
part of grammar. 



246 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



Quantity, Accent, Versìfica- 
tion, and Figures of Speech. 

The Composition of words 
in any Ianguage is either 
Prose or Poetry. 

Prose is language not con- 
fìned to a measured number 
of syllables or harmonic 
sounds. 

Poetry or Verse is lan- 
guage confìned to a measur- 
ed number of long and short 
syllables to produce har- 
monic sounds. 

Quantity. — The quantity 
of a syllable is the time oc- 
cupied in pronouncing it. 
Quantity is either long or 
short; as, tùbe, tùb. 

àccent. — Accent is the 
placing of a greater stress of 
the voice on one syllable 
than on another; as, Rap'id. 



eas mu Tkomhas, Stràc 7 
Rànndachd, 'us Fhigearàn 
Càinnte. 

Is Rosg no Bàrdachd Co- 
shuidheachadh fhocal ann 
an càinnt air-bith. 

Is è Rosg, càinnt nach 'eil 
iar a cur 'an àireamh shuidh- 
ichte de smidean no fhuaim- 
ean ceblmhor. 

Is è Bàrdachd no Rànn r 
càinnt iar a cur 'an àireamh 
shuidhichte de smidean fad 
agus grad a dheanamh 
fhuaimean ceblmhor. 

Tomhas. — Is è tomhas 
smide, an tìm à ghabhar 'g à 
fuaimeachadh. Tha tomhas 
aon chuid fad no grad ; mar, 
càs, càs. 

Stràc. — Is è Stràc, toirt 
buille na 's mò de 'n ghuth 
do dh-aon smid na do smid 
eile ; mar, EaV&mh. 



The Gaelic, which is a branch of the primeval tongue, pos- 
sesses poetical qualities of transeendent beauty. It has been, in 
all ages, distinguished for its power and success in descriptive 
poetry, and for eflfectually moving and impressing the passions. 

The ancient Gaelic Bards had peculiar facilities in composing 
their verses, and in describing their subjects, because they were 
not so much fettered by fixed faws of versificatìon as modem 
poets. In pouring fourth their poetical strains, their chief aim 
seems to have been, to select suitable words of similar sounds for 
the preceding and succeeding lines.* 



* " The ancient Bards do not appear to have composed under any fixed laws of 
versification, yet the wildest effUsions were not wìthout a certain rule ; their poems, 
although in blank verse, had a peculiar adjustment of cadence and feet, easily dis- 
coverable to a practical ear." 

" Polymetra, orverses of different measures, employed according to the poet's 
taste or feeling,— a style capable of being rendered extremely effective, — is held to. 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 247 



VERSIFICATION. 

Versification is the art of 
arranging words into lines 
of corresponding length, so 
as to produce harmony by the 
regnlar recurrence at fixed in- 
tervals of syllables differing in 
quantity. 

In poetry, every syllable is 
either long or short, from its 
position in a foot, and not 
from the peculiar sound of its 
vowel. 

Verse is of two kinds, viz. 
Rhyme and Blanh Verse. 

Rhyme is the name by 
which we distinguish verses 
or lines whose final words or 
syllables end with a similar 
sound ; as, 



RANNTACHD. 

Is è Rànntachd alt suidh- 
eachaidh f hocal 'nan streathan 
co-fhreagarrach 'am fad, gu 
tlà-cheòl a dheanamh, le tach- 
airt òrdail smidean de chaoch- 
ladh tomhas, 'an eadar-àitibh 
suìdhichte. 

Ann am bàrdachd tha gach 
smid an dara chuid fad no 
grad, an lòrg à h-aite ann 
an troidh agus ni h-ann o 
fhuaim àraid à fuaimraige. 

Tha Rànn de dha sheòrsa, 
eadh. Ràim agus Du-Rànn. 

Is è Ràim an t-ainm leis an 
eadar-dhealaichear rannàn aig 
àm beil àn smidean deirean- 
nach a' dùnadh le fuaim co- 
ionann ; mar, 



Oir saothar seòl no obair ghlic. 
Cha deanar leat gu-bràth fo 'n lic. 

In Gaelic poetry, rhyming words and syllables occur in dif- 
ferent intermediate feet as well as at the end of the line, and it 
is not necessary that the rhyming words at the end of the line 
should have the same termination ; as, ever never, Hne line, in 
English. Such words as àrd ràmh: eud gleus : c^r mm : bròn 
bòrd : trdm pdll : Hos br^'osg : swnnt nzlll, form good rhymes ; 
for example, 

Tògàibh 'bhàrdà bròn nàm fònn, 

Mù thàllà nàn sònn à bh' ànn, 

Thùit nà treunà fàdà fò thòm, 

Thig làitheàn nàn sònn à-nàll. — Ossian. 

Blank Verse is poetry with- 1 Is è Du-Rànn bàrdachd gun 
out Rhyme. J Ràim. 



be the first form of composition, and has been frequently used by both the ancient 
and modera Gael. It was adopted by other nations, and successively practised by 
the French and Spaniards,— in England, it is fìrst seen in the work of Ben Jonson." 
—Scottish Gael. 



248 PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 



TROIDHEAN BARDAIL. 

Tha gach sreath * de bhàrd- 
achd a' co-sheasamh 'am prasg- 
anaibh òrdail de smidibh, ris 
an abrar Troidhean. 

Tha dà smid mar a's trice, 
agus air uairibh trì ann an troidh 
bhàrdail, le stràc do-ghnà air 
aon diùbh. 

It is called foot, troidh, from the tongue stepping along by 
measured pace in reading verse, as the feet in walking. 

There are eight kinds of feet used in English and Gaelic 
poetry, named and exemplifìed in the following order : — 



POETIC FEET. 

Every line* of poetry con- 
sists of successive combina- 
tions of syllables called Feet. 

A poetic foot generally con- 
sists of two, and sometimes of 
three syllables, one of which is 
always accented. 



DISSYLLABIC FEET. 

làmbus, ^ - as, àdòre. 
Trochèe, _ „ as, nòblè. 
Phyrric, - - as, òn thè (sea.) 
Spondee, — as, lòng pòle. 

TRISYLLABIC FEET. 

Anapaest, intèrcède. 
Amphibrach, dòmèstic. 
Tribrach, (mis)èràble. 
Dactyl, - ~ ~ pòssiblè. 

The lambus, Trochee, and 
Anapaest, are the feet most 
commonly used. 

An lambus is a poetic foot 
consisting of two syllables, of 
which the first is short and 
the second long ; as, èxplòre. 

Scanning. — To scan a verse, 
is to divide it into its compon- 
ent feet. 

IAMBIC MEASURE. 

Verse of this measure is the 
most common, and also the most 
dignified, being adapted to seri- 
ous and lofty subjects. 



TROIDHEAN DA-SMIDEACH. 

Iàmbus, - - àd ùr. 
Trochè, - - òrd-àg. 
Pirric, - ^ càb-àr. 
Spondè, — bòrd mòr. 

CASAN TRI-SMIDEACH. 

Anapest, èad-àr-fàs. 
Amphibrach, - - - do lù-dàg. 
Tribrach, - - - tòg-àm-aìd. 
Dactil, òig-èar-àn. 

Is ìad an lambus, an Anapest 
agus an Trochè na troidhean 
a's ro thric' a ghàthaichear. 

Is troidh bhàrdail an Iambus 
a' co-sheasamh 'an dà smid de 
'm beil a' cheud grad, sgus an 
dara fad ; mar, ri-bòrd. 

Sgaradh. — Is è rànn a 
sgàradh, 'eadar-dhealachadh gu 
throidhibh co-dheante. 

TOMHAS IAMBIC. 

Is è rànn de 'n tomhas so à's 
cumanta agus mar an ceudna à's 
urramaiche, o bhi freagarrach ri 
pùngaibh stòld' agus àrd. 



* A line, Sreath, is a certain number of feet. A Stansa, Stansa, is a certain 
number of lines. Tvvo lines are called a Couplet or Distich, Cuplan. Three a 
Triplet, Tridan. Four a Quatrain, Ceir-dan. 



PROSODY. 



RANNACHADH. 249 



Offour feet ; as, De cheithir troidhean ; mar, 

Chà n-'èil | aòn nèach f ò thriòb j laid sàor, 
Am mèasg j à chìn | ne dàoin' J air fàd — Buchanan. 

'Nuàir thlg | àn sàmh | ràdh gèug [ àch òirnn 

Theid slan | nàn spèur | ò'n ghruam j ài chè M'Intyre. 

TROCHAIC MEASURE. TOMHAS TROCHAIC. 

Fàilt ort | fèin, à [ Mhòr-thir | bhòidheàch, 
Anns àn j òg-mhios | Bhèaltamn. — Macdonald. 

ANAPAESTIC MEASURE. TOMIIAS ANAPESTIC. 

Thùgàdh làgh | lèis àn Tiìath | dhuìnn d'àr riàgh | làdh o thus 
Làgh nàm buàdh | ànnà ciat | àch gun fhìar | àdh gùn lub. 

M'Gregor. 

There are many beautiful passages in our Gaelic poets which can- 
not be scanned without the use of a variety of feet. 

A | Nlgheàn j bhòidheàch 

An | òr-fhùilt | bhàchalaich 

Nàn | gòrm shùil j mlogàch 

'S nà | mln bhàs | snèachdà-gheàl. — Ross. 

Gùr blnn j e leàm j do chòmh [ ràdh 
Nà smeòràch j nàn gèugàn. — Id. 



POETICAL LICENSE. 

In poetry there are used several 
words and phrases differing in 
their grammatical construction 
from the common form, in order 
to fit them the better for regular 
numbers. This liberty is called 
Poetical license. 

Words may be transposed to a 
greater extent in poetry than in 
prose. 

Some words are lengthened by 
a syllable, and others aie curtailed 
in order to fill up the poetic 
measure exactly. 

In poetry, nouns are often used 
for adjectives, and adjectives for 
adverbs. 



SAORSA BHÀRDAIL. 

Tha mòran fhocal agus sheòl- 
lairfc gnàthaichte 'am bàrdachd, 
nàch 'eil 'nàn suidheachadh grà- 
marail a-reir na staide cumanta, 
chum an ullachad na's feàrr air-son 
àireamhan riailteach. Ris a' cho- 
mas so, theirear Saorsa bhàrdaiL 
Faodar focail atharrachadh ce'um 
na's mò 'am bàrdachd no ann an 
rosg. 

Sìnear cuid a dh-fhocail le 
smid agus giorraichear cuid e'ile, 
chum lìonadh suas an tomhais 
bhàrdail gu h-eagarra. 

'Am bàrdachd gabhar gu-tric 
ainmearan an àit bhuadharàn 'us 
buadharànanàitcho-ghniomharàn. 



250 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



DIFFEEENT KINDS OF POETRY. 
CAOCHLADH SEÒB.SA BÀB.DACHD. 

An Epic poem, Dàn-Mòr, is a fanciful discourse, invented to give 
an exalted description of some great achievement or event. 

A Dramatic Poem, Dàn-Cluich, is one in which some action is 
represented, or some design unfolded, only by the plays and speeches 
of stage-actors. 

A Lyric Poem, Dàn-Cruite, is one that may be sung or set to 
music. 

A Pastoral Poem, Dhn-Aodhair, is one which describes the loves 
and joys of shepherds, and pictures out rural life. Also called 
Bucolic or Eclogue. 

An Elegy, Cumha or Marbh-Rann, is apoem in which the loss of 
deceased friends is affeclingly lamented, and their virtues recounted 
and extolled. 

An Epigram, Gearr-Dhuan, is a short poem of a few pointed lines, 
generally of a sarcastic or severe nature, to taunt or mock some parti- 
cular person or act. 



I. FIGURES OF SPEECH. 

A Figure in Grammar is 
an intentional deviation 
from the ordinary form, 
construction, or application 
of words. 

There are three Classes 
of grammatical figures, wz. 
figures of Etymology, figures 
of Syntax, and figures of 
Rhetoric. 

FIGUBES OF ETYMOLOGY. 

The principal figures of 
Etymology are seven, mz. 

1. Aphaeresis is the omis- 
sion of some of the initial let- 
ters of a word ; as, 's for agus. 

2. Apocopè is the omission 
of some of the final letters of a 
word ; as, fìllt for fillte. 

3. Diaeresis. — See this figure 
on p. 238. 



I. FIGEARAN CAINNTE. 

Is è Figear ann an Gràmar 
claonadh deònach, o staid, 
o shuidheachadh, no bho 
cho-chur suidhichte nam 
fhocal. 

Tha trì roinnean de dh- 
fhigearàngràmarail ànn ; eadh. 
figearàn Foclachaidh, figearàn 
Riailteachaidh, agus fìgearàn 
Òr-chainnte. 

FIGEARÀN FOCLACHAIDH. 

Is ìad prìomh fhigearàn 
Foclachaidh, seachd, eadh. 

1. Is è Apheresis fàgail a- 
mach cuid de litrichibh tùs- 
ail focail ; mar, 's air-son is. 

2. Is è Apocopè, fàgail a- 
mach cuid de litrichibh deir- 
eannach focail ; mar, aithriche, 
air-son aithrichean. 

3. Dàlid. — Faic am figear 
so air t. 238. 



FIGEARAN cainnte. 



251 



4. Paragogè is the annexing 
of an expletive syllable to a 
word. 

5. Prostliesis is the prefix- 
ing of an expletive syllable to 
a word. 

6. Syncopè is the omission 
of some of the middle letters 
of a word ; as, o'er, for over. 

7. Synaeresis, the opposite 
of Diaèresis, is the throwing of 
two syllables into one. 

II. FIGURES OP SYNTAX, 

The principal figures of 
Syntax are four, viz. 

1. Ellipsis is the omission 
of some word or words, or 
clause of a sentence, which are 
necessary to complete the con- 
struction, but not necessary to 
convey the meaning. Such 
words as are omitted in a 
sentence are said to be under- 
stood. 



4. Is è Paragogè 
smid lionaidh ri focal 



ìceadh 



5. Is è Prostesis roimh- 
iceadh smid lìonaidh ri focal. 

6. Is è Sìncopè fàgail a-mach 
cuid de litrichibh meadhonach 
focail; mar, fa'near air-son 
fainear. 

7. Is è Sineresis no Aonlid 
fear aghaidh Dàlide, 'deanamh 
aon smide de dhà smid. 

II FIGEARAN RIAILTEACH- 

ALDH. 

Is ìad prìomh fhigearàn 
Riailteachaidh ceithir, eadh. 

1. Is ì Beàrn, fàgail a-mach 
focail no cuid de dh-fhocail, no- 
pàirt de chìallairt a ta fèumail 
a 'lionadh suas a' cho-'rianach- 
aidh, ach nach ìarrar a ghiùlan 
an t-seadh. Theirear gu'n 
tuigear-as, a leithid a dh-fhoc- 
ail 's à dh'-fhàgar a-mach à 
cìallairt. 



In the following examples of the ellipsis, the words placed within 
parentheses need not be expressed to convey tbe sense ; as, 

A' chlach-mhuilinn uachdarach agus (a' chlach-mhuilinn) ìochd- 
arach. The upper (mill-stone) and nether mill-stone. 

Dh'-innis mì sin dhuit-sa agus (dh'-innis mì sin) dhà-san. / told 
that to you and (I told that to) him. 



2. Pleonasm or redundancy, I 2. Is ì Lànachd gnàth- 
is the using of more words achadh na 's mò 'dh-fhocail na 
than are necessary to convey j tha fèumail gus an seadh a 
the meaning ; as^ | ghiùlan ; mar, 

Chunnaic mì è le mo shùilibh fe'in, I saw it with my own eyes. 

This figure should be used only in animated discourse, where it is 
calculated to render the subject both elegant and impressive. 



252 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



3. Enallagè is the substi- 3. Is è lonadach cur aon 
tuting of one part of speech, or fhocail càinnte, no aon staide 
of some forra of a word, for an- focail 'an ionad aoin èile ; 
other ; as, mar, 

Tuitidh ìad (gu h-) òrdail 'us (gu h-) brdail èiridh ìad. 
They fall successive (ly) and successive (ly) rise. — Pope. 

4. Hyperbaton is the trans- 1 4. Is è Hiperbaton atharrach- 
posing of words; such as pla- | adh fhocal, mar tha cur a' cus- 
cing its object before a verb ; as, | pair roimh ghnìomhar ; mar, 

" The horse and his rider hath " An t-each agus à mharcach 
he thrown into the sea." ' thilg è 'san fhàirge." 

This figure is much used in poetical composition, and a proper 
application of it, adds great strength, vivacity, and harmony to the 
subject, but care should be taken lest it produce ambiguity or 
obscurity. 

III. FIGURES OF RHETORIC. 

A figure of Rhetoric is a 
mode of expression, in which a 
word or sentence is to be under- 
stood in a sense different from 
its ordinary and literal meaning. 

There are fourteen principal 
fìgures of Rhetoric ; namely, — . 



1. A Similè or Comparison 
is a figure by which we com- 
pare one object to another, and 
it is generally introduced by 
lihe, as, so, 8$c. ; as, 

" Tha do shùil mar rèult an 
fheasgair." 

2. A Metaphor is a fìgure 
which substitutes the name of 
one object for another, to ex- 
press the resemblance the one 
bears to the other ; as, 

u Is lòchran d' fhocal do mo 
chois agus sohts do mo che'um." 



III. FIGEARAN OR-CHAINNTE. 

Is è Figear Òr-chainnte dòigh 
labhairt anns àm beil focal no 
ciallairt gu bhi air à thuigsinn 
ann an seadh dealaichte o bhrìgh 
chumant' agus 'litireil. 

Tha ceithir priomh fhigearan 
dèug Or-chainnt' ann ; eadh- 
on, — 

1. Is è SàmMadh no Coimeas- 
achadh, fìgear leis àm beilear a' 
sàmhlachadh aon chuspair ri 
cuspair èile, 'us aithrisear è gu 
tric le, coltach, mar, amhuil, 
Sjc. ; mar, 

Thine eye is like the star 
of eve. 

2. Is è Coslachd figear à 
chuireas ainm aon chuspair 'arr 
ionad aoin eile, a 'nochdadh a' 
chòltais à ta aig an aon diùbh 
ris an aon eile ; mar, 

Thy word is a lamp to my 
feet and a light to my path. 



figearAn cainnte. 



253 



3. An Allegoryis a continua- 
tion of one or more metaphors, 
so connected in sense as to form 
a kind of parabie or fable ; thus 
the people of Israel are repre- 
sented under the symbol of a 
vine. 



3. Is e Seach-labhairt seas- 
amh aon no iomadh coslachd 
co-naisgte 'an seadh air dòigh 
's gu 'n dealbhar leò co-samh- 
lachd, no ùr-sgeul ; mar so, tha 
clànn Israeil riochdaichte fo 
shàmhladh fionain. 



Thug thu fìonan às an Èiphit ; thilg thu mach na cinnich agus 
shuidhich thu ì, Thou hast brought a vine out of Egypt, thou hast cast 
out the heathen and planted it, &c. — Psalm lxxx. 8-10. 

4. Metonymy, or change of 
names, is a figure by which we 
put the cause for the effect, or 
the effect for the cause, the con- 
tainer for the thina contained : 



Tha è 'leughadh Shàluist e. i. 
the book or works of Sallust. 
kettle boils, i. e. tlie water. 

5. Synecdochè is the naming 
of a part for the whole, or the 
whole for a part ; as, 

An ceann, an àit na coluinn uile. 
Na tùinn, an ait nafàirge. 

6. Hyperholè is a figure, 
whereby the imagination in- 
dulges itself in representing ob- 
jects as greater or less, better or 
worse, than they realiy are; 
as, 

" Bu luaithe iad na iolairean, 
bu trelse iad na leòmhain." 

7. Personification or Pro- 
so-po-paè-ia, is a figure, by 
which we ascribe life and ac- 
tion to inanimate objects, and 
the use of reason to irrational 
creatures^ speaking of them as 
if they were intelligent beings ; 
as, 

Tha 'n ta/am/iagìarraidhanuisge. 
Tha 'n tìr ri gàire le pailteas. 



4. Is è Metonimi, no 
dinmean, figear leis àn cuirear 
an t-aobhar 'an àit a' ghnìomha, 
no an gnìomh 'an àit an aobhair, 
an soitheach an àit an nì 'ta 
ànn ; mar, 

leabhar Shàluist, he reads Sallust, i. e. 
Tha an coire 'goil i. e. an t-uisge, the 



5. Is è Sinecdochè, ainmeach- 
adh pàirt', an àit an iomlain no 
an t-iomlain an àit pàirte ; mar, 

The head, for the whole body. 
The waves, for the sea. 

6. Is è Oslabhairt figear leis 
àm beil an inntinn a' ceadach- 
adh dhì-fèin nithe a 'riochdach- 
adh na 's mò, no na 's lugha, 
na 's fearr no na 's miosa, na 
tha iad ; mar, 

' e Theywereswifler than eagles, 
they were stronger than lions." 

7. Is è Pearsachadh, figear 
leis àm beilear a' cur beatha 
agus gluasaid as leth nithe neo- 
bheò agus rèusan as leth chrèut- 
airean mi-rèusanta, a' labhairt 
ùmpa mar gu'm bu chrèut- 
airean tuigseach ìad ; mar, 

The ground thirsts for raiv. 
Tìie earth smiles with pleuiy 



254 



FIGURES OF SPEECH. 



8. Vision or Imagery is a 
figure, by which the speaker 
represents a past or future ac- 
tion or event as actually passing 
before his eyes, and present to 
his senses ; as, 

" Chithear an sealladh àrd, 

lad a' teàmadh leis a' ghleann, 
A' tuiteam sìos fo chreig nan 
sgàr 

Fo stuagh nan tùr àrda fànn." 

9. Apostrophè is a figure by 
which the orator turns abruptly 
from the subject to address 
some other person or object ; 
as, 

" Shluigeadh suas am bàs le 
buaidh. O bhàis c'àit am bheil 
do ghath ?" 

10. Exclamation is a figure 
used to express some violent 
emotion of the mind ; as, 

" Och, nach robh agam sgiathan 
mar choluman ! (an sin) theichinn 
air iteig agus gheibhinn fois ! " 

1 1 . Interrogation is a figure 
by which the speaker proposes 
questions, not to express adouòt, 
but to enliven his discourse ; 
as, 

" An tì a shuidhich a' chluas 
nach cluinn è ? an tì a dhealbh 
an t-sùil nach faic e ?" 

12. Irony is a figure in which 
a person sneeringly utters the 
very reverse of what he thinks ; 
as, When we say to a boy who 
neglects his lesson — " You are 
very attentive indeed !" 



8. Is è Sealladh figear leis 
àm beil am fear-labhairt a' 
nochdadh gnìomha no cùis' a 
thachair no 'tha gu tachairt, mar 
gu 'm bìtear dìreach 'g à dhean- 
amh fo 'shùilibh agus 'n à làth- 
air; mar, 

" High sight it is and haughty 
while 

They dive into the deep defile, 
Beneath the cavern'd clirf they 
fall, 

Beneath the castle's airy wall." 

9. Is è Ascair figear leis àm 
beil an t-òraidear a' tionndadh 
gu-grad o 'n chùisear gu labh- 
airt ri neach no cuspair èigin 
eile; mar, 

" Death is swallowed up in 
victory. O Death, where is thy 
sting ? 

10. Is è Glaodh figear à 
ghnàthaichear gu gluasad gèur 
na h-inntinn a 'nochdadh ; mar, 

" O that l had wings like a dove ! 
for then would I fly away and be 
at rest /" 

11. Is è Ceasnach, figear leis 
àm beil am fear-labhairt a' cur 
cheist cha n-ànn fo teagamh, 
ach a bheòthachadh à labhairt ; 
mar, 

" He that planted the ear, shall 
he not hear ? he that formed the 
eye, shall he not see ? " 

12. Is è Sgeigeach, figear 
anns àm beil neach ag ràdh 
gu-sgeigeil nì nàch 'eil 'n à 
chridhe; mar, Their sinn ri 
giùllan à dhi-chuimhnicheas à 
leasan — " Gu dearbh is cùr- 
amach thu ! " 



FIGEARAN CAINNTE. 



255 



And when Elijah said to the 
foolish worshippers of Baal, 
mocking them, — " Cry aloud, for 
he is a god ; either he is talking, 
or he is pursuing, or he is on a 
journey, or perhaps he sleepeth, 
and must be awaked." — 1 Kings 
xviii. 27. 

13. Climax is a fìgure in 
which every succeeding object 
rises a degree in importance 
above that which precedes it ; 
as, 

" Cuiribh ri bhur creidimh 
deadh-bhèus ; agus ri deadh bheus 
eòlas ; agus ri h-eòlas stuaim ; 
agus ri stuaim foighidinn ; agus 
ri foighidinn diadhachd; agus ri 
diadhachd gràdh bràthaireil ; agus 
ri gràdh bràthaireil sèirc." 

14. Antithesìs is the placing 
of objects in opposition, for the 
purpose of putting them in a 
stronger light, by contrasting 
or comparing the one with the 
other ; as, 

" Teichidh an t-aingidh gun 
neach air-bith an tòir air, ach 
bithidh na h-ionraic dàna mar 
leòmhan." 

Here, Solomon contrasts the timidity of the wicked with the 
courage of the righteous. 



Agus 'nuair a thuirt Eliah ri 
fàidhibh gòrach Bhàail, a' mag- 
adh orra, — " Eighibh le guth àrd ; 
oir is dia è, an dara cuid tha è a' 
beachd-smuaineachadh no tha è 
air tòir, no tha è air thurus, no 
theagamh gu 'm beil è 'n à chodal 
agus gu'm fèumar à dhùsgadh." 

13. Is è Asnadh no Dìreadh 
fìgear 's àm beil gach cuspair à 
leanas, ag èirigh cèum ann an 
inbhe os-ceann an aoin roimhe ; 
mar, 

" Add to your faith virtue ; 
and to virtue knowledge ; and to 
knowledge temperance ; and to 
temperance patience ; and to pa- 
tience godliness ; and to godliness 
brotherly kindness ; and to broth- 
erly kindness charity." 

14. Is è Trasdachd no 
Ooimeas, cur chuspairean ri 
aghaidh a chèile chum àm 
foillseachaclh na's soilleire le 
trasdachadh aoin diùbh ris an 
aon èiie; mar, 

" The wicked flee when no 
man pursueth ; but the right- 
eous are bold as a Jion." 



THE END. 



A CHRIOCH. 



Printed by Oliver & Boyd, 
Tweeddale Court, High Street, Edinburgh. 



256 



CORRIGBNDA. 

Page 51, line 34, for a' mhìr, read a' mhìre. 



60, . 


. 45, 


. . 'àllt casa, 


'àllta casa. 


67, . 


• 4, 


. meòrach, 


. . smeòrach. 


67, • 


. 10, 


. annabarrach, 


. . anabarracb. 


68, . 


. 34, 


. 300 trìmile, 


. 3000 trì mile. 


68, . 


. 35, 


. cithir cheud, 


ceithir cheud. 


158, . 


• 2, 


. do-dheante, 


. so-dheante. 


159, . 


• 8, 


. Luch-comhairle, 


. Luchd-comhairle. 



RECOMMENDATORY AND CRITICAL NOTICES OF MR FORBES'S 
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"I have formed a high opinion of Mr Forbes's Grammar. The labour be- 
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From Professor M AX Mulleb, of the University of Oxford. 

" Oxfoed, January 27, 1862. 
" Dear Sir, — I have had real pleasure in examining your French Grammar. 
The system you have adopted is well calculated to impress each rule and its 
àpplication on the mind of the pupil. The hook is well arranged, and hears 
clear traces of heing the work of an experienced teacher and a thoughtful 
mind. Your French Beader forms a useful companion to your Grammar. 
Yours sincerely." 



From J. Gbegoby Jones, Esq., Secretary to the Liverpool College. 

" Liveepool College, Decemher 8, 1864. 
" Dear Sir, — The introduction of a good French Grammar into the College 
has for some time been a subject of anxiety to the Principal. After a careful 
inspection of some of the best which have come under his notice, he has 
determined to adopt yours. I shall be glad if you will forward to me, as soon 
as you can, 300 copies of your Grammar." 

(Since this first order was executed, 400 copies more have been sent to the 
College.) 

The author will be happy to transmit, free by post, to the prìncipals 
of jpublic or private schools, a specimen cojpy of any of these booJcs on the 
following conditions : — 

A Prospectus of the school must be forwarded, along with 24 stamps for 
either of the books, 36 for one Grammar and Reader, and 42 for the three books. 
French teachers will receive any of these books free by post, by sending the 
author their cards and 12 stamps to the High School, Edinburgh. 



Oliveb and Boyd, Edinburgh. Simpkin, Maeshall, and Co., London. 



HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY. 



NEW AND REvTSED EDITTONS. 



OUTLINES OF UNIVEESAL HISTORY, in Three Parts. 
Part I. Ancient History. Part II. Middle Ages. Part III. Modern History. 
Edited byH. White, B.A., Trinity College, Cambridge; M.A. and Ph. Dr., 
Heidelberg. 8th Edition, continued to the Autumn o/ 1866. Price 2s. 

DR WHITE'S ELEMENTS OF UNIVERSAL HISTORY, on 
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This work contains numerous synoptical and other tables, to guide the re- 
searches of the student, with sketches of literature, antiquities, and manners 
during each of the great chronological epochs. 

TYTLER'S ELEMENTS OF GENERAL HISTORY, Ancient 
and Modern. To which are added, a Comparative View of Ancient and 
Modern Geography, and a Table of Chronology. With two large Maps, etc. 
New Edition, continued to the middle of 1866. 3s. 6d. 

EDINBURGH ACADEMY MODERN GEOGRAPHY. Eleventh 

Edition (Sept. 1866), Eevised and Enlarged. A handsome Class-book printed 
with large type, 2s. 6d. 

SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY. By James Clyde, LL.D., one of the 

Classical Masters of the Edinburgh Academy. With special Chapters on 
Mathematical and Physical Geography, and Technological Appendix. lOth 
Edition (Oct. 1866), Corrected throughout. 4s. 

In composing the present work, the author's object has been, not to dissect 
the several countries of the world, and then label their dead limbs, but to depict 
each country, as made by God and modined by man, so that the relations 
between the country and its inhabitants — in other words, the prcsent geo- 
graphical life of the country — may appear. 

Athenceum. — " We have been struck with the ability and value of this work, 
which is a great advance upon previous Geographic Manuals. . . . Almost 
for the first time, we have here met with a School Geography that is quite 
a readable book, — one that, being intended for advanced pupils, is xrell adapted 
to make them study the subject with a degi-ee of interest they have never yet 
felt in it. 

DR CLYDE'S ELEMENTARY GEOGRAPHY. lOth Edition 

(Oct. 1866), Corrected throughout. ls. 6d. 

In the Elementary Gcngrapliy (intended for less advanced pupils), ithas been 
endeavoui-ed to reproduce that life-likc grouping of facts — geographical por- 
traiture as it may be called— which has been remarked with approbation in 
the School Geography. 



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DE M'OULLOCH'S EDUOATIONAL WOKKS. 



LESSONS from Dr M'Culloch's First Reading-Book. 

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Dr M'CULLOCH'S Manual of ENGLISH GRAMMAR. 

18nio, 180 pages, price ls. 6d. bound. 21st Edition. 

The object of this volume is to furnish a school grammar of the 
English tOngue, sufficiently scientific in its principles and comprehen- 
sive in its details to meet the exigencies of the present improved 
methods of elementary teaching. An attempt is made to exhibit the 
various branches of the science, not only in their proper order, but in 
their due and relative proportions ; and the work will be found much 
more full than any other in a department which has of late justly 
attracted the particular attention of teachers — the derivation of the 
language. The definitions and rules are expressed with the utmost 
brevity and simplicity ; and the grammatical exercises have been 
made as copious and varied as was compatible with the restricted 
limits of a cheap school-book. 



PREFIXES and AFFIXES of the English Language. 

18mo, price 2d. in stiff wrapper. New Edition. 

This little work is intended to initiate youth into the rudiments of 
etymology, and is chiefly extracted from Dr M'Culloch's Manual of 
English Grrammar. 



In all the books of Dr M'Culloch's series, the important object of 
exercising the juvenile mind by means of lessons on useful and inter- 
esting subjects is steadily kept in view. Directions are given relative 
to the mode of teaching, as well as tables and lists calculated to assist 
in the process of instruction. On this point the Spectator newspaper, 
when reviewing the series, remarked :— " In recommending these books, 
it must not be conceived that we recommend them as likely to save 
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their first introduction they will require some care on the part of the 
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mind that these are the only means to acquire real knowledge." 

The leading revìews andjournals tliroughout tlie country liave spoken 
o/Dr M l Cullocli's Class-booTcs in tlie highest terms. 




By JOHN WHITE, F.E.I.S., 

LATE TEACHEB OF ENGLISH, GEOGBAPHY, AND HISTOBY, EDINBUEGH. 

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THE FOURTH BOOK for CHILDREN, with numerous Exercises. 
New Edition. ls. 6d. bound. 

A SYSTEM of ENGLISH GRAMMAR, and tlie Principles of 
Composition, with numerous Exercises, progressively arranged. 
New Edition. ls. 6d. bound. 

AN ABSTRACT of GENERAL GEOGRAPHY ; comprehending a 
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the Holy Land; and including the Sacred Geography of Egypt, 
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A SYSTEM OF MODERN GEOGRAPHY, with Outlines of 
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AN ELEMENTARY ATLAS of MODERN GEOGRAPHY, con- 
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A NEW SCHOOL ATLAS of MODERN GEOGRAPHY, consisting 
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